tofranil 25mg medication
This study considers whether the current standard toxicokinetic methods are an accurate and applicable assessment of xenobiotic exposure in an aquatic freshwater invertebrate. An in vivo exposure examined the uptake and elimination kinetics for eight pharmaceutical compounds in the amphipod crustacean, Gammarus pulex by measuring their concentrations in both biological material and in the exposure medium over a 96 h period. Selected pharmaceuticals included two anti-inflammatories (diclofenac and ibuprofen), two beta-blockers (propranolol and metoprolol), an anti-depressant (imipramine), an anti-histamine (ranitidine) and two beta-agonists (formoterol and terbutaline). Kinetic bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the selected pharmaceuticals were derived from a first-order one-compartment model using either the simultaneous or sequential modelling methods. Using the simultaneous method for parameter estimation, BCF values ranged from 12 to 212. In contrast, the sequential method for parameter estimation resulted in bioconcentration factors ranging from 19 to 4533. Observed toxicokinetic plots showed statistically significant lack-of-fits and further interrogation of the models revealed a decreasing trend in the uptake rate constant over time for ranitidine, diclofenac, imipramine, metoprolol, formoterol and terbutaline. Previous published toxicokinetic data for 14 organic micro-pollutants were also assessed and similar trends were identified to those observed in this study. The decreasing trend of the uptake rate constant over time highlights the need to interpret modelled data more comprehensively to ensure uncertainties associated with uptake and elimination parameters for determining bioconcentration factors are minimised.
In order to explore the role of catecholamine and Ca2+ in the synaptic transmission from taste cells to sensory nerve terminals, the effects of various agents added to an artificial solution perfusing the lingual artery on the frog taste nerve responses were examined. The injection of reserpine or guanetidine, which are catecholamine-depleting agents, led to a great reduction of the frog taste nerve responses. The addition of catecholamines to the perfusing solution did not practically enhance the spontaneous impulse discharges, but did recover the response to all the taste stimuli examined. Norepinephrine was most effective and is the most likely candidate for the transmitter. The enhancement of the responses by norepinephrine was suppressed by desipramine, cocaine, or imipramine, which suggests that the enhancement was brought about by incorporation of norepinephrine into taste cells. In a previous paper (Nagahama, S., Y. Kobatake, and K. Kurihara, 1982. J. Gen. Physiol. 80:785), we showed that the responses to the stimuli of one group depended on Ca2+, cGMP, and cAMP added to the perfusing solution and those to the stimuli of another group did not depend on these agents. After the injection or addition of reserpine to the lingual artery, which probably modified injection or addition of reserpine to the lingual artery, which probably modified the permeability of the artery, the responses to the stimuli of the latter group also came to exhibit dependences on these agents, which indicates that the responses to all the taste stimuli have dependences on Ca2+, cGMP, and cAMP.
tofranil reviews anxiety
After description of the conditions of innervation and function of the urethra and the urinary bladder, the various possibilities of influencing physiological and pathological functions of these organs by drugs are discussed.
tofranil and alcohol
The results of the study need replication, but suggest a potentially important role for antidepressants, particularly imipramine, in patients suffering from GAD.
tofranil with alcohol
1. In the isolated mesenteric vein of the dog, dipyridamole inhibited both the excitatory junction potential (e.j.p.) and the slow depolarization evoked by perivascular nerve stimulation, to 60-70% of control, with no change in the postjunctional membrane potential. These inhibitory actions of dipyridamole were not modified by 8-phenyltheophylline or phentolamine, suggesting that the inhibition did not involve either the actions of endogenous adenosine or the prejunctional alpha-autoregulation mechanism. 2. Dipyridamole did not produce any detectable effects on either the facilitation process of the e.j.ps or the postjunctional membrane depolarization produced by exogenously applied noradrenaline (NA). 3. Dipyridamole reduced the outflow of both the NA and the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG) evoked by perivascular nerve stimulation to below 10% of control, the effect being much greater than that of exogenously applied adenosine (to about 90% of the control). 4. Exogenously-added NA was degraded by incubation with a segment of the vein. Dipyridamole itself produced degradation of NA and accelerated the NA-induced degradation. By contrast, pyrogallol, but not pargyline or imipramine, prevented the NA-induced degradation. 5. It is suggested that dipyridamole degrades NA directly, and also indirectly through activation of catechol-O-methyl transferase, with no alteration of the activity of monoamine oxidase or of the uptake mechanisms of NA into nerve terminals.
