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Trental (Pentoxifylline)

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Generic Trental is used for treating intermittent claudication (pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness in the foot, hip, thigh, or buttocks) in certain patients. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Pletal, Pentoxil


Also known as:  Pentoxifylline.


Generic Trental is used for treating intermittent claudication (pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness in the foot, hip, thigh, or buttocks) in certain patients. It may also be used for other conditions.

Generic Trental is a xanthine derivative blood flow enhancer. It works by thinning the blood and improving red blood cell flexibility, causing the blood to flow more freely through the veins.

Trental is also known as Pentoxifylline.

Generic name of Generic Trental is Pentoxifylline.

Brand name of Generic Trental is Trental.


Take Generic Trental by mouth with food or milk.

Swallow whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Trental suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Trental and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Trental are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Trental if you are allergic to Generic Trental components, or to methylxanthines (theophylline, caffeine, theobromine).

Be very careful with Generic Trental if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant. Generic Trental is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Generic Trental.

Do not take Generic Trental if you have had recent bleeding in the brain or eye.

Tell your health care provider or dentist that you take Generic Trental before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

It may take 2 to 4 weeks to notice improvement in your condition, and up to 8 weeks for maximum relief.

Use Generic Trental with caution in the elderly. They may be more sensitive to its effects.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Trental taking suddenly.

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One hundred patients (49 males, 51 females) with reversible neurologic deficit due to cerebral ischemia of vascular origin in the carotid artery territory were recruited for a long-term observation to follow up recurrence of ischemic events. Fifty-eight patients (mean age sixty-four years) were treated daily with 1200 mg oral pentoxifylline in addition to basic therapy (antihypertensives, antidiabetic drugs, etc), and 42 matching patients (mean age sixty-two years) of a control group had no pentoxifylline or other hemorheologic medication. The mean observation period was fifty-six months (range thirty-six to sixty). On admission patients presented with increased platelet aggregation and/or impaired red cell filterability and with enhanced red cell aggregation. Five patients in the pentoxifylline group (8.6%) and 16 control patients (38%) suffered a relapse of an ischemic episode. These data support previous reports of a beneficial effect of pentoxifylline in the prevention of cerebral ischemic events.

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An 18-yer-old girl with homozygotic sickle-cell anaemia (HbSS: HbS 65% and HbF 4.9%) suffered from painful haemolytic crises since six years of age, these crises occurring almost weekly of late. Pentoxifylline (2.4 g daily in three divided doses) decreased blood viscosity in vitro from 6.7 to 4.9 (normal 4.3-5.3 at 46 s-1 shear rate) and erythrocyte filtration accelerated from 127 to 77 s (normally 30-49 s). Although pentoxifylline could not prevent haemolysis, previously necessary analgesics were no longer required, even during haemolytic crises. Thus the drug lowers viscosity also in vivo and thus improves microcirculation. It has a prophylactic effect against vaso-occlusive complications of sickle-cell anaemia.

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The difference in mean serum CRP levels of the pentoxifylline and placebo groups was not significant before study. While CRP showed showed a significant increase in the placebo group after completing the interventions (P = .01), the difference was nonsignificant in the pentoxifylline group (P = .53). The difference in the mean adequacy of dialysis was not significant before the interventions between the two groups, while there was a significant increase in the pentoxifylline group (P = .01) and a nonsignificant increase in the placebo group (P = .31) after the interventions.

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This case report describes the sustained symptomatic and hematologic improvement in a 21-year-old woman with homozygous sickle cell (ss) disease during treatment with pentoxifylline, 400 mg three times daily after meals. Pain crises decreased from six to zero per year, hemoglobin level rose from 8.4 g/dL to 11.4 g/dL, hematocrit rose from 24.8% to 34.8%, lactate dehydrogenase level decreased from 375 IU/L to 322 IU/L, and total bilirubin level decreased from 1.8 mg/dL to 1.6 mg/dL. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin increased from 21.6 pg to 30 pg and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration increased from 24.1 g/dL to 34.5 g/dL. These changes were sustained for seven years except for a brief self-imposed hiatus in therapy during which period a pain crisis occurred. Further increase in pentoxifylline dosage to 400 mg four times daily did not result in any further improvement in these hematologic parameters. These results suggest that pentoxifylline reduces hemolysis in SS patients with a resulting improvement in anemia and a reduction in or elimination of pain crises.

