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Of the 50 strains of beta-lactamase-producing Branhamella catarrhalis isolated at Saint Joseph's Hospital (Paris) that were studied, 94% produced BRO-1 type beta-lactamase and 6% produced the BRO-2 type. We examined the transfer of BRO-1 and BRO-2 genes and found that, among 7 donor strains producing BRO-1, all were able to transfer the gene for BRO-1 production by conjugation. Of the 4 donor strains producing BRO-2, 2 were able to transfer the gene for BRO-2 production by conjugation. Three BRO-1 beta-lactamase-producing transformants were obtained from total DNA extracted from 3 strains producing BRO-1. Plasmid bands were demonstrated in strains of B. catarrhalis, but no change in plasmid profiles was seen in beta-lactamase-positive recombinants, supporting previous studies that suggested the beta-lactamases are chromosomal. In vitro activity of oral beta-lactams was tested for 67 strains of B. catarrhalis (56 beta-lactamase-producing strains). Cefixime, cefpodoxime and the combination ampicillin-clavulanic acid were very active against the beta-lactamase-producing strains. BRO-1 beta-lactamase appears to affect the activity of cefaclor, cefuroxime and loracarbef. BRO-2 beta-lactamases have no effect on the activity of these cephalosporins. Cefixime and cefpodoxime seemed the least affected by beta-lactamase production.
During 2013, N. gonorrhoeae isolates from 21 participating countries were examined. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (Etest or agar dilution) was performed for cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, spectinomycin and gentamicin. Statistical analyses were performed to identify significant changes in resistance between years and to investigate associations between patients with resistant gonococcal isolates and collected epidemiological variables.
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Utilization of carrier-mediated transport systems in the gastrointestinal tract to increase the bioavailability of drugs is of great interest. In the present study, an increased supply of the driving force for peptide transporter PEPT1 by utilizing a proton-releasing polymer, Eudragit L100-55, was employed to increase the intestinal transport activity. Intestinal absorption of zwitterionic cefadroxil and dianionic cefixime was studied in rats by using in situ ileal closed loops and by in vivo oral administration of the drugs concomitantly with Eudragit L100-55. The results showed that Eudragit L100-55 decreased the pH in the intestinal loops, and increased the disappearance of both cefadroxil and cefixime from the loops. In rats, the plasma concentration after oral administration was increased significantly by coadministration of Eudragit L100-55, whereas a proton-nonreleasing analogous polymer, Eudragit RSPO, did not have any effect. Furthermore, the increased absorption of cefixime caused by Eudragit L100-55 was blocked by simultaneous administration of cefadroxil, a PEPT1 substrate/inhibitor, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that improvement of intestinal absorption of peptide-mimetics via a peptide transporter is possible by optimizing the transporter activity through coadministration of a proton-releasing polymer that supplies the driving force for the transporter.
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The voltammetric behavior of cefixime was studied using cyclic, linear sweep, differential pulse and square wave voltammetric techniques. The oxidation of cefixime was irreversible and exhibited diffusion controlled process depending on pH. The oxidation mechanism was proposed and discussed. Different parameters were tested to optimize the conditions for the determination of cefixime. The dependence of current intensities and potentials on pH, concentration, scan rate, nature of the buffer was investigated. According to the linear relationship between the peak current and the concentration, differential pulse (DPV) and square wave (SWV) voltammetric methods for cefixime assay in pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids were developed. For the determination of cefixime were proposed in acetate buffer at pH 4.5, which allows quantitation over the 6 x 10(-6)-2 x 10(-4)M range in supporting electrolyte and spiked serum sample; 8 x 10(-6)-2 x 10(-4)M range in urine sample; 6 x 10(-6)-1 x 10(-4)M range in breast milk samples for both techniques. The repeatability, reproducibility, precision and accuracy of the methods in all media were investigated. No electroactive interferences from the excipients and endogenous substances were found in the pharmaceutical dosage forms and in the biological samples, respectively.
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Two accurate, precise, rapid and economical methods viz. Absorption correction method and Dual wavelength method were developed for the estimation of Cefixime (CEF) and Erdosteine (ERDO) in capsule dosage form. In both the methods linearity was observed in the concentration range of 2-25 microg/ml for Cefixime and 3-37.5 microg/ml for Erdosteine. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies. The percentage assay was found to be 100.03 +/- 0.68 for Cefixime and 99.5 +/- 1.0 for Erdosteine (Mean +/- S.D) by method A and 99.54 +/- 0.84 for Cefixime and 100.54 +/- 1.3 for Erdosteine (Mean +/- S.D) by method B respectively.
