vantin drug class
Three successful generations of cephalosporin antibiotics can be divided into parenteral and peroral substances. Both have similar antibacterial and hence therapeutical properties. It is usual to include into the first generation of peroral cephalosporins the so-called phenylglycine, or hydroxyphenylglycine derivatives. The carbacephem variant of Cefaclor (Panoral Lilly), Loracarbef, however, has improved properties and although it is a phenylglycine drug, it could be classified as a second generation cephalosporin. Here we include also the so-called ester-prodrugs: 2nd generation parenteral cephalosporins esterified in the position of C4 (cefuroxime-axetil, Zinnat, cefpodoxime-proxetil, Oralox, etc.). They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, not hydrolysed by resistant bacteria, and, hence, they are effective also against cephalosporin-(1. generation) resistant strains. New structures of cephalosporins, e.g. cefixime and ceftibuten (Cedax) could be classified as cephs of the 3rd generation. They, are stable even against destruction by strains resistant to Cefotaxime or Ceftazidime, and, thus, effective against such bacteria, whose number is expected to increase in the near future. It is concluded that the possibility to administer cephalosporins having different properties, spectrum and stability by both parenteral and peroral way is highly welcomed mainly in pediatric practice and that there are several new and promising drugs in this still developing group of antibacterials.
We compared the effects of nifedipine and diltiazem on the uptake of cefpodoxime proxetil (CP). The study was aimed at establishing the impact of increased mesenteric blood flow due to calcium channel blockers on passive transport. Twelve volunteers were given CP (200 mg) orally in a crossover design. The absorption, disposition, and elimination parameters of cefpodoxime were compared among the following three treatment groups: CP alone, CP following oral administration of diltiazem (60 mg), or CP following oral administration of nifedipine (20 mg). No statistically significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters was observed between the three treatment groups.
vantin 200mg tab
A 16-year-old white hemophiliac boy with HIV infection secondary to tainted coagulation factor VIII was treated with indinavir sulfate. The patient developed gross hematuria, proteinuria, pyuria, abdominal pain, increased bilirubin, an elevated serum creatinine (SCr) of 1.2 mg/dL (baseline 0.9-1.0), and symptoms of renal colic within 1 month of starting indinavir sulfate therapy. Approximately 2 months later the patient developed a low-grade fever with a further increase in SCr. He was prescribed a 10-day course of cefpodoxime proxetil for a possible urinary tract infection. One week later, the patient developed fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, sterile pyuria, nasal congestion, and an elevated SCr of 1.3-1.7 mg/dL. Indinavir sulfate and cefpodoxime proxetil were discontinued and the patient was suspected of having tubulointerstitial nephritis secondary to indinavir sulfate. The patient's nephritis resolved and the SCr decreased to 1.1 mg/dL within 1 month of discontinuing indinavir sulfate.
Compound U-76,252 (Upjohn) is a cephalosporin ester that enhances oral absorption of the active free acid cephem, U-76,253. The active form structurally resembles parenteral aminothiazolyl-methoxyimino cephalosporins such as cefotaxime and its desacetyl metabolite. The g-negative antimicrobial activity of U-76,253 A (sodium salt of U-76,253) was most similar to that of cefixime and more potent than that of cefaclor or cefuroxime among the orally administered cephalosporins. Against g-positive bacteria, U-76,253 A was more active than cefixime. U-76,253 A was relatively stable to hydrolysis by five beta-lactamases (Type Ia, TEM-1, K1, CARB-2, and OXA-1), a stability most similar to cefotaxime and superior to that of cefaclor. Only the Type Ia (P99) enzyme was significantly inhibited by U-76,253 (IC 50 = 2.0 microM).
vantin antibiotic medication
Five days of treatment with cefpodoxime is as efficacious in bacteriologic eradication and clinical response (cure plus improvement) as 10 days of cefpodoxime therapy, and both cefpodoxime regimens produced superior bacteriologic efficacy compared with a 10-day regimen of penicillin V in the treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children.