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TNF-alpha enhances HIV-1 replication in acutely and chronically infected cells and likely contributes to the wasting associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Agents that inhibit TNF-alpha activity should theoretically delay the progression of disease, and several are currently in clinical trials. We hypothesized that IL-10, a cytokine that suppresses the gene expression and synthesis of TNF-alpha in monocytic cells, might inhibit HIV-1 replication. As expected, IL-10 suppressed PMA-induced TNF-alpha production in U1 cells; however, when U1 cells were cultured in the presence of PMA and increasing doses of IL-10, a dose-dependent increase in HIV-1 expression was observed. IL-10 also enhanced IL-1 beta-, TNF-alpha-, and GM-CSF-induced HIV-1 expression in U1 cells, and this occurred, at least in part, at the level of transcription. We next stimulated cells under conditions of TNF-alpha blockade. When PMA-induced TNF-alpha activity and HIV-1 replication were blocked by the presence of soluble TNF receptors, IL-10 independently enhanced HIV-1 replication. In contrast, other agents that are capable of blocking TNF-alpha synthesis or TNF-alpha activity either had no effect (IL-13 and IL-4) or inhibited HIV-1 expression (soluble TNF receptors and pentoxifylline) in U1 cells. These data suggest that IL-10, while inhibiting TNF-alpha synthesis, has an independent mechanism of action that enhances HIV-1 replication. Therefore, IL-10 may have undesirable effects in HIV-1-infected patients.

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In the second and fourth groups, the lesion surface area and average mucosal damage were fewer in comparison to the control group (p<0,03). Moreover, an histopatologically improvement in the surface epithelium was observed in these groups. The average lesion score also reduced significantly (p<0,03) only in the L-tryptophan group. On the other hand, no statistically significant improvement was observed in the pentoxifylline group.

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We have identified several compounds that produce robust and effective stimulation of sperm motility and, importantly, have a positive response on patient samples.

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To investigate the protective effect of pentoxifylline on spermatogenesis following testicular torsion/detorsion in rats.

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41 nursing facilities in 6 regions of the US.

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Ongoing research evaluating potential pharmacological agents for NASH is critical, because these patients are at an increased risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current therapies being used for the treatment of NASH include the use of vitamin E and pioglitazone, in addition to dietary counseling and regular exercise.

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The possible healing effect of deferoxamine and pentoxifylline on persisting lower limb ulcers was studied in 51 patients with thalassemia major. The results indicated that the regular use of deferoxamine at an intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg did not affect the healing progress and the recurrence rate of these ulcers significantly. On the contrary, the oral administration of pentoxifylline at a dose of 1,200 mg daily during the ulcer's healing time and at a low long-term maintenance dose of 400 mg daily during the ulcer-free intervals improved their healing ability impressively and diminished their recurrence rate significantly.

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The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a P-glycoprotein and CYP3A inhibitor, verapamil on the pharmacokinetics of two methylxanthines, pentoxifylline and lisofylline in male CD-1 mice. To differentiate the effects of verapamil, both methylxanthines were also given to male CF-1 mdr1a (-/-) and mdr1a (+/+) mice. CD-1 mice received a single dose (50 mg/kg) of pentoxifylline or lisofylline intravenously, whereas mutant animals were given the same dose of both compounds intravenously and orally. Blood and tissue samples were collected at different time points following drug administration and concentrations of pentoxifylline and lisofylline were measured by a chiral HPLC method. Verapamil significantly increased concentrations of both methylxanthines in murine serum and tissues. In contrast to lisofylline, pentoxifylline concentrations were also significantly higher in mutant mice 30 min following intravenous administration. Due to the fact that pentoxifylline is not a good P-glycoprotein substrate, a possible mechanism of this interaction might be that in the presence of verapamil, pentoxifylline elimination is inhibited by its metabolites that are normally eliminated through P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. This hypothesis was supported by the outcomes of pharmacokinetic analysis. In conclusion, the interaction between verapamil and pentoxifylline is, at least partially, P-glycoprotein-mediated, whereas alterations in lisofylline pharmacokinetics are caused by inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes.

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We investigated the signal transduction pathway of IL-12 and showed that lisofylline (LSF) inhibited the signal transducer and activator of transcription factor-4 (STAT4) activation. Interruption of IL-12-mediated STAT4 activation prevented autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

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The study included 20 metastatic solid tumor patients who showed clinical and laboratory signs of DIC. Pentoxifylline was given orally at a dose of 1200 mg/day for 28 days.

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Pharmacologic treatment showed no survival benefit, regardless of disease severity. Given the mortality risk seen in mild-moderate AH patients not receiving treatment and concern for a possible treatment ceiling effect in severe AH patients, more data are needed to adequately assess the utility of MDF in selecting appropriate candidates for AH treatment.

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Eighty-three patients receiving pentoxifylline for stable claudication were evaluated to identify factors associated with response to treatment. Patients with isolated aortoiliac occlusive disease and those with arterial occlusive disease of moderate severity were more likely to have an improvement in claudication distance.

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To assess the effects of inhibiting both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and xanthine oxidase activity on the inflammatory response, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and mortality in necrotizing acute pancreatitis in rats.