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We developed a hydrochloric acid treatment for the isolation of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11, O111:H- and O157:H7 strains from a variety of samples. After exposure to an equal volume of 1/8N HCl solution for 30 sec, the fecal suspensions and enrichment cultures were spread onto cefixime-tellurite-sorbitol-MacConkey (CT-SMAC) agar. This HCl treatment increased the sensitivity for detection of STEC O26:H11, O111:H- and O157:H7 strains and decreased the growth of other microorganisms, from faecal samples and enrichment cultures of a variety of samples. This approach is an important economical and time-saving method to simplify and speed up isolation of STEC O26:H11, O111:H- and O157:H7 from a variety of samples.
We investigated the prevalence of antibiotic susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae in specimens collected between 1990 and 2012 at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and penicillin were determined by Etests. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints were used to define reduced susceptibility.
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Ceftriaxone, cefixime, and azithromycin MICs were higher among MSM than among MSW, but were similar among women and MSW. These findings suggest that gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance based on urethral isolates from MSW may adequately represent susceptibility of urogenital N. gonorrhoeae in women.
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In this cross sectional study, 100 urine specimens which were positive for E. coli had been investigated for antibiotics susceptibility pattern. The susceptibility to Co-trimoxazol (25μg), Amikacin (30μg), Ceftriaxone (30μg), Nalidixic Acid (30μg), Cefixime (5μg), and Nitrofurantoin (300μg) tested with Disk diffusion agar and MIC determined with the E-test.
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The analysis of the culture showed that 41% were cultured positive with gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus 52.5% and Staphylococcus epidermidis 30.1% and Micrococci 8.3%. However, 9.1% were gram negatives with Klebsiella pneumoniae 5.14% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2.6% and 1.36% were others (Acinetobacter, Haemophilus , E.coli and Moraxella) keeping in view the increasing use of contact lens and unclean fingers. The overall antibiograms of bacterial isolates indicate aminoglycosides (gentamicin, tobramicin) and the newer quinolones as apparent drug of choice for empirical therapy, followed by chloramphenicol, since drug fussy gram-negatives such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and E.coli were among the conjunctival isolates. Resistance profile of gram positive isolates shows cefixime 91.4%, doxycycline 57.9%, cotrimoxazole 29.3%, ampicillin 22.9%, ciprofloxacin 13.4%, cephradine 8.3%, cefuroxime 7.1%, fosfomycin 4.7%, ceftriaxone 3.6%, co-amoxiclav 3.6%, cefotaxime 3.5%, vancomycin 2.6%.
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As a consequence of their successful use in prophylaxis and therapy, bacterial resistance mediated by beta-lactamases is now widely diffused among beta-lactam antibiotics. Several effective strategies have been suggested in order to overcome this problem. One interesting option is offered by the development of a series of new beta-lactam compounds that possess a very high intrinsic stability to the hydrolytic action of the most common beta-lactamases. Among these molecules the oral third generation cephalosporins represent a significant breakthrough. Cefetamet pivoxil, because of its broad coverage of most gram-negative and gram-positive community acquired pathogens, rightly belongs to these new agents. The activity of cefetamet has been confirmed in a survey in Italy involving 4191 isolates. on this collection of strains cefetamet emerged as the most active in vitro compound, followed by cefixime, with all other comparative agents (cefuroxime, cefaclor, cephalexin, cefradoxil, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ampicillin-sulbactam, doxycycline, erythromycin and clindamycin) displaying lower eradication rates. According to the data gathered in the Italian survey, cefetamet can be considered the only compound, among those taken into consideration, that might be selected as the drug of choice in the empiric therapy of respiratory and urinary community-acquired infections. In fact, the prevalence of resistance to cefetamet in the most prevalent pathogens occurring in this setting is, at present, sufficiently low to render therapeutic failures, based on this parameter, highly improbable.
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The median age of patients was 26 years, and 74.1% of patients were African American. The proportion of men treated with penicillins for gonorrhea declined from 39.5% in 1988 to 0% in 1994, while the proportion of those receiving fluoroquinolone treatment increased from 0% in 1988 to 42.0% in 2003. Penicillin resistance peaked at 19.6% in 1991, then declined to 6.5% in 2003. Tetracycline resistance peaked at 25.8% in 1997 and declined to 14.4% in 2003. The first fluoroquinolone-resistant isolate was found in 1991. Nationally, 0.4% of isolates were fluoroquinolone-resistant in 1999 and were identified in 39% of GISP cities. By 2003, 4.1% of isolates were fluoroquinolone-resistant and were identified in 70% of GISP cities. Isolates with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone, cefixime, azithromycin, and spectinomycin remained rare. In 2001, 3 multidrug-resistant isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime were identified.