tofranil overdose symptoms
5-HT accumulation in platelets pre-treated with reserpine, which prevents the neurotransmitter transport into the dense granules, decreased upon cellular exposure to PP2 and SU6656, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of Src-kinases. By contrast, the protein Tyr-phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate increased the 5-HT accumulation. Anti-SERT immunostaining of the platelet fractions showed a major band displaying an apparent molecular mass of 50 kappaDa, indicating that, during the analytical procedure, SERT underwent proteolysis, which was counteracted by addition of 4 M urea in the cellular disrupting medium. The Tyr-phosphorylation degree of SERT immunoprecipitated from membrane extracts decreased by platelet treatment with SU6656 or PP2, and enhanced upon pervanadate treatment. The anti-SERT immunoprecipitates displayed anti-Src immunostaining and in vitro kinase activity towards a Src-specific peptide-substrate. Platelet treatment with PP2 or SU6656 also caused a decrease in the imipramine binding to platelets. It was concluded that the Src-mediated SERT Tyr-phosphorylation regulates the 5-HT transport by affecting the neurotransmitter binding sites.
tofranil 150 mg
Fas ligand (FasL) is implicated as a mediator of luteolysis. However, a gap exists in our understanding of the Fas-mediated signaling mechanisms that are involved in either the loss of progesterone production or the structural regression of the corpus luteum. In the present study we investigated the acute and chronic effects of FasL with respect to activation of cytokine/stress-induced signaling pathways and apoptosis in bovine steroidogenic cells. More specifically, we investigated soluble FasL (sFasL)-activated production of ceramide, a second messenger of the sphingomyelin pathway, and activation of p38(MAPK), a member of the MAPK family. sFasL activated the sphingomyelin pathway, as evidenced by a 2-fold increase (P < 0.05) in the production of ceramide. Pretreatment with imipramine (50 micro M), an inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase activity, attenuated (75%; P < 0.05) sFasL-induced ceramide production, suggesting that the increase in ceramide was partially the result of acid sphingomyelinase-mediated hydrolysis of sphingomyelin. Treatment of luteal cells with sFasL or a cell-permeable ceramide analog (C8) for 24-48 h resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that sFasL had little effect on the activation of p38(MAPK) in primary bovine luteal steroidogenic cells. Furthermore, pretreatment with the p38(MAPK) inhibitor SB203580 failed (P > 0.05) to inhibit sFasL- or C8-induced death. Although sFasL did not alter basal progesterone levels detected in the culture medium, C8 caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in progesterone concentrations within the medium. Collectively, these data suggest that the role of FasL in luteolysis may be to activate the stress-induced sphingomyelin pathway that, in turn, serves as a mediator of apoptosis.
tofranil medication information
Fluoxetine, imipramine, doxepine and opipramol after liquid-liquid extraction were separated by TLC on silica gel 60 GF254 by ascending and horizontal technique using suitable mobile phases. The substances were identified by UV irradiation at 254 nm and by spraying of Amelinka's reagnet (up to the amount 0.25 microgram fluoxetine and 0.05 microgram imipramine, doxepine and opipramol).
