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Starlix (Nateglinide)
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Starlix

Starlix is used for lowering blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

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Actulin, Glucophage, Gluconorm, Hipover, NovoNorm, Regan, Repaglinide, Rapilin, Prandin, Sestrine, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glycomet, Micronase

 

Also known as:  Nateglinide.

Description

Starlix is used for lowering blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may also be used for other conditions.

Starlix is an antidiabetic agent. It works by lowering blood glucose levels, causing insulin to be released from beta cells of the pancreas.

Starlix is also known as Nateglinide, Fastic, Glinate, Glunat, Starsis, Trazec.

Dosage

Take Starlix by mouth 1 to 30 minutes before meals. If you skip a meal, you must also skip your scheduled dose to avoid the risk of low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Starlix suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Starlix and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Starlix are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Starlix if you are allergic to its components.

Be careful with Starlix if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Starlix if you have type 1 diabetes.

Do not take Starlix if you have diabetic ketoacidosis.

Be careful with Starlix if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Starlix if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Starlix if you have adrenocortical, pituitary, liver, or kidney problems

Be careful with Starlix if you have a high fever or are malnourished.

Be careful with Starlix if you are taking beta-adrenergic blockers (eg, metoprolol), gemfibrozil, imidazoles (eg, ketoconazole), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg, phenelzine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), or salicylates (eg, aspirin) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), rifampin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), thiazides (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), or thyroid hormones (eg, levothyroxine) because they may decrease Starlix 's effectiveness

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Starlix suddenly.

starlix medication

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), encoded by SLCO1B1, is an influx transporter expressed on the sinusoidal membrane of human hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the SLCO1B1*1B haplotype affects the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of repaglinide and nateglinide.

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HbA1c was significantly reduced with nateglinide 60 mg and 120 mg plus metformin compared with metformin control (-0.36%, p = 0.003; -0.59%, p < 0.001 respectively). Greater benefits occurred if patients had elevated HbA1c at baseline (-1.38% with nateglinide 120 mg in patients with HbA1c > 9.5%). A modest fasting plasma glucose reduction was observed. Most symptoms suggestive of hypoglycaemia occurred in patients with low HbA1c levels (

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Observational analysis of data from the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) study, a double-blinded randomised clinical trial of nateglinide and valsartan, respectively.

starlix 30 mg

This study demonstrated that nateglinide selectively enhanced early insulin release and provided better mealtime glucose control with less total insulin exposure than glyburide.

starlix generic name

Diabetes mellitus is occurring in epidemic proportions in many countries. In Australia 7.4% of people over 25 years of age have diabetes (mostly type 2) and comparable or higher prevalences have been reported in the United States and a number of Asian countries. The enormous economic and social cost of this disease makes a compelling case for prevention. Epidemiological studies have shown clearly that type 2 diabetes results from an interaction between a genetic predisposition and lifestyle factors including obesity, sedentary behaviour and both calorie excess and various dietary constituents. The natural history of type 2 diabetes includes a preceding period of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)/impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which provides an opportunity for targeted intervention within large communities. Lifestyle intervention studies have consistently shown that quite modest changes can reduce the progression from IGT to diabetes by 50-60%. It may, however, not be possible to translate these successful findings to larger cohorts or maintain the lifestyle changes longer term. This has lead to consideration of pharmacotherapy. While small studies with sulphonylureas are inconclusive, benefits have been found for metformin, acarbose and troglitazone. Big intervention studies with ramipril, rosiglitazone, valsartan and nateglinide are underway. Pharmacological intervention raises a whole range of ethical, economic and practical issues not the least of which is the problem of long term therapy of the 'otherwise well'.

starlix 120 mg

One hundred and sixteen Latin American type 2 diabetic patients previously only on a diet were enrolled in this multicenter, multinational, nonrandomized, noncontrolled study. Only 109 completed the study. After 8 weeks of treatment with 120 mg of nateglinide, administered prior to each meal, the postprandial (2 h) glucose concentration decreased to 85.11 +/- 5.65 mg/dl (p < 0.0001), and HbA(1c) values decreased to 1.06 +/- 0.10% (p < 0.0001). No response differences were detected in relation to age, gender, or ethnicity, but we did encounter a better response in recently diagnosed patients (

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The combination of nateglinide and metformin is a safe and effective means of achieving glycaemic target in Chinese patients with T2DM.