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The combination of coronary heart disease (CHD) with increased left ventricular wall mass (LVWM) appears associated with prolonged isovolumetric relaxation (IVR) and consequently, alterations in the rapid filling phase. Methylxanthine-substances may improve relaxation through inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity. Accordingly we examined multiple indexes of left ventricular diastolic function before and after administration of 200 mg pentoxifylline (Trental) intravenously to 18 patients (51.3 +/- 9.0 years, 15 males, three females) with stable angina pectoris and positive exercise-ECG in NYHA class I or II and LVWM greater than 160 g (n = 9) and less than or equal to 160 g (n = 9). Left ventricular pressure (P) and volume (V) measurements were made with a high-fidelity-micromanometer before and twelve minutes after administration of pentoxifylline. The time constant of left ventricular isovolumic relaxation (T), usual global left ventricular volumes and derived indexes such as peak filling rate (PFR), time to peak filling rate (TPFR), segmental (relaxation and rapid filling phases) and total pressure-volume relationship before and after pentoxifylline were calculated. Significant differences between these two groups (greater than/less than or equal to 160 g LVWM) were found for end-diastolic volume (68.7 +/- 19.0 to 90.8 +/- 22.6 ml/sqm), end-systolic volume (21.7 +/- 16.0 to 36.1 +/- 14.7 ml/sqm), end-diastolic pressure (15.0 +/- 4.8 to 15.7 +/- 5.1 mm Hg), PFR (3.25 +/- 1.18 to 2.66 +/- 0.71 s-1), T (46.0 +/- 5.7 to 52.7 +/- 7.2 ms), the linear regression of lnP-V (lny = -0.117 x + 4.59 to lny = -0.091 x + 4.75) in the IVR-phase (dp/dtmin less than or equal to x less than or equal to 80 ms) (leftward shift in p-V-relationship when less than or equal to 160 g) and the complet p-V-areas. After pentoxifyl-line-administration there were significant decreases in T in patients with increased LVWM (52.7 +/- 7.2 to 47.7 +/- 5.9 ms) and the P-V-product over the time in the rapid filling phase in patients with LVWM less than or equal to 160 g. Total peripheral resistance and heart rate did not change. These changes in parameters of left ventricular diastolic function in combination with significant improvement of pump function especially in patients with LVWM greater than 160 g after administration of pentoxifylline suggest that improved diastolic function is the result of a direct myocardial effect of pentoxifylline.

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Baseline and follow-up assessments included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and UPE. Differences in the changes in variables within the placebo and pentoxifylline treatment groups during the study period were assessed using Friedman's test.

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Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (ISSHL) is defined when a loss of at least 30 dB occurs in over 3 continuous frequencies, in up to 72 hours, of which etiology is not established, despite adequate investigation. Different types of treatment regimens have been proposed, but only glucocorticoids have shown some evidence of benefit in the literature.

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Participants (n = 39) were allocated into three groups at the termination of CPB: Group 1, (control group, n = 16); Group 2 (aprotinin group, n = 12), who received protamine + aprotinin (15,000 IU/kg); and Group 3 (Pentoxifylline group, n = 11), who received protamine + pentoxifylline (10 mg/kg). Leukocyte counts in pulmonary and radial arteries were determined after the termination of CPB and before any drug was given (t1), and 5 minutes (t2), 2 hours (t3), 6 hours (t4) and 12 hours (t5) after the administration of protamine. Alveolar-arterial O2 gradient (A-aO2) and dynamic pulmonary compliance were measured at t1, t2 and t3.

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Prostacyclin and nitric oxide donors are the best studied vasodilating agents in experimental sepsis and have shown improved tissue perfusion and oxygen extraction. In several clinical studies prostacyclin has also been shown to have such beneficial effects. Recent studies using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging have shown microcirculatory recruitment by nitric oxide donors in hemodynamically resuscitated septic patients. Whether such therapeutic modalities aimed at recruitment of the microcirculation improve outcome, however, still has to be determined.

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Male balb/c mice underwent 30% total body surface area full-thickness steam burn. Immediately after burn, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of PTX (12.5 mg/kg) in normal saline or normal saline alone. In vivo intestinal permeability to 4 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran was measured. Intestinal extracts were obtained to measure interleukin-6 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and phosphorylated p38 MAPK, p38 MAPK, phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (1/2) (ERK (1/2)), and ERK (1/2) by immunoblotting. Acute lung injury was assessed by histology at 24 hours after burn.

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The effect of pentoxifylline (Trental) on the phagocytic capacity, cAMP levels, and superoxide anion production of human peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclears (PMNs) was studied. The drug inhibited the phagocytosis of latex particles by both monocytes and PMNs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, superoxide anion production during the phagocytic process was also reduced following incubation of the cells with pentoxifylline. It is suggested that this inhibitory effect is due to the increased intracellular levels of cAMP induced by the drug.

