We enrolled 232 patients from 11 March 2010 to 17 March 2011. One hundred ninety-six were included in the month 1 analyses. Of the 196 included in the month 1 analyses, 157 (80%) completed the 6-month follow-up. Median efavirenz checklist score was 6 (interquartile range (IQR): 2-15) at month 1 and 1 (IQR: 0-5) at month 6. The median change in efavirenz checklist score from month 1-6 was -4 (IQR: -11 to -1), representing an improvement. Depressive symptoms, low CD4 count and less alcohol use were associated with improvement in adverse experiences over time. Low weight was associated with increased extent of adverse experiences at month 1 and 6. There was no confounding or effect modification.
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Estimate the budgetary impact of using a set-dose combination of efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovir for the Spanish health care system's treatment of patients infected with HIV-1, while evaluating repercussions for each autonomous community in 2008.
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Aggressive biological behavior and loss of specific thyroid cell functions, such as thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, TSH receptor, Na/I symporter expression, and iodine uptake are features of anaplastic thyroid cancer. Thus, we evaluated the use of RT inhibitors as a potentially differentiating and molecular-targeted treatment of this neoplasm.
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Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome or drug-induced hypersensitivity is a potentially life-threatening drug hypersensitivity syndrome most commonly associated with anticonvulsants, allopurinol, long-acting sulfonamides, dapsone, and minocycline. In the setting of HIV infection, the antiretroviral medicines abacavir, nevirapine, and efavirenz have all shown well-documented associations with DRESS syndrome. There has only been one case (in a poster presentation) of this syndrome in a patient who was taking raltegravir.
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Participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and Zimbabwe were randomized to 3 antiretroviral treatment arms: A (lamivudine-zidovudine plus efavirenz, n = 289), B (atazanavir, emtricitabine, and didanosine-EC, n = 293), and C (emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil fumarate plus efavirenz, n = 278) as part of the ACTG PEARLS study (A5175). Standardized neurological and neuropsychological (NP) screening examinations (grooved pegboard, timed gait, semantic verbal fluency, and finger tapping) were administered every 24 weeks from February 2006 to May 2010. Associations with neurological and neuropsychological function were estimated from linear and logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations.
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Raltegravir, atazanavir, darunavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations were assessed in CEM.ss T cells washed with HBSS and oil-spun cells. Oil-spun cells had significantly higher concentrations for all drugs compared with samples washed with HBSS.
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HIV-1 genetic variability may influence antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes. The study aim was to determine the impact of polymorphisms in regions known to harbor major nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations (codons 90-108, 135-138, 179-190, 225-348) on virologic responses to first-line NNRTI-based ART.
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Based on ibrutinib pharmacokinetics and potential sensitivity towards CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a physiologically based pharmacokinetic approach was developed to mechanistically describe DDI with various CYP3A4 perpetrators in healthy men under fasting conditions. These models were verified using clinical data for ketoconazole (strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) and used to prospectively predict and confirm the inducing effect of rifampin (strong CYP3A4 inducer); DDIs with mild (fluvoxamine, azithromycin) and moderate inhibitors (diltiazem, voriconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, erythromycin), and moderate (efavirenz) and strong CYP3A4 inducers (carbamazepine), were also predicted. Ketoconazole increased ibrutinib area under the curve (AUC) by 24-fold, while rifampin decreased ibrutinib AUC by 10-fold; coadministration of ibrutinib with strong inhibitors or inducers should be avoided. The ibrutinib dose should be reduced to 140 mg (quarter of maximal prescribed dose) when coadministered with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors so that exposures remain within observed ranges at therapeutic doses. Thus, dose recommendations for CYP3A4 perpetrator use during ibrutinib treatment were developed and approved for labeling.
Serum free AR drug concentrations peaked 4 h post-injection (ritonavir 3.9 ± 3.05, lopinavir 3.4 ± 2.5 and efavirenz 1.8 ± 0.63 µg/mL) and were eliminated by 72 h. Poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) NP animals had detectable ritonavir, lopinavir and efavirenz concentrations in all tissues for 28 days. Treatment of MDMs with AR NPs resulted in sustained inhibition of HIV-1(ada) replication.
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Efavirenz (EFV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), is part of first-line therapy for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (HIV-1/AIDS). This drug shows relatively low oral absorption and bioavailability, as well as high intra- and inter-subject variability. Several studies have shown that treatment failure and adverse effects are associated with low and high EFV plasma concentrations, respectively. Some studies suggest different EFV formulations to minimize inter-patient variability and improve its solubility and dissolution; however, all of these formulations are complex, using for instance, cyclodextrins, dendrimers and polymeric nanoparticles, rendering them inviable industrially. The aim of this work was to prepare simple and low-cost suspensions of EFV for improvement of solubility and dissolution rate by using colloid mill, spray or freeze-drying, and characterization of the powders obtained. The results demonstrated an increase in the dissolution rate of EFV, using 0.2% of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and 0.2% of hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or hydroxypropylmetilcellulose (HPMC) in both freeze and spray dried powders. The pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated improved pharmacokinetic parameters for the formulation containing SLS and HPC. The powders obtained, which present enhanced dissolution properties, can be incorporated in a solid dosage form for treatment of AIDS in paediatric patients with promising results.
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Laboratory variables, ART use, and CD4 count were obtained and analyzed retrospectively.
Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy is recommended for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV with two programmatic options: lifelong therapy for all women or treatment until cessation of breastfeeding. However, the risk of HIV resistance emerging after discontinuing efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy is unclear. We review present knowledge surrounding the emergence of resistance after stopping efavirenz-based antiretroviral regimens.
HAART efficacy was evaluated in a real-life setting in Phnom Penh (Médecins Sans Frontières programme) among severely immuno-compromised patients.
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A total of 3736 sequences from individuals failing standard first-line ART (n = 1599, zidovudine/stavudine + lamivudine + neviparine/efavirenz) were analyzed and compared with sequences from reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)-naive individuals (n = 2137) from 10 West and Central African countries.
Due to ongoing neuropsychiatric adverse events in some efavirenz (EFV)-treated patients, a switch to an alternative non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor may be considered. Rilpivirine (RPV) has been coformulated as a single-tablet regimen (STR) with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF), and the components have demonstrated noninferior efficacy to EFV+FTC/TDF, good tolerability profile, and high adherence. After discontinuation, EFV has an extended inductive effect on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 that, after switching, may reduce RPV exposures and adversely impact clinical outcomes.
The medical records of HIV-infected children who had received NNRTI-based regimens for more than 6 months at the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand, were reviewed.
Apparent oral clearance (95% confidence interval) was 4 l h l(-1) (3.5, 4.5) in extensive metabolizers. In the final model, incorporating multiple covariates, statistical significance was found only for CYP2B6*6 and CYP2B6*11 on apparent oral clearance as well as ABCB1 (rs3842) on the relative bioavailability. Subjects homozygous for CYP2B6*6 (G516T, A785G) and *11 displayed 21 and 20% lower apparent oral clearance, respectively. Efavirenz relative bioavailability was 26% higher in subjects homozygous for ABCB1 (rs3842). The apparent peripheral volume of distribution was twofold higher in women compared with men.
Blood samples were obtained monthly from 33 patients receiving efavirenz in combination with other antiretroviral agents for at least 3 months. EFV plasma concentrations and potease inhibitor (PI) plasma levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). EFV plasma levels were correlated with efficacy. In patients with virologic failure genotypic resistance testing was performed.
Transport of the anti-HIV agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a prerequisite to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related encephalopathy. In the present study, we explored facilitated transport of efavirenz (EFV, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) across BBB using phenylalanine anchored solid lipid nanoparticles (PA-SLN). PA (amino acid micro-nutrient) was used as a ligand which facilitated carrier mediated transport (CMT) via l-amino acid transporter i.e. LAT1 to traverse BBB. PA was coupled to SLN via amide linkage using carbodiimide chemistry and coupling was confirmed by comparative infrared spectroscopic analysis. SLNs (SLN and PA-SLN) were nanometric in size (around 150nm) and possessed good entrapment efficiency (around 70%). In vitro drug release revealed controlled release pattern for more than 24h. In vivo studies showed 2-3-folds and 7-8-folds accumulation of PA-SLN in brain as compared to SLN and EFV, respectively. Further, transcytosis studies confirmed capability of PA-SLN to cross BBB i.e. 10-fold higher transcytosis potential as compared to EFV. Fluorescence microscopic imaging reassured enhanced brain localization of PA-SLN. Thus, PA-SLN improved the EFV bioavailability and maintained therapeutic levels in the brain for an extended period of time that can result in significant eradication of the viral load therein. Such nutrient mediated drug targeting could bring forth advances in biocompatible and biodegradable drug delivery systems.
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Of the 335 patients enrolled, 34% were black, 55% had been previously treated for HCV, and 20% had cirrhosis. Overall, 322 patients (96%) had a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy (95% confidence interval [CI], 93 to 98), including rates of 96% (95% CI, 93 to 98) in patients with HCV genotype 1a, 96% (95% CI, 89 to 99) in those with HCV genotype 1b, and 100% (95% CI, 63 to 100) in those with HCV genotype 4. Rates of sustained virologic response were similar regardless of previous treatment or the presence of cirrhosis. Of the 13 patients who did not have a sustained virologic response, 10 had a relapse after the end of treatment. No patient had confirmed HIV-1 virologic rebound. The most common adverse events were headache (25%), fatigue (21%), and diarrhea (11%). No patient discontinued treatment because of adverse events.
Data that changed the previous guidelines were reviewed by the panel (according to section). Guidelines were drafted by section writing committees and were then reviewed and edited by the entire panel. Recommendations were made by panel consensus.
In breast milk, tenofovir concentrations were very low (breast milk/maternal plasma ratio = 0.08), while lamivudine was concentrated (breast milk/plasma ratio = 3) and efavirenz levels were 80% of those found in plasma. In infants, median levels at 6 months were 24 ng/mL tenofovir, 2.5 ng/mL lamivudine and 86.4 ng/mL efavirenz. At month 12, median levels were below the limit of quantification for the three drugs. No correlation was found between drug concentrations and laboratory parameters or indices of growth. HIV-RNA >1000 copies/mL was seen at month 1 in 15% of the women and at month 12 in 8.5%. Resistance was found in half of the women with detectable viral load.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, University of New South Wales.
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We used data from a randomized trial of HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients in Mozambique to determine the incidence and predictors of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) occurring within 12 weeks of starting antiretroviral therapy, and to evaluate its association with patient outcome at 48 weeks.