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Following 4 weeks of treatment when subjects reached their maximal tolerated dosage, the average LE Ashworth score on the affected side decreased from 2.3 +/- 1.4 to 1.7 +/- 1.1 (p <.0001). The spasm score decreased from 1.0 +/- 0.9 to 0.5 +/- 0.8 (p =.0464), while the reflex score was not statistically significant decreasing from 2.2 +/- 1.0 to 2.0 +/- 1.1 (p =.0883). The average UE Ashworth score on the affected side decreased from 1.9 +/- 1.1 to 1.5 +/- 0.9 (p <.0001). There was no significant change in the UE spasm and reflex scores. While there were positive placebo effects on motor tone, the active drug was still significantly better than placebo for decreasing LE tone (p =.0006) and UE tone (p =.0007). With a reduction in motor tone, there was an increase in motor strength (p =.0089). The average dosage at 4 weeks was 25.2mg/d.
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CYP1A2 is primarily responsible for the metabolism of tizanidine. CYP1A2 inhibitors may inhibit its metabolism also in vivo.
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Postoperative pain was assessed using the NRS. Total analgesic consumption was determined. Return to normal daily activity was evaluated using a five-point daily activity score after the first postoperative week, and health-related quality of life was evaluated using the short form-36 one month after surgery.
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To assess the bioequivalence of two Tizanidine 4 mg tablet formulations (Tizanidine® of the Pharma International company, as test product, and Sirdalud® of Novartis as a reference product), and to investigate possible effects of smoking on pharmacokinetics of tizanidine.
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Twenty-three placebo-controlled studies (using baclofen, dantrolene, tizanidine, botulinum toxin, vigabatrin, prazepam and threonine) and thirteen comparative studies met the selection criteria. Only thirteen of these studies used the Ashworth scale, of which only three of the six placebo-controlled trials and none of the seven comparative studies showed a statistically significant difference between test drugs. Spasms, other symptoms and overall impressions were only assessed using unvalidated scores and results of functional assessments were inconclusive.
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Among 3444 administered courses of clarithromycin, erythromycin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, or moxifloxacin, there were 1332 (38.7 %) with concomitant use of additional QT-prolonging drugs. Among those, we identified seven cases of drug-related QT prolongation, but 49.1 % had no ECG monitoring. Of all MQAB users, 547 (15.9 %) had hypokalemia. Forty-four MQAB users had contraindicated co-administrations of simvastatin, atorvastatin, or tizanidine and three of those related adverse drug reactions.
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Tizanidine prolongs the QT interval by blocking I(Kr). Patients could be at risk of cardiac proarrhythmia during impaired drug elimination, such as in case of CYP1A2 inhibition during drug interactions.
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A total of 5398 original and 68 review articles were identified that addressed animal and human experimentation relevant to excitotoxic neuronal death. There were 364 articles with potential significance for clinical application identified; 132 of the most recent references are provided.
Variations in four electrophysiological tests (H/M, T/M, vibratory inhibition, and recovery curve of Hoffmann's reflex following stimulation at the ankle) were studied following a single administration of four myorelaxant drugs: diazepam (10 mg intramuscularly), baclofen (20 mg intramuscularly), tizanidine (4 mg orally), and idrocilamide (60 mg intramuscularly). Fifty-one spastic patients, divided into four groups, were tested. All four drugs reduced the H/M and T/M ratios very slightly. Only diazepam and tizanidine reinforced vibratory inhibition. Diazepam and tizanidine did not modify the abnormal recovery curves, however, whereas baclofen and idrocilamide did. Reinforcement of vibratory inhibition suggests an increase in presynaptic inhibition mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid; changes in recovery curves are likely due to modifications of interneuronal reactivity. Matching myorelaxants to the predominant pathophysiological abnormality detected by electrophysiological exploration may lead to better treatment of spasticity.
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We included double-blind, randomised controlled trials in which the active drug was used either alone or in combination with other non-antiepileptic drugs for at least two weeks.
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The evidence supports the use of baclofen, tizanidine and gabapentin as first-line options. Diazepam or dantrolene could be considered if no clinical improvement is seen with the previous drugs. Nabiximols has a positive effect when used as add-on therapy in patients with poor response and/or tolerance to first-line oral treatments. Despite limited evidence, intrathecal baclofen and intrathecal phenol show a positive effect in severe spasticity and suboptimal response to oral drugs.
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Clinical manifestations of tizanidine overdose include alterations of mental status, bradycardia, and hypotension. In this series, outcome was good with supportive therapy.
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Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted the data. We assessed the included studies for both quality and risk of bias. We contacted study authors to request further information when necessary.
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The combined therapy, including reflex action and tizanidine, speeds recovery from pain and ensures the stability of results.