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Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell's palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the scull and mastoid, cerebral MRI, or nerve conduction studies. Bell's palsy may be diagnosed after exclusion of all secondary causes, but causes of secondary FNP and Bell's palsy may coexist. Treatment of secondary FNP is based on the therapy of the underlying disorder. Treatment of Bell's palsy is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but also studies, which show no beneficial effect. Additional measures include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or possibly surgery. Prognosis of Bell's palsy is fair with complete recovery in about 80% of the cases, 15% experience some kind of permanent nerve damage and 5% remain with severe sequelae.

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Granuloma annulare is a disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the dermis. Localized granuloma annulare may resolve spontaneously, while generalized granuloma annulare may persist for decades. The authors present the case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man with a two-week history of periocular granuloma annulare. Due to previously reported success in the use of systemic dapsone for the treatment of granuloma annulare, and the periocular proximity of the patient's lesion, topical dapsone was used for treatment. Various additional therapies for the management of granuloma annulare have been reported, such as topical and systemic steroids, isotretinoin, pentoxifylline, cyclosporine, Interferon gamma, potassium iodide, nicotinamide, niacinamide, salicylic acid, fumaric acid ester, etanercept, infliximab, and hydroxychloroquine. Additional clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of topical dapsone in the management of granuloma annulare.

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In-vitro culture of 1-cell mouse embryos was used to assess the influence of pentoxifylline or early embryonic development. If cultured in concentrations of 5, 10 or 50 microM, early embryonic development was unaffected and no differences in cell numbers were noted in embryos reaching the blastocyst stage. However, at 3.6 and 7.2 mM, pentoxifylline inhibited cleavage from the 2-cell stage onwards. If 1-cell mouse embryos were exposed for only 30 min to these concentrations, blastocyst formation was found to be morphologically normal. However, cell numbers of such blastocysts were significantly decreased after exposure to pentoxifylline. These results may indicate that exposure of gametes or zygotes to pentoxifylline should be avoided as much as possible when this drug is used in human assisted reproduction. If administered at regular therapeutic doses, it is probable that no adverse effect on early embryonic development in vivo will occur. Further research is needed to confirm and elucidate the above findings.

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Heparin-anticoagulated (3 IE/ml) whole blood of healthy neonates (n = 6) and adult volunteers (n = 6) was incubated for 45 min. Spontaneous PMN-degranulation was compared with meconium-induced (3 mg/ml) and PTX-inhibited (0,025 - 0,4 mg/ml) degranulation by means of elastase (EL) and lactoferrin (LF) release from azurophilic and specific granules. EL- and LF plasma concentration was measured by immunoluminometric methods.

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The effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) on intracellular accumulation of doxorobicin (DOX), DOX cytotoxicity and expression of Pgp in multidrug resistant L1210/VCR cell line were investigated. PTX (100 mg/l) was able to enhance the DOX accumulation in resistant cells. The maximum intracellular levels of DOX were reached after treatment with PTX for 24 hours (total duration of PTX-treatment was 72 hours). The levels of mdrl mRNA (measured by RT-PCR method) were decreased 2-fold in the presence of 100 mg/l PTX (minimum reached within 48 hours) in comparison to control cells.

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trental dosage 2017-04-05

Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell's palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the scull and mastoid, cerebral MRI, or nerve conduction studies. Bell's palsy may be diagnosed after exclusion of all secondary causes, but causes of secondary FNP and Bell's palsy may coexist. Treatment of secondary FNP is based on the therapy of the underlying disorder. Treatment of Bell's palsy is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but also studies, which show no beneficial effect. Additional measures include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or possibly surgery. Prognosis of Bell's palsy is fair with complete recovery in about 80% of the cases, 15% experience some kind of permanent nerve damage and 5% remain with severe sequelae. buy trental online

trental medication 2015-06-22

To evaluate the effectiveness of a bolus application of pentoxifylline (PTXF) at the beginning of CPR in a standardized resuscitation animal model buy trental online .

trental generic name 2016-04-22

One hundred male Wistar rats were submitted to taurocholate-induced AP and divided into three groups: Group Sham: sham-operated rats, Group Saline: AP plus saline solution, and Group PTX: AP plus PTX. Saline solution and PTX were administered 1 hour after induction of AP. At 3 hours after AP induction, peritoneal levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 levels were assayed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Determinations of lung myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), histological buy trental online analysis of lung and pancreas, and mortality study were performed.