Olfactory bulbectomy (OB), a preclinical model of depression, has most often been performed and validated in rats, but not as comprehensively in other rodent species. This study demonstrated that bulbectomy induced a hyperactive response in the open field test in three rodent species, namely the rat, mouse and hamster. OB, in all species, produced an increase in the distance travelled in the perimeter of the arena. The OB mouse was the only species to demonstrate increased distance travelled in the central part of the arena. These behavioral disturbances were attenuated in all species following chronic treatment with the antidepressant imipramine.
tofranil 300 mg
The antidepressant-induced reduction in immobility time in the forced swimming test may depend on memory impairment due to the drug's anticholinergic efficacy. Therefore, the present study evaluated learning and memory of the immobility response in rats after the pretest and test administrations of antidepressants having potent, comparatively lower, and no anticholinergic activities. Immobility was measured in the test session performed 24 h after the pretest session. Scopolamine and MK-801, which are agents that have memory impairing effects, were used as reference drugs for a better evaluation of the memory processes in the test. The pretest administrations of imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (7.5 and 15 mg/kg), trazodone (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), and moclobemide (10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective, whereas the pretest administrations of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time suggesting impaired "learning to be immobile" in the animals. The test administrations of imipramine (30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (15 mg/kg), moclobemide (10 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time, which suggested that the drugs exerted antidepressant activity or the animals did not recall that attempting to escape was futile. The test administrations of trazodone (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced no effect on immobility time. Even though the false-negative and positive responses made it somewhat difficult to interpret the findings, this study demonstrated that when given before the pretest antidepressants with or without anticholinergic activity seemed to be devoid of impairing the learning process in the test.
tofranil pm generic
Burkitt lymphoma is a rare malignancy arising from B cells. Current chemotherapeutic regimens achieve excellent overall survival rates in children, but less impressive rates in adults. There are cases with poor outcome caused by toxic effects of the therapy, tumor lysis syndrome, or metastatic spread of lymphomas to the central nervous system. Modulators of reactive oxygen species are currently discussed as potential drugs for the treatment of cancer. The NADPH oxidase 4 inhibitor imipramine-blue might satisfy the aforementioned requirements, and was studied here. We used MTT assay, crystal violet assay, and thymidine 3H-incorporation assay to analyze the effects of imipramine-blue on Burkitt lymphoma (BL2, BL2B95, BL30B95, BL41B95), neuroblastoma (KELLY, SH-SY5Y, SMS-KAN), cervix carcinoma (HeLa), breast cancer (MDA-MB231), angiosarcoma (AS-M), human embryonic kidney (HEK293WT), and nonmalignant (FLP1) cell lines. The effects of imipramine-blue on BL2B95 cells in vivo were investigated in xenografts on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We report that imipramine-blue is a potent growth inhibitor for several cancer cell lines in vitro with IC(50) values comparable to those of doxorubicin (0.16-7.7 μmol/L). Tumor size of BL2B95 cells inoculated in the CAM was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) after treatment with 10 μmol/L imipramine-blue. Lymphogenic dissemination of BL2B95 and the formation of blood and lymphatic vessels in experimental tumors were not affected. We show that imipramine-blue can be used to decrease the viability of cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Imipramine-blue reduces the size of experimental Burkitt lymphoma significantly but does not affect the dissemination of BL2B95 cells, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis.
tofranil 200 mg
Four subgroups of elders were identified who differed in rate, stability, and direction of recovery, ie, those showing (1) rapid sustained improvement, (2) delayed but sustained improvement, (3) partial or mixed response, or (4) no response. Pretreatment characteristics reliably predicted subjects' group membership. Higher levels of acute and chronic stressors, poorer social supports, younger age at first depressive episode, endogenous depression, higher current anxiety, older current age, and poorer subjective and objective (electroencephalographic) sleep predicted poorer response profiles.
tofranil 25 mg
The Clinical Global Impression (CGI) is a standard assessment tool that generally shows good sensitivity to change in psychopharmacology trials. However, systematic assessment has not been conducted to determine how rating decisions are made. In this article, we examine the relationship between syndromal symptomatology and the CGI severity and improvement ratings in a study of 116 patients who met DSM-III-R criteria for both Panic Disorder and Depression. Anticipatory anxiety and depression ratings were significantly associated with each CGI item. Frequency of panic attacks was consistently related to the clinician's rating of severity but was only sporadically related to the clinician and patient improvement ratings. These findings are fairly consistent during the course of treatment. Our empirical examination of symptom determinants of the CGI demonstrates that it appears to be used systematically, yet global ratings are not merely a composite of symptomatology. Its widespread application in clinical trials is well justified.