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Spontaneous hemopericardium is a complication of anticoagulant therapy with not only vitamin-K-antagonists, but also with nonvitamin-K-antagonist oral anticoagulants. We report a polymorbid 75-year old male under a therapy with dabigatran, valsartan, amlodipine, nicorandil, furosemide, atorvastatin, bisoprolol, metformin, tizanidine, pantoprazole, and tramadol. He suffered from chest pain for 4 months. Coronary angiography showed only ectatic coronary arteries. He started taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. He was hospitalized because of dyspnea starting 10 days before admission, melena, and renal failure. Hemopericardium was diagnosed and pericardiocentesis yielded 2000 ml hemorrhagic fluid. Review of previous echocardiograms showed a 4 mm echo-free space, epicardial fat or pericardial effusion. A small (<10 mm) echo-free space in a patient on anticoagulant therapy should not be considered as trivial, but additional imaging studies should be carried out. If a pericardial effusion is newly diagnosed in a patient during anticoagulant therapy, the pharmacotherapy should be revised concerning potentially interacting drugs, like nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and dosage of the anticoagulant drug. Vitamin-K-antagonists with their possibility of laboratory monitoring and availability of an antidote should be preferred over nonvitamin-K-antagonist oral anticoagulants.
Spasticity is common in patients with a variety of central nervous system disorders. It can lead to significant disability or cause complications that may result in severe morbidity. In such patients, treatment of spasticity is warranted. Several oral and parenteral medications are available for use in the treatment of spasticity. This article reviews the pharmacological properties and therapeutic effectiveness of these medications to provide a practical objective guide for physicians who may be involved in the management of spasticity.
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Цель исследования — отработка и фармакологическая валидизация реакции Штрауба для сравнительной оценки антиспастического эффекта серотонинергических соединений. Материал и методы. Для оценки миорелаксантной активности соединений была использована реакция Штрауба. Ее интенсивность оценивали по модифицированной шкале, предложенной Kameyama и соавт. (1978). Подкожное введение морфина (10—60 мг/кг) оказывало дозозависимое влияние на интенсивность реакции Штрауба с максимальной выраженностью через 15—30 мин после инъекции. Результаты и заключение. Миорелаксант центрального действия — баклофен (3—10 мг/кг) уменьшал выраженность реакции Штрауба, вызванной введением морфина в дозе 40 мг/кг, во всех использованных дозах; тизанидин статистически значимо снижал интенсивность реакции в максимальных из использованных доз (0,6 и 1,0 мг/кг). Не было обнаружено значимого эффекта дантролена в диапазоне использованных доз (20—100 мг/кг). Эффекты серотонинергических соединений зависели от их специфических механизмов действия. Результаты выполненных экспериментов подтверждают возможность использования реакции Штрауба для быстрой оценки антиспастического действия веществ.
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The technique of polarised light goniometry was used to quantify objectively parameters of the spastic gait during a double-blind cross-over trial comparing the spasmolytic effects of DS103-282, baclofen and placebo. Only minimal objective and subjective changes in gait were found when the results of treatment with DS103-282 or baclofen were compared with those of treatment with placebo.
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Rifampicin moderately reduced the peak plasma concentration (by 51%; P = 0.002) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC(0-infinity)] (by 54%; P = 0.009) of parent tizanidine, and had no effect on its half-life. The tizanidine/M-3 and tizanidine/M-4 AUC(0-infinity) ratios were slightly (by 30%; P = 0.014; and by 38%; P = 0.007) decreased by rifampicin. Also, the excretion of metabolites M-3, M-4 and M-5 into urine was reduced (P < 0.005), but that of M-10 was increased (P = 0.008) by rifampicin. Rifampicin reduced the tizanidine/M-10 ratio (by 55%; P = 0.047) but had no significant effect on the other tizanidine/metabolite ratios in urine. The caffeine/paraxanthine ratio was reduced by 23% (P = 0.081) by rifampicin. The effect of rifampicin on the caffeine/paraxanthine ratio correlated significantly with the effect of rifampicin on, for example, the AUC(0-infinity) of tizanidine and the tizanidine/M-3 AUC(0-infinity) ratio. The pharmacodynamic effects of tizanidine were reduced by rifampicin.