trental 400 mg 2015-04-11

A glucose injection given immediately after birth delays the maturation which normally occurs in rat liver mitochondria and which increases the rate of ATP synthesis coupled to succinate oxidation from a low value at birth to the adult value a few hours after birth [R. Meister, J. Comte, L. Baggetto, C. Godinot and D. C. Gautheron, Biochim. biophys. Acta 722, 36 (1983)]. Alkylxanthine (pentoxifylline, HWA 285) administration at birth has no effect on buy trental online the maturation of mitochondria prepared from 2-hr-old rat livers while DBcAMP administration increases their RCR and their rate of ATP synthesis. On the contrary, both alkylxanthines and DBcAMP reverse the glucose-induced inhibition of mitochondrial maturation. This DBcAMP effect cannot be mimicked by butyrate and is therefore related to cAMP. The cAMP content of rat liver increases during this postnatal period in both control and glucose-treated rats, although glucose administration tends to decrease the level of cAMP. Alkylxanthine administration restores after 2 hr the cAMP level in glucose-treated animals. The variations of RCR could not be completely correlated with the level of cAMP. The possible involvement of other factors in the mitochondrial maturation and the glucose effect is discussed.

trental reviews 2017-07-21

Ten percent magnesium sulfate reduced the duration of buy trental online vasospasm most effectively (p < 0.01). Verapamil applied locally and also pentoxifylline applied parenterally were also very effective. In contrast, the duration of vasospasm was extended after local application of 2% lidocaine (p < 0.01).

trental brand name 2015-06-29

Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been shown to combat effectively endotoxin induced symptoms of shock or inflammation by reducing both leukocyte activation and endogenous cytokine formation. With regard to blood perfusion, inflammation is defined as a local reaction to injury of the living microvasculature and its content. Leukocyte margination, rolling, adhesion, and emigration is mediated by adhesion molecules along the endothelium of postcapillary venules and is considered to be an important step in the inflammatory response. Changes in the vascular integrity can be estimated in terms of increased extravasation of macromolecules. Using intravital microscopy with the help of an analogous video image processing system we measured the effect of PTX on lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 15 mg/kg i.v.) induced leukocyte adhesion and extravasation of FITC-rat serum albumin (FITC-RSA) in rat mesenteric venules. The changes in vascular permeability correlates significantly (r = 0.75) with a locally increased number buy trental online of adherent leukocytes. PTX significantly inhibits both leukocyte adhesion and extravasation of FITC-RSA dose dependently. Our results indicate that PTX effectively preserves vascular integrity in the microcirculation by acting primarily on LPS-induced leukocyte adhesion.

trental 300 mg 2016-11-27

Twenty-one insulin-dependent and 30 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients were treated over 48 months with pentoxifylline ('Trental buy trental online ' 400) 1200 mg/day orally. All patients had haemorheological alterations and vascular complications. A marked improvement in erythrocyte deformability and a reduction in plasma fibrinogen levels was already evident after 6 months of therapy; these improvements were maintained throughout the 48 months of the study and were independent of short-term and long-term glycometabolic changes. The normalization of blood rheology pattern was associated with a significant decrease in total urinary protein excretion rate and in urinary albumin excretion rate. An improvement in both microvascular, i.e., retinopathy and nephropathy, and macrovascular, i.e. ischaemic heart disease and peripheral occlusive arterial disease, complications was demonstrated after the long-term trial with pentoxifylline. No side-effects occurred during the observation period. These data suggest that pentoxifylline may have an important role in both the treatment of diabetic haemorheological changes and renal disorders and in the prevention of accompanying degenerative vascular complications.

trental dose dogs 2016-11-03

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a potentially fatal illness in premature neonates. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has been shown to play a central role in the inflammatory cascade leading to the development of NEC. Published evidence points to a significant role of pentoxifylline in inhibition of TNF-alpha and buy trental online in reducing mucosal injury and improving healing in ischemia-reperfusion experiments. Our aim was to investigate the effect of pentoxifylline on the incidence of NEC in a neonatal rat model. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups originating from eight separate litters were delivered by cesarean section at 21.5 d and were formula fed from birth by orogastric gavage. The rat pups were randomized to receive either intraperitoneal pentoxifylline (15 mg/kg/dose) or placebo, given every 8 h beginning at 24 h of age, in a blinded fashion. Experimental NEC was induced by exposure to hypoxia for 60 s followed by cold stress at 4 degrees C for 10 min. The animals were euthanized at development of NEC or at 96 h and intestinal tissue was processed and examined for histologic changes of NEC. The incidence of NEC was significantly lower in the pentoxifylline group [pentoxifylline 5/38 versus placebo 15/36; p = 0.008, odds ratio (OR) = 0.21 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.67]. Among the pups developing NEC, significantly fewer rat pups treated with pentoxifylline had severe (>or=3) intestinal injury scores [pentoxifylline 1/5 versus placebo 10/15; p = 0.031, OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.79]. We conclude that intraperitoneal administration of pentoxifylline significantly reduced the incidence and severity of NEC in our experimental animal model.

trental drug category 2015-10-24

Similar to pentoxifylline, vinpocetine was also shown to have a beneficial buy trental online effect over ischemic colon anastomoses.