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Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a greater risk of cardiovascular disease than nondiabetic individuals. These patients are often insulin resistant and have an associated clustering of risk factors that contribute to cardiovascular disease. The risk factors include dyslipidemia, hypertension, altered hemostasis, and chronic inflammation. A primary objective in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus is normalization of blood glucose levels; however, some of the oral drugs used to control blood glucose levels have significant effects on these risk factors. In this article, we review the current data involving the modification of these cardiovascular risk factors by the biguanide (metformin), the thiazolidinediones (troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone), the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (miglitol, acarbose), and the insulin secretagogs (glyburide [glibenclamide], glipizide, chlorpropamide, tolbutamide, tolazamide, glimepiride, repaglinide, and nateglinide). Generally, the thiazolidinediones improve hemostasis and endothelial function and reduce blood pressure, while having variable effects on dyslipidemia. Metformin improves dyslipidemia and altered hemostasis and decreases plasma C-reactive protein levels with little or no effect on blood pressure. Data on the effects of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and insulin secretagogs are sparse; however, these drugs appear to have little or no effect on cardiovascular risk factors.

starlix drug class

Chronic exposure of pancreatic islets to sulfonylureas (SUs) is known to impair the ability of islets to respond to subsequent acute stimulation by SUs or glucose. Nateglinide (NAT) is a novel insulinotropic agent with a primarily site of action at beta-cell K(ATP) channels, which is common to the structurally diverse drugs like repaglinide (REP) and the SUs. Earlier studies on the kinetics, glucose-dependence and sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors of the interaction between NAT and K(ATP) channels suggested a distinct signaling pathways with NAT compared to REP, glyburide (GLY) or glimepiride (GLI). To obtain further evidence for this concept, the present study compared the insulin secretion in vitro from rat islets stimulated acutely by NAT, GLY, GLI or REP at equipotent concentrations during 1-hr static incubation following overnight treatment with GLY or tolbutamide (TOL). The islets fully retained the responsiveness to NAT stimulation after prolonged pretreatment with both SUs, while their acute response to REP, GLY, and GLI was markedly attenuated, confirming the desensitization of islets. The insulinotropic efficacy of NAT in islets desensitized to SUs may result from a distinct receptor/effector mechanism, which contributes to the unique pharmacological profile of NAT.

starlix medicine

Six women and 10 men, with at least one first-degree relative with type 2 diabetes were included (Age: 48 +/- 7 years, BMI: 27.5 +/- 2.8 kg m(-2), P-triglycerides: 1.3 +/- 0.4 mmol L(-1), P-cholesterol: 5.4 +/- 0.6 mmol L(-1), B-glucose: 4.6 +/- 0.3 mmol L(-1)). They each had two 8-h meal tolerance tests with either nateglinide or placebo given 10 min prior to the meals in randomized order. Lipoprotein fractions were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. First-phase insulin secretion was assessed by an intravenous glucose tolerance test (300 mg kg(-1) body weight) and insulin sensitivity by a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp (40 mU m(-2) min(-1)).

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Development of new onset diabetes diagnosed by standard plasma glucose level in all participants and confirmed with glucose tolerance testing within 12 weeks after the increased glucose value was recorded. The relation between each treatment and new onset diabetes was evaluated using marginal structural models for causal inference, to account for time dependent confounding in treatment assignment.

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Rifampicin modestly decreased the plasma concentrations of nateglinide probably by inducing its oxidative biotransformation. In some patients, rifampicin may reduce the blood glucose-lowering effect of nateglinide.