In Japan, oral antimicrobial agents are prophylactically used with oxytocics after normal delivery to prevent puerperal infections. The present study was designed to investigate bacterial floras in the endometrial cavity immediately after normal delivery and the effect of prophylactic use of anti-microbial agents on those floras. Sixty-six puerperae who underwent uneventful courses of pregnancy and delivery were subjected for this study. Intrauterine contents were collected on the first day and the fifth day of the puerperium and submitted to microbiological examinations. Cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR) was orally given to the puerperae for prophylaxis for 5 days after the initial sampling. On the puerperal first day, a total of 98 strains (71 strains of aerobic bacteria, 27 strains of anaerobic bacteria) was detected in the uteri of the 66 subjects. The incidences of aerobic Gram-positive cocci, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobic bacteria were 59.2%, 12.2%, 27.6% of the 98 strains, respectively. On the puerperal fifth day, a total of 82 strains (51 strains of aerobic bacteria and 31 strains of anaerobic bacteria) were detected in the uteri of the 66 subjects. The incidences of aerobic Gram-positive cocci, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobic bacteria were 52.5%, 8.6% and 37.7% of 82 strains, respectively.
vantin antibiotic dosage
The clinical efficacy of cefditoren pivoxil (CDTR-PI) was evaluated for 43 pediatric patients with acute otitis media or acute sinusitis. The causative organisms were identified and their susceptibilities to 6 oral beta-lactam antibiotics were measured; ampicillin (ABPC), cefaclor (CCL), cefdinir (CFDN), cefditoren pivoxil (CDTR-PI), cefteram pivoxil (CFTM-PI) and cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR). The ages of 43 patients were distributed from 4 months to 10 years and 7 months, and especially children under 4 years accounted for 72% (31 cases). In 22 cases (51%), Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae were identified as the pathogens, but in 18 cases, no causative organisms were defined. Treatment by CDTR-PI was successful in 12 cases out of 15 evaluable cases in which H. influenzae or S. pneumoniae were identified as the main causative organisms. From the susceptibility testing of them, some strains of H. influenzae were found to be ABPC-resistant and some strains of S. pneumoniae were benzylpenicillin (PCG)-resistant. To support above clinical evaluation of CDTR-PI, susceptibility testings on clinically isolated H. influenzae (81 strains) and S. pneumoniae (79 strains) were performed using above mentioned 6 oral beta-lactam antibiotics. The MIC80s against H. influenzae were; CDTR-PI 0.06 microgram/ml, CCL 2 micrograms/ml, CPDX-PR 0.125 microgram/ml, CFTM-PI 0.03 microgram/ml, CFDN 1 microgram/ml and ABPC 1 microgram/ml. Those against S. pneumoniae were; CDTR-PI 0.5 microgram/ml, CCL > 4 micrograms/ml, CPDX-PR 2 micrograms/ml, CFTM-PI 1 microgram/ml, CFDN 2 micrograms/ml and ABPC 1 microgram/ml. From those results, it was concluded that CDTR-PI or CFTM-PI may be preferable for the treatment of acute otitis media and acute sinusitis in children.
vantin drug interactions
6 healthy dogs.
buy vantin online
The care strategy of pharyngitis has been changed dramatically these last years. Because of evolution of antibiotic resistance, the attitude which prevailed of the systematic treatment of pharyngitis in order to prevent a hypothetical acute rheumatic fever, could not persist. Discrimination between pharyngitis due to group A streptococcus (GAS) and nonstreptococcal pharyngitis (usually of viral causes) cannot be made in a reliable way by the clinical signs and symptoms, even if clinical scores are used. The free availability to practitioners of GAS rapid diagnostic tests, sensitive (>90%) and specific (>95%), changes the rule by simplifying it: pharyngitis with positive test must be treated with antibiotics, those with negative test should not be received such treatment. A reduction of two thirds of antibiotics consumption for pharyngitis can be expected, while maintaining the benefit (improvement of the clinical signs, reduction of contagiousness and the complications) for the patients for whom it is necessary. Because of GAS resistance to macrolides and the absence of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, a compound belonging of this last family should be prescribed and for a short treatment duration: amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/j, b.i.d for 6 days), cefpodoxime proxetil (8 mg/kg/j b.i.d for 5 days), cefuroxime axetil (30 mg/kg/j b.i.d for 4 days).