trental drug class 2015-10-11

Twenty one patients with buy trental online livedoid vasculitis are presented. Diagnosis was based on the clinical, histopathologic and direct immunofluorescent findings. The majority of patients were women (2:1), aged up to 30 years. Except for two patients with chronic venous insufficiency, the rest were with idiopathic-primary livedoid vasculitis. They all reacted favorably to the therapy with pentoxifylline, dipyridamole and acetylsalicylic acid. It is necessary to observe the difference to the "real" vasculitis of the skin, which requires more aggressive therapy.

trental 500 mg 2016-11-11

These observations suggest that myostatin pathway should be regarded as a potential buy trental online therapeutic target in cancer cachexia.

trental drug interactions 2015-02-16

A previous study has buy trental online shown that pentoxifylline in combination with vitamin E can reverse radiation-induced fibrosis. The aim of the present study is to investigate if the same drugs could prevent radiation-induced side-effects in women with breast cancer.

trental cost 2016-08-05

Extracted sperm from the testis have poor motility. Moreover, their motility changes during their journey through epidydimis. Meanwhile, they face high concentration of L-carnitin. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase C4 (LDH-C4) gene disorders has been shown to cause impaired sperm motility, leading to infertility in male mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate sperm motility and LDH- Depakote Good Reviews C4 enzyme activity upon L-carnitine (LC) and Pentoxifylline (PTX) administrations in mice.

trental 50 mg 2015-10-07

Alveolar macrophages from both acid-instilled and contralateral lungs, which had recovered 24 hrs after Motilium Drug acid instillation, produced significantly greater tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide. Subsequent exposure to lipopolysaccharide, as a surrogate for bacterial infection, further promoted tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide release. Alveolar macrophages from rats pretreated with pentoxifylline before acid instillation produced significantly less tumor necrosis factor-alpha and did not overproduce tumor necrosis factor-alpha when exposed to lipopolysaccharide. In contrast, pretreatment with pentoxifylline had no effect on nitric oxide production by alveolar macrophages.

trental overdose 2015-04-30

The deleterious effect of steatosis on transplanted livers is mainly related to a microcirculation impairment. We investigated the effect Imodium Generic Name of preservation duration on the recovery of isolated perfused rat steatotic livers and tested the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX), known to have a beneficial effect on hepatic microcirculation.

trental pill 2015-07-17

Twenty-four eligible patients with metastatic RCC received 10 microg/kg of GM-CSF per Zithromax Usual Dosage day, administered subcutaneously, on a 14-days-on/14-days-off schedule. Twelve patients received concurrent PTX at a dose of 400 mg administered orally 4 times per day.

trental y alcohol 2015-01-01

Both treatments were well tolerated, without serious Vermox Mebendazole Tablets adverse events; nonetheless, one subject (1.6%) in the group with pentoxifylline had severe headache, and three (4.7%) subjects in the group with captopril had intense dry cough and nasal congestion that required stopping pentoxifylline and captopril. In addition, slight headache and mild dry cough that did not require specific treatment or interruption of medication were present in two (3.2%) and five (7.8%) subjects treated with pentoxifylline and captopril. Four subjects dropped-out (one in the pentoxifylline group and three in the captopril group). Blood pressure and fasting glucose levels were similar between the two groups throughout the study. The UAE rate decreased from the first month of treatment in the subjects of both groups, a reduction that was sustained in the following months. At the end of the study, the average UAE rate in the subjects of both groups was lower than 25 microg/min.

trental 20 mg 2017-01-14

Our hypothesis is not supported by the results. PTX hastens the onset of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in equine Imdur Medication whole blood, but has no effect on the rate of collagen-induced aggregation. PTX does not affect ADP-dependent equine platelet aggregation. Given these findings, PTX may not be a reasonable therapeutic option to decrease platelet aggregation in horses.

trental renal dosing 2015-07-22

Twelve healthy volunteers were treated with 400 mg pentoxifylline at 1000 and 2200 hours in a randomized crossover design with a washout period of 1 week. Serum and saliva samples were analyzed for unchanged pentoxifylline by high-performance liquid chromatography. Saliva to serum ratios and pharmacokinetic parameters of pentoxifylline were calculated. Significant (p < 0.05) correlation between serum and salivary levels of pentoxifylline was observed for the treatments at 1000 and 2200 hours. Although the mean saliva/serum ratios of pentoxifylline in the postabsorption phase were found to be higher for the 2200-hour treatment than the 1000-hour treatment, this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Further, no significant (p > 0.05) difference was noted between the mean pharmacokinetic parameters of pentoxifylline whether computed through serum or through salivary levels for either treatment. Hence, saliva can be Trental Medication Dosage used in place of serum/plasma in pharmacokinetic and interaction studies of pentoxifylline.

trental user reviews 2016-08-11

Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace Celexa Reviews Webmd element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension. Alcoholic cirrhotics have increased risk of developing hepatomas. Liver transplantation is the ultimate therapy for severe ALD, but generally requires 6 mo of proven abstinence for eligibility. Alcoholic cirrhotics who maintain abstinence generally have a relatively favorable prognosis after liver transplantation.