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Sore throat is a common symptom presented to general practitioners (GPs), and there remains controversy about the appropriate use of antibiotics.
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We collected 1090 gonococcal isolates from Taipei City Hospital, Taiwan from April 2006 to August 2013. We used a disk diffusion assay to determine the susceptibility to five antibiotics and an E-test to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations for cefixime and ceftriaxone in isolates with resistance. Neisseria gonorrhoeae-multi Antigen Sequence Typing and DNA sequencing of the por and tbpB genes were used to identify sequence types.
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The maximum response was achieved under optimum conditions of [Tris buffer]= 0.008 mol/l (pH 6.5), [Tb(3+)]=1×10(-4) mol/l and [Dano]=1×10(-4) mol/l. The developed method was evaluated in terms of accuracy, precision and limit of detection. The linear concentration ranges for quantification of Cfx were 8.8×10(-8)-8.8×10(-7) mol/l and 1.1×10(-7)-8.8×10(-7) mol/l in standard and human serum samples with the detection limits (S/N=3) of 2.8×10(-8) mol/l and 3.9×10(-8) mol/l, respectively. The Cfx was determined in pharmaceutical tablets and spiked serum samples and the results were satisfactory.
The aim of this study was to characterize the first two extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates collected from two sexually related patients (men who have sex with men) in Spain.
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The aim of this report was to describe the occurrence of a bacterial brain abscess in a healthy individual, without any predisposing condition.
Some cases of dystonia have been published with other β-lactams antibiotics and with cefixime but they concerned children. Different mechanisms are proposed to explain the occurrence of dystonia during a treatment with cefixime. They involved certain neurotransmitters like dopamine, acetylcholine or GABA.
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Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination.
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3-Alkylthio-7 beta-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(O-substituted oxyimino)acetamido]cephalosporins (6 and 7) and the 3-methoxy analogues (10) were prepared by coupling diphenylmethyl 7-amino-3-alkylthio-3-cephem-4-carboxylate (1 and 2) or diphenylmethyl 7-amino-3-methoxy-3-cephem-4-carboxylate with (Z)-2-(2-tritylaminothiazol-4-yl)-2-(O-substituted oxyimino)acetic acid (4), followed by deprotection and subjected to examination of antibacterial activities. The pivaloyloxymethyl esters (8 and 9) of the compounds (6 and 7) were also prepared and oral activities of these esters were compared with those of the parent compounds (6 and 7). The cephalosporins (6a-j and 7a-c) had potent and wide antibacterial spectra against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which were comparable to those of cefixime or cefteram. Among them, the cephalosporins (6f and 7c) and the pivaloyloxymethyl esters (8b and 9b) had good in vivo efficacy in mice against infections of Escherichia coli No. 29 and especially 8b showed high urinary recovery in mice.
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The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to rise in Canada; however, antimicrobial resistance data are lacking for approximately 70% of gonorrhea infections that are diagnosed directly from clinical specimens by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). We developed a molecular assay for surveillance use to detect mutations in genes associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins that can be applied to both culture isolates and clinical samples. Real-time PCR assays were developed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ponA, mtrR, penA, porB, and one N. gonorrhoeae-specific marker (porA). We tested the real-time PCR assay with 252 gonococcal isolates, 50 nongonococcal isolates, 24 N. gonorrhoeae-negative NAAT specimens, and 34 N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens. Twenty-four of the N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens had matched culture isolates. Assay results were confirmed by comparison with whole-genome sequencing data. For 252 N. gonorrhoeae strains, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porA, ponA, and penA, 99.6% for mtrR, and 95.2% for porB. The presence of ≥2 SNPs correlated with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (sensitivities of >98%) and cefixime (sensitivities of >96%). Of 24 NAAT specimens with matched cultures, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porB, 95.8% for ponA and mtrR, and 91.7% for penA. We demonstrated the utility of a real-time PCR assay for sensitive detection of known markers for the decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae. Preliminary results with clinical NAAT specimens were also promising, as they correlated well with bacterial culture results.