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  In type 2 diabetic patients treated with diet and exercise, repaglinide monotherapy gives greater glycemic improvement than nateglinide monotherapy in reducing HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose values after 16 weeks. This trial was registered with JapicCTI (no. JapicCTI-080521). (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00188.x, 2011).

starlix dosing

This discussion contains excerpts from the satellite symposium, "Achieving Better Glycemic Control Through Management of Mealtime Glucose," presented at the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Tenth Annual Meeting and Clinical Congress in San Antonio, Texas, May 2, 2001.

starlix generic

The risk assessment of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is an indispensable part of drug development. We previously reported that in vitro inhibitory potencies of several inhibitors on OATP1B1 depend on the substrates when prototypical substrates, estradiol-17β-glucuronide (E₂G), estrone-3-sulfate, and sulfobromophthalein were used as test substrates. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively investigate this substrate-dependent inhibition of OATP1B1 using clinically relevant OATP1B1 inhibitors and substrate drugs. Effects of cyclosporine A (CsA), rifampin, and gemfibrozil on OATP1B1-mediated uptake of 12 substrate drugs were examined in OATP1B1-expressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The Ki values (μM) for CsA varied from 0.0771 to 0.486 (6.3-fold), for rifampin from 0.358 to 1.23 (3.4-fold), and for gemfibrozil from 9.65 to 252 (26-fold). Except for the inhibition of torasemide uptake by CsA and that of nateglinide uptake by gemfibrozil, the Ki values were within 2.8-fold of those obtained using E₂G as a substrate. Preincubation potentiated the inhibitory effect of CsA on OATP1B1 with similar magnitude regardless of the substrates. R values calculated based on a static model showed some variation depending on the Ki values determined with various substrates, and such variability could have an impact on the DDI predictions particularly for a weak-to-moderate inhibitor (gemfibrozil). OATP1B1 substrate drugs except for torasemide and nateglinide, or E₂G as a surrogate, is recommended as an in vitro probe in the inhibition experiments, which will help mitigate the risk of false-negative DDI predictions potentially caused by substrate-dependent Ki variation.

starlix diabetes medication

The title compound, bis[(-)-N-(trans-4-isopropylcyclohexanecarbonyl)-D-phenylalanine] hydronium chloride, 2C19H27NO3.H3O+.Cl-, at 110 K contains four conformationally dissimilar moieties in the asymmetric unit, which are seemingly necessary in order to optimize the supramolecular association. The organic molecule forms O-H...O hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acid dimers, which are paired into six-component clusters via N-H...Cl hydrogen bonds through the two bridging chloride anions. These combined hexameric aggregates are further interlinked into extended two-dimensional network arrays via the hydronium ions by O-H...O and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds. This study represents the first crystallographic report of nateglinide.

starlix and alcohol

Nateglinide and glibenclamide significantly augmented the maximal response in serum insulin at 60 min postprandially compared with the response without the drug [additional increase 25.0 mU/l (95% CI 11.2-38.8) p = 0.001 and 12.5 mU/l (95% CI 4.6-20.3) p = 0.003, respectively] and reduced hyperglycemia. Neither drug affected fasting or postprandial lipid or lipoprotein levels. LDL size did not significantly change in the 8-h postprandial period.

starlix drug information

The aim of this study was to quantify the incidence of hypoglycaemic events and to describe the pattern of these incident events during the first 9 months of treatment with four oral antidiabetic drugs, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, nateglinide and repaglinide, prescribed in general practice in England.

starlix drug classification

Seventeen compounds had different hypoglycemic activity in mice, among them, 9 compounds had higher hypoglycemic activity and 6 compounds had character of prandial glucose regulator.

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Type 2 diabetes is associated with substantially increased cardiovascular mortality. The need to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis alongside lowering blood glucose levels is now well established. Ideally, pharmaceutical treatment should address both of these needs. This review summarises current evidence of the anti-atherosclerotic effects exerted by oral antidiabetic agents. Metformin has so far consistently succeeded in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and exerting beneficial effects on lipids. Of the new agents, thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) have been most widely studied. They have a favourable effect on fat distribution and improve lipid profile, fibrinolysis and endothelial function. Moreover, they reduce blood pressure and inflammatory markers, attenuate the progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and may reduce the rates of coronary restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. Glinides (repaglinide and nateglinide) have also been documented to improve endothelial function and lipid profile, to reduce oxidative stress, platelet activity and inflammatory markers, and to diminish the progression of CIMT. Finally, acarbose may significantly reduce new cases of hypertension and cardiovascular events, as well as diminishing the progression of CIMT in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Interestingly, some of these beneficial effects appear to be independent of the antidiabetic action. Thus, oral antidiabetic agents are now emerging as useful tools for the attenuation of the atherosclerotic activity and for the protection of the vasculature in patients with type 2 diabetes.