trental dosage dogs 2016-01-26

The Motrin Baby Dosage effect of pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative, on collagen induction and secretion and on the production of mRNA of two fibrogenic cytokines: interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-beta(1) (IL-6 and TGF-beta(1)) in a rat hepatic stellate cell line (CFSC-2G) exposed to acetaldehyde was studied. CFSC-2G cells were treated with 175 microM acetaldehyde for 24h. The cells were then exposed to a medium containing 200 microM PTX. Collagen secretion, increased 2.6 times in acetaldehyde treated cells. Cells exposed to acetaldehyde and treated with PTX diminished collagen secretion to control values and decreased alpha(1)(I) collagen mRNA by 15%. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays of TGF-beta(1) mRNA showed no variation in different experimental conditions. However, PTX induced a decrease of 32% in IL-6 mRNA in acetaldehyde-treated cells. CFSC-2G cells treated with anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody, 15min before acetaldehyde was added, did not present an increase in alpha(1)(I) collagen mRNA. These results show that PTX inhibits the expression of alpha(1)(I) collagen via the inhibition of IL-6 in acetaldehyde treated cells. The effect herein reported on IL-6 and alpha(1)(I) collagen mRNA adds to the previously described effect of PTX, which could be useful in the fibrogenic process induced by acetaldehyde.

trental drug action 2017-12-06

Major surgical trauma induces an early hyperinflammatory response, which is characterized by (1) pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6 cytokine release and (2) neutrophil activation and microvascular adherence, as well as (3) uncontrolled polymorphonuclear (PMN) and macrophage oxidative burst. The massive and continuous IL-6 release induces an acute phase response, but, more importantly, also accounts for the up-regulation of major anti-inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandin (PG) E2, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ss. This results in surgical, trauma-induced, immunosuppression, as indicated by (1) monocyte deactivation, reflected by the lack of monocytic TNF- production upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, and (2) a shift of the Th1/Th2 ratio towards a Th2-dominated cytokine pattern. The imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and immuno-competent cells determines the phenotype of disease and should help the physician to compose the therapeutic strategy. In fact, recent clinical studies have shown that both the initial uncontrolled hyperinflammation and the continued cell-mediated immunosuppression represent primary targets to counteract post-surgery immune dysfunction. The balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory forces may be restored by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) to counteract monocyte deactivation; the anti-inflammatory PGE2 may be inhibited by indomethacin to attenuate immunosuppression; or the initial hyperinflammation may be targeted by administration of anti-inflammatory substances, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), hydoxyethyl Luvox 450 Mg starch, or pentoxifylline.

trental 800 mg 2015-08-16

Painful diabetic distal sensory neuropathy Pfizer Drug Viagra is a disabling and common complication of diabetes mellitus. There is evidence that microvascular changes resulting in ischemia to the vasa nervorum may contribute to this problem. Pentoxifylline has been shown to improve circulation through partially occluded peripheral vessels and has been postulated to be of potential benefit. Forty adult type II diabetics were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study utilizing pentoxifylline for six months. Visual analog scores, nerve conduction studies, and physical examinations were used to evaluate response to treatment. At the end of the six-month trial, there was no significant difference in the patients' pain between the pentoxifylline- and placebo-treated groups. The authors conclude that pentoxifylline is not useful in the treatment of painful distal diabetic neuropathy.

trental online buy 2015-06-29

To study the effects of pretreatment with pentoxifylline before cardiac surgery on postoperative organ function in elderly patients (>80 yrs) undergoing cardiac surgery.

trental er dosage 2017-02-27

Pentoxifylline (PTXF) is a hemorheologic agent that can attenuate microvascular alterations induced by injury, resulting in improved microcirculatory flow. Burn injury-induced immunologic suppression may be caused by alterations in microvascular flow. We studied the effects of PTXF on humoral immunity in resuscitated burn injury. Male AKR mice (n = 80) were randomized to four groups: SHAM, BURN, PTXF-BURN, and NS-BURN (saline burn). Animals were resuscitated with Ringer's lactate and morphine sulfate and put to death at days 1 and 4 after injury. PTXF-BURN animals received PTXF (50 mg/kg intraperitoneally) at the time of resuscitation. Splenic lymphocytes (1 x 10(6) cells/well) were cultured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (2.5 and 10 micrograms/ml)). LPS-stimulated in vitro class-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) production was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from splenic cell culture supernatants. Burn injury induced a reduction in immunoglobulin (Ig) M synthesis on postburn day 4. PTXF treatment was associated with an increase in IgG production, but a greater depression in IgM synthesis than burn injury alone. PTXF administration during resuscitation in burn injury does not ameliorate the burn-induced depression in IgM synthesis and results in significant potential adverse modulation of humoral immune function.