vantin 400 mg
The Rf values for CEFPO, AMBRO, and paracetamol were found to be 0.69 ± 0.005, 0.49 ± 0.0057, and 0.31 ± 0.0054, respectively. The stability of CEFPO and AMBRO in plasma was confirmed during three freeze-thaw cycles (-20°C), on bench during 24 h and post preparative during 48 h.
To compare bacteriologic and clinical efficacy and safety of 10 vs 5 days of cefpodoxime proxetil vs 10 days of penicillin V potassium for the treatment of acute group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children.
Global clinical efficacy was assessed by the physicians to be "very good" and "good" in 96.4% of the cases. With regard to tolerance, the physicians' assessment was "very good" and "good" in 96.3%. In 51 patients (1.9%), 70 adverse drug reactions involving the gastrointestinal tract, CNS and skin occurred.
vantin drug classification
The efficacy and safety of azithromycin in otitis media and streptococcal pharyngitis, the simple dosing regimen and a highly palatable oral suspension formulation should increase compliance among pediatric patients and thereby improve clinical outcomes.
vantin 200 mg
AOM is one of the most common pediatric infections requiring a prescription for an antimicrobial agent. The optimal approach to treatment of AOM requires early, efficacious, and practical therapy. Several experts and organizations have developed recommendations for the management of AOM, but the number of these may overwhelm the busy primary care practitioner. A MEDLINE search of the pediatric and infectious disease literature on AOM treatment recommendations was used to select 3 representative, previously published articles for this review. When selecting an agent, physicians should consider in vitro activity, particularly against drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae; pharmacokinetics; adverse events; palatability of the suspension; and cost. In addition, physicians' clinical experience is an important determinant.
In France the current consensus for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia is based on the French Society for Infectious Diseases 1991 guidelines. In healthy adults without signs of severe disease, oral amoxicillin is recommended at the dose of 3 g per day for 8 to 10 days. This empirical choice is warranted by the prevalence of pneumococcal infections, found as causal agents in half to two-thirds of the bacteriologically proven cases. The 3 g dose is recommended due to the increasing risk of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae with MIC > 1 microgram/ml and exceptionally > 2 micrograms/ml. Clinical experience has shown that with a threshold at 2 micrograms/ml, 3 g of amoxicillin is a safe and sure choice. The duration is undoubtedly too long for most patients, but is a prudent measure due to the lack of clinical signs distinguishing between patent infection and its prolongation by inflammatory processes. Indiscriminate prescription of amoxicillin alone is however unacceptable as aminopenicillin is not effective against all microbial agents responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. The risk of selecting resistant strains is very real. Use of a large spectrum antibiotic could be indicated as first line treatment in patients with risk factors (underlying chronic disease, institutionalization, exposure to Gram negatives or S. aureus). For such patients, combination with a beta-lactamase inhibitor (coamoxiclav) or a cephalosporin with a MIC similar to that for penicillin G (cefpodoxime proxetil, cefuroxime axetil) could be recommended. In case of severe disease, Legionella pneumophila must be taken into consideration, implicating adjuction of a macrolide. Wide spectrum fluoroquinolones such as the soon to be available trovafloxacin offer a safe alternative, covering the main microorganisms responsible for community acquired pneumonia. Widespread use would however increase the risk of microbial resistance. In the current epidemiological situation in France, prescription of an aminopenicillin alone for alveolar community-acquired pneumonia in healthy adults remains the gold standard for first line therapy.