tofranil y alcohol
Twenty-seven patients with recurrent unipolar depression and 22 with bipolar II illness in remission for at least six months were randomly assigned on a double-blind basis to treatment regimens using lithium carbonate, imipramine hydrochloride, lithium carbonate plus imipramine, or placebo. Lithium carbonate was found to help prevent depressive relapse among patients with unipolar disease, and relapse of any type among those with bipolar II disease. No effect or interaction of imipramine was found in either group. These results add to a growing body of data that suggest the usefulness of lithium carbonate in the prophylaxis of unipolar depressive illness. The relative usefulness of lithium carbonate and imipramine requires further study.
In several areas of medicine, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has been proven to be a very useful tool for optimizing the therapeutic potential of various drugs and for minimizing the risk of adverse events. In pediatrics the value of TDM is generally accepted for drugs such as Theophylline and/or antiepileptics, but it is still strongly questioned for classes of drugs such as neuroleptic and tricyclic antidepressants. However, in the last 5 years evidence has been produced indicating that TDM may be a very useful tool in pediatric neuropsychiatry too. In fact, if on the one side therapeutic windows have been defined for major neuroleptics and tricyclic antidepressants, on the other side clear relationships between drug plasma concentrations and the incidence and severity of adverse reactions have been reported. Data derived from our own experience of 5 years of TDM in pediatric neuropsychiatry will be described together with data from the literature. It appears that at least for four major drugs, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine, Imipramine, and Chlorimipramine, drug plasma levels monitoring during chronic treatment does help in a significant manner in optimizing the treatment.
tofranil 5 mg
Bibliography in hands, the authors initialed the long term imipraminic antidepressive treatments in the french literature. Formerly, Prien explained them in English-in both cases for unipolar depressive expressions of periodic manic depressive illness-and Siegwald in French for neuroleptics by schizophrenias. The actual extension of concept of depression and drug's treatment, under medico-industrial banner, ends in a medical ethic's problem.
tofranil generic name
Our data show that stimulation of cellular lipid biosynthesis by amphiphilic psychotropic drugs is followed by a transcriptional activation of cholesterol transport and efflux pathways. Such effects may be relevant for both therapeutic effects and metabolic adverse effects of psychotropic drugs.
tofranil maximum dosage
We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register which includes trials indexed in Medline, Embase, SciSearch and PsycLit, and other reviews and meeting abstracts.
tofranil pm reviews
To address whether the downregulation of PDLIM5 protects against manic symptoms and cause susceptibility to depressive symptoms, we evaluated the effects of reduced Pdlim5 levels on acute and chronic METH-induced locomotor hyperactivity, prepulse inhibition, and forced swimming by using Pdlim5 hetero knockout (KO) mice.
Antiserum to nortriptyline was generated in male New Zealand rabbits innoculated with n-succinylnortriptyline-bovine serum albumin conjugates. The antiserum was used at a final dilution of 1:4000 and tritiated imipramine was used as the label antigen. An accurate, sensitive, and specific radioimmunoassay of depressed patients' plasma or serum nortriptyline is described. The accuracy was good with a recovery range of 90-100% with a mean of 94%. The method can be used to measure nortriptyline concentration in the range of 0.1 microgram/liter to 100 micrograms/liter without prior extraction and purification of plasma or serum. Results of this method correlate well with those obtained by high-pressure liquid chromatography (r = 0.979) and by gas-liquid chromatography (r = 0.98). The specificity of the antiserum was examined by studying the cross-reactivity of 20 different psychopharmacological compounds, including nortriptyline's metabolites.