trental 250 mg 2015-01-03

The effect of pentoxifylline (PF) treatment on human sperm motility and fertilizing capacity was assessed in 43 couples undergoing IVF/ET, as well as in 84 couples treated with AIH/IUI. Sperm motility increased following PF treatment in asthenospermic samples (n = 12) from 39.2 +/- 1.5 to 45.5% +/- 2% (p = .05), in oligoasthenospermic (n = 40) from 38.1 +/- 1.6 to 43.6 +/- 1.7% (p = .001), and in total (n = 127) from 50 +/- 1 to 52.5 +/- 1% (p < .001). In addition, PF incubation of sperm samples resulted in higher sperm motility values compared to swim-up in all categories of sperm samples. Furthermore, progressive motility increased in all sperm groups following PF treatment (astheno-spermic: +16.7%; oligoasthenospermic: +14%, p < .001; oligozoospermic: +23.5%, p < .001; normozoospermic: +15.3%, p < .05; total +19.2%, p < .001). Sperm preparation with PF resulted in higher fertilization rates in all categories of sperm samples compared to swim-up (total: 46.6 vs. 29.1%, respectively; p < .05). Moreover, PF treatment of human sperm resulted in 9 viable pregnancies (IVF/ET: 5, AIH/IUI: 4) and one biochemical (IVF/ET). PF improving sperm motility and fertilizing capacity appears to be a promising motility stimulant.

trental 400 dosage 2016-03-24

American cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterized by single or multiple ulcerations. Cytokines, among other factors, have been shown to influence lesion development and tumoral necrosis factor-alpha is a major cytokine implicated in pathogenesis of ulcers.

trental 400 dose 2017-08-09

In 14 patients with stable angina pectoris we examined the effect of pentoxifyline (PTX) on oxidative metabolism of TNF-alpha-priming neutrophils. The control group consisted of 21 patients with stable angina pectoris without pentoxifylline administration. Blood samples for examination were taken from basilic vein (peripheral blood) and coronary sinus immediately before PTCA procedure. In PTX-group was found the significant decrease in spontaneous CL of TNF-alpha-priming neutrophils from coronary sinus blood (1231.0 +/- 119.4 mV x min), in comparison to the control group (1374 +/- 124.4 mV x min). In PTX-group was found the significant decrease in fMLP stimulated CL of TNF-alpha-priming neutrophils from peripheral blood (4219.0 +/- 707.2 mV x min) and coronary sinus blood (4322.0 +/- 664.4 mV x min), in comparison to the control group (5248.0 +/- 595.8 mV x min and 4973.0 +/- 536.5 mV x min; respectively). There were no differences between both groups in PMA stimulated CL of TNF-alpha-priming neutrophils.

trental buy online 2016-05-25

Based on encouraging results of a recently published study on the clinical usefulness of oral pentoxifylline (PTX) to reduce transplant-related toxicities, prophylactic pentoxifylline was administered to 31 consecutive allogeneic BMT recipients with hematological malignancies. Patients received PTX as a continuous infusion at increasing dose levels (0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 mg/kg/h) starting 1 day prior to the conditioning regimen. At all dose levels, PTX was well tolerated with no significant side-effects. When compared with a historical control group of 61 consecutively transplanted allogeneic BMT recipients, PTX patients did not appear to experience less gastrointestinal (moderate and severe mucositis: 100% vs 68%, p < 0.001), hepatic (hyperbilirubinemia > 1.5 mg/dl: 84% vs 30%, p < 0.001) or renal (creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl: 16% vs 27%, NS) toxicity or to have a lower incidence of GVHD > or = grade III (21% vs 22%, NS). Using i.v. PTX, we were unable to reproduce the reduction in morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing BMT which has been described for prophylactic oral PTX.

trental online 2015-06-28

Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative, is known to inhibit the production of the TH1 cytokines interleukin-2, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. Because these cytokines play an important role in promoting the development of cell-mediated immunity, we hypothesized that PTX would also interfere with the generation of cytotoxic effector cells in response to an immunological stimulus. In this study we used a mouse model system to investigate the effect of PTX on the induction of non-specific killer lymphocytes by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. Anti-CD3-induced T-cell proliferation, and the generation of anti-CD3-activated killer (AK) cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by PTX (25-100 micrograms/ml). The inhibitory effect of PTX could not be attributed to a defect in the recognition/adhesion phase of cytolysis because AK cells generated in the presence of PTX conjugated normally with P815 tumour target cells. However, AK cell expression of the cytoplasmic granule-associated cytolytic effector molecules granzyme B and perforin was markedly reduced when AK cells were induced in the presence of PTX. In eontrast, PTX had no effect on AK cell expression of Fas ligand, a cell-surface cytolytic effector molecule which is involved in granule-independent cytotoxicity. PTX thus has a profound inhibitory effect in vitro on the induction of granule-dependent cytolytic effector mechanisms in a mouse model system.