starlix cost

In the present study, selection of superdisintegrants among sodium starch glycolate, cross povidone, Starch-1500 and cross carmellose sodium (CCS) was carried out for development of immediate release nateglinide tablets (NTG). A 3(2) full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of two independent variables, i.e., amount of selected superdisintegrants and hardness of the tablets, on two dependent variables, i.e., disintegration time and percentage of drug release at 30 min (DR(0.5h)). The results revealed that CCS was the best superdisintegrant for the development of immediate release tablets of NTG. The sign of the coefficient of the polynomial equation signified that the disintegration time was decreased and DR(0.5h) was increased by decreasing the hardness of the tablets as well as by increasing the concentration of CCS in the tablets. A checkpoint batch of the tablets was prepared by changing the value of independent variables within the range used in the preparation of factorial batches of tablets to check the validity of the evolved optimized mathematical model. Stability studies of optimized formulations indicated that there was no significant change in the physical parameters, disintegration time, and percentage of drug release of tablets. The systematic formulation approach helped to understand the effect of formulation processing variables.

starlix pill images

Patients with type 2 diabetes often have dyslipidaemia, putting them at risk of cardiovascular disease, and are frequently treated with oral anti-hyperglycaemic medications (OAMs). This review compares the effects of OAMs on serum lipids [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs)] in patients with type 2 diabetes.

starlix reviews

The study participants were 19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which was inadequately controlled by diet and exercise. An open-label, prospective, cross-over trial was carried out to compare the effects of single-dose sitagliptin and nateglinide on the postprandial glucose level and its related hormones during meal tests.

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Nateglinide is a quick acting anti-diabetic medication whose potent activity lasts for a short duration. One of the dangerous side effects of nateglinide administration is rapid hypoglycemia, a condition that needs to be monitored carefully to prevent unnecessary fatalities. The aim of the study was to develop a longer lasting and slower releasing formulation of nateglinide that could be administered just once daily.

starlix nateglinide generic

Predicting incident diabetes could inform treatment strategies for diabetes prevention, but the incremental benefit of recalculating risk using updated risk factors is unknown. We used baseline and 1-year data from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) Trial to compare diabetes risk prediction using historical or updated clinical information.

starlix medication

Several combination therapies have been tried for treating of type 2 diabetes to control more effectively fasting hyperglycemia and postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we have examined the effects of combining a novel, selective, and competitive dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor, 3-but-2-ynyl-5-methyl-2-piperazin-1-yl-3,5-dihydro-4H-imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazin-4-one tosylate (E3024), with a representative of one of two types of insulin secretagogues, i.e., either glybenclamide (a sulfonylurea) or nateglinide (a rapid-onset/short-duration insulin secretagogue), on glucose and insulin levels in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) using mice fed a high-fat diet. In addition, we have investigated the effects of these combinations on blood glucose levels in fasting rats. Two-way analysis of variance showed that the combination of E3024 and glybenclamide improved glucose tolerance additively and also caused a synergistic increase in insulin levels in the OGTT in mice fed a high-fat diet. In a similar way, the combination of E3024 and nateglinide ameliorated glucose tolerance additively and raised insulin levels additively. In fasting rats, coadministration of E3024 with glybenclamide or nateglinide treatment did not affect the glucose-lowering effects of the insulin secretagogues. Therefore, a DPP-IV inhibitor in combination with glybenclamide or nateglinide may be a promising option for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and particularly, for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in the clinic.

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The C(max) and AUC(0,infinity) of nateglinide were 83% (P = 0.002) and 82% (P = 0.001) higher in the SLCO1B1521TC subjects (n = 4), and 76% (P = 0.016) and 108% (P = 0.001) higher in the SLCO1B1521CC subjects (n = 2) than in the SLCO1B1521TT subjects (n = 11), respectively. The t(1/2) of nateglinide in SLCO1B1521CC subjects was 78% longer than that in 521TT subjects (P = 0.036). The difference in t(max) values among the three genotypic groups was not statistically significant.

starlix maximum dose

KATP channels containing the K23/A1369 risk haplotype were significantly less