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Noradrenergic drugs, acting on alpha adrenoceptors, have been found to play an important role in the initiation and modulation of locomotor pattern in adult cats after spinal cord transection. There are at least two subtypes of alpha adrenoceptors, alpha1 and alpha2 adrenoceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selective alpha1 and alpha2 agonists in the initiation and modulation of locomotion in adult chronic cats in the early and late stages after complete transection at T13. Five cats, chronically implanted with an intrathecal cannula and electromyographic (EMG) electrodes were used in this study. Noradrenergic drugs including alpha2 agonists (clonidine, tizanidine, and oxymetazoline) and an antagonist, yohimbine, one alpha1 agonist (methoxamine), and a blocker, prazosin, as well as norepinephrine were injected intrathecally. EMG activity synchronized to video images of the hindlimbs were recorded before and after each drug injection. The results show differential effects of alpha1 and alpha2 agonists in the initiation of locomotion in early spinal cats (i.e., in the first week or so when there is no spontaneous locomotion) and in the modulation of locomotion and cutaneous reflexes in the late-spinal cats (i.e., when cats have recovered spontaneous locomotion). In early spinal cats, all three alpha2 agonists were found to initiate locomotion, although their action had a different time course. The alpha1 agonist methoxamine induced bouts of nice locomotor activity in three spinal cats some hours after injection but only induced sustained locomotion in one cat in which the effects were blocked by the alpha1 antagonist prazosin. In late spinal cats, although alpha2 agonists markedly increased the cycle duration and flexor muscle burst duration and decreased the weight support or extensor activity (effects blocked by an alpha2 antagonist, yohimbine), alpha1 agonist increased the weight support and primarily the extensor activity of the hindlimbs without markedly changing the timing of the step cycle. Although alpha2 agonists, especially clonidine, markedly reduced the cutaneous excitability and augmented the foot drag, the alpha1 agonist was found to increase the cutaneous reflex excitability. This is in line with previously reported differential effects of activation of the two receptors on motoneuron excitability and reflex transmission. Noradrenaline, the neurotransmitter itself, increased the cycle duration and at the same time retained the cutaneous excitability, thus exerting both alpha1 and alpha2 effects. This work therefore suggests that different subclasses of noradrenergic drugs could be used to more specifically target aspects of locomotor deficits in patients after spinal injury or diseases.
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We consider that continuous infusion of tizanidine via a feeding tube would be useful for the treatment of severe systemic hypertonia in patients in whom the symptom cannot be adequately controlled by intermittent use of oral muscle relaxant drugs.
Among nonsmokers, the peak concentration (C(max)) and area under concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity [AUC(0-infinity)] of tizanidine did not differ significantly between females and males. However, the half-life (t(1/2)) was 9% shorter in female nonsmokers than in male nonsmokers (P < 0.05). In male smokers, the t(1/2) was 10% shorter and the weight-adjusted AUC(0-infinity) 33% smaller than in male nonsmokers (P < 0.05). The caffeine/paraxanthine ratio was 35-40% smaller (P = 0.001) in male smokers than in nonsmoking males or females, but did not differ between males and females. Tizanidine lowered blood pressure and caused drowsiness significantly (P < 0.05) more in females than in either male groups. The effects on blood pressure were smallest in male smokers (P < 0.05).
Spasticity is a common problem in MS patients causing pain, spasms, loss of function and difficulties in nursing care. A variety of oral and parenteral medications are available.
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Tizanidine reduces spasticity in MS, and both therapeutic effects and side effects are related to the plasma drug levels.
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We performed a computer-aided search of Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library databases, national and international databases of suspected ADRs reports in order to identify previous published case reports and spontaneous reports about the ADRs reviewed in this paper, and to examine the role of suspected drugs in the pathogenesis of the described adverse reactions.
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Studies were performed on 126 patients with chronic tension headache (CTH). Patients were divided into two groups - an experimental group (64 patients) and a control group (62). Control patients received standard treatment (tizanidine, fluoxetine, vinpocetin, and manual acupressure of active points in the trapezius muscles and the temporomastoid area of the head); the experimental group also received Mexidol. Clinical and neurophysiological studies, including electromyography, were performed before and after treatment. Comparison of the treatment outcomes in the two groups showed that inclusion of Mexidol into the complex therapy of chronic CTH led to faster and more marked clinical effects.
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Of the four studies identified, one had low and three an unclear risk of bias. There is insufficient evidence from randomized controlled trials to show significant benefit from non-antiepileptic drugs in trigeminal neuralgia. More research is needed.
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The effects of tizanidine, a new muscle relaxant, 5-chloro-4-(2-imidazolin-2-yl-amino)-2,1,3-benzothiazole (DS 103-282) were studied on the activity of lumbar dorsal horn convergent neurons in anaesthetized paralysed rats. Following i.v. administration of tizanidine both the A- and C-fibre evoked responses were depressed in a dose-dependent manner in the 0.125-1.0 mg/kg range. The smaller dose employed (0.125 mg/kg) induced a significant depression of the C-fibre evoked responses (39.6 +/- 13.4% of the control responses) and a total recovery was observed 10 min after the injection: when the doses were increased, stronger and longer-lasting depressant effects were obtained. Identical but less powerful effects were observed on A-fibre responses. None of the depressive effects was correlated with variations in blood pressure. Microelectrophoretically applied tizanidine was found to depress current-dependently, the discharges of convergent neurones evoked by microelectrophoretically applied DL-homocysteic acid. In contrast, tizanidine (0.5, 1 mg/kg; i.v.) was found to be ineffective against the activities of non-nociceptive neurones triggered by mechanical stimulation of their receptive fields. It is concluded that tizanidine depresses specifically the activities of dorsal horn convergent neurones, probably in part by a post-synaptic inhibitory action. Owing to the role of convergent neurones in pain processes, the present result could explain, at least partially, the analgesic action of this compound.