Data were limited to comparative trials published in the English literature. Although many studies were conducted in Japan, the results often were available only in Japanese or partly in English. As these studies could not be completely evaluated, they are not included in this review.
vantin tabs 200mg
The clinical success rates at day 12-19 in the per-protocol population (primary analysis) were 92.3% (215/233) in the cefpodoxime-proxetil group and 93.6% (204/218) in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group. The 95% confidence interval of [6.5%; 3.9%] demonstrated that cefpodoxime-proxetil was not inferior to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Cure rates at follow-up (day 25-30) were 90.6% and 92.7%, respectively. Results were similar in the intent-to-treat population. Compliance was significantly better in the cefpodoxime-proxetil group (99.2% versus 95.5%; p=0.011). Tolerance was also significantly better: 1.2% (3/247) of cefpodoxime-proxetil patients reported a treatment-related adverse event, compared with 10.7% (26/244) in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group (p<0.001). Most events were gastrointestinal and of mild to moderate intensity.
To determine the disposition of orally administered cefpodoxime proxetil in foals and adult horses and measure the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the drug against common bacterial pathogens of horses.
Cefpodoxime demonstrates good in vitro activity against pathogens frequently associated with respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin and tissue infections. It has not demonstrated greater efficacy than the other antibiotics to which it has been compared. The available published clinical trials are fraught with methodologic, statistical, and evaluative flaws. Thus, further trials comparing cefpodoxime with established treatments, as well as the newer cephalosporins, are needed before its place in therapy can be established.
generic vantin 100mg
To define the optimal approach for treating acute cystitis in young healthy women and in women with diabetes and men and to define the optimal approach for diagnosing acute cystitis in the outpatient setting.
vantin oral suspension
Cefpodoxime proxetil is an orally absorbed broad spectrum third generation cephalosporin antibacterial. It is a prodrug that is de-esterified in vivo to its active metabolite, cefpodoxime. After single- and multiple-dose (12-hourly) administration of cefpodoxime proxetil in the therapeutic dose range of 100 to 400mg of cefpodoxime equivalents, average peak plasma concentrations of cefpodoxime range from 1.0 to 4.5 mg/L and occur between 1.9 and 3.1 hours after administration. The half-life of cefpodoxime ranges from 1.9 to 2.8 hours. The absolute bio-availability of cefpodoxime proxetil tablets is 50%, and absorption is enhanced by concomitant administration of food. Raising gastric pH by pretreatment with antacids or H2-receptor antagonists results in reduced absorption. Binding of cefpodoxime to human plasma or serum protein is low (18 to 23%), suggesting that cefpodoxime should readily transfer across the capillary lining into tissues. Cefpodoxime undergoes minimal metabolism in humans. Drug not absorbed is degraded in the gastrointestinal tract and excreted in the faeces. As expected for a drug eliminated primarily by renal excretion, the disposition of cefpodoxime is altered in patients with impaired renal function; the half-life increases, while apparent plasma clearance and renal clearance decrease. The pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime after oral administration of cefpodoxime proxetil are not affected by age.
Six pediatric patients who had AOM with otorrhea caused by CA-MRSA.
vantin 200mg generic
Cefpodoxime proxetil is an oral cephalosporin antibiotic. The in vitro activities of cefpodoxime (the active metabolite of cefpodoxime proxetil), ceftriaxone, and cefuroxime against both antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were determined. Cefpodoxime inhibited all penicillin-susceptible strains and penicillinase-producing strains at less than or equal to 0.015 microgram/ml; chromosomally resistant strains were inhibited by cefpodoxime at less than or equal to 0.125 microgram/ml.
Cefpodoxime proxetil is an oral cephem antibiotic of a new ester type, developed by Sankyo Co., Ltd in Japan. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, which includes Staphylococcus, and a long half-life, allowing twice-daily administration. In Japan, clinical studies on this drug were performed in various fields, including internal medicine, surgery, urology, otorhinolaryngology, and obstetrics and gynaecology. Good or excellent clinical responses were observed in 2275 of 2902 patients analysed, giving a 78.4% efficacy rate overall. Side effects occurred in 98 patients (2.7%); these were mainly gastrointestinal and included diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. Abnormal laboratory test results observed included increased AST in 2.8% (55 of 1973), increased ALT in 3.2% (63 of 1965), and eosinophilia in 2.4% (36 of 1521).
vantin max dose
Cefpodoxime, the active de-esterified molecule of the orally absorbable cephalosporin cefpodoxime proxetil, inhibits streptococci, Neisseria spp., and most Enterobacteriaceae, with MIC50 and/or MIC90 values of less than or equal to 2 mg/L; with regard to the latter family of bacteria, the MIC50 and/or MIC90 values of cefpodoxime are consistently greater than or equal to 4 mg/L for only Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, and Morganella morganii. The MIC50 of cedpodoxime for coagulase-negative staphylococci is greater than 2 mg/L, while the MIC for Staphylococcus aureus strains is 4 mg/L. In comparison with other orally absorbable cephalosporins, cefpodoxime is slightly less active than cefixime, cefetamet, and cefotiam against Gram-negative bacteria, but more active than cefuroxime, cefaclor, and cefalexin. Against staphylococci, the activity of cefpodoxime is comparable to that of cefotiam and cefuroxime, and superior to that of cefaclor, while cefixime and cefetamet have insufficient activity against these species. In common with other cephalosporins, cefpodoxime has no activity against enterococci. In vitro models simulating human serum cefpodoxime concentrations demonstrate that a dosage regimen of 200mg is probably sufficient to treat most infections. However, further study is needed to clarify whether infections due to bacteria such as S. aureus, with higher cefpodoxime MICs, can be treated with this dose regimen.
vantin and alcohol
Cefpodoxime is a semisynthetic third generation cephalosporin analogue with a relatively broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity against gram negative and gram positive organisms. This is attributed to their somewhat increased resistance to degradation by the betalactamase. Cefpodoxime shows good activity against Klebsiella pneumonia, many members of enterobactericeae and almost all strains of Escherichia coli. It is extensively used in human beings against infections caused by susceptible organisms for a prolonged period and even without its judicious indication. Though various researchers have worked on the pharmacokinetic aspects of the drug, its effects on biochemical parameters and spermatozoa activity are scarcely available in literature.
vantin 100 mg
Acute otitis media (AOM) is not only the most common bacterial infection in children in the United States, it is also the most common indication for the prescription of antibiotics. Unfortunately, antibiotic resistance to pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis) typically causative of AOM, continues to increase. More than 30% of the beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae are resistant to amoxicillin and virtually all strains of M. catarrhalis are beta-lactamase-positive. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, particularly S. pneumoniae, complicates the management of AOM and increases the risk for treatment failure. Because of growing resistance, the Centers for Disease Control and the American Academy of Pediatrics promote the judicious use of antibiotics in the treatment of AOM. Their recommendations emphasize the importance of distinguishing AOM from otitis media with effusion, minimizing the use of antibiotics, and discerning between first- and second-line antibiotics in the treatment of simple uncomplicated AOM versus non-responsive/recurrent AOM. Because spontaneous cure rates are lower in complicated AOM and AOM secondary to S. pneumoniae infection, antibiotic therapy remains an appropriate treatment option for most children with AOM. When amoxicillin, the treatment of choice in AOM, is not effective or not tolerated in children, the prescriber should consider an alternative that displays not only excellent antimicrobial activity against the suspected pathogens, but also characteristics, such as convenient dosing, tolerability, and palatability, that promote compliance and adherence in children. The cephalosporins offer an alternative to penicillins. Cephalosporins such as cefuroxime axetil (second-generation) and cefdinir and cefpodoxime proxetil (third-generation), offer a broad spectrum of activity and are approved for use in a convenient once- or twice-daily dosing schedule, thus increasing the likelihood of compliance with the full course of therapy. Cefdinir is a possible second-line alternative to amoxicillin for children with AOM, particularly among children who are likely to be noncompliant with a two- to three-times-daily dosing schedule, and those instances where there is a high likelihood for, or a known infection with an amoxicillin-resistant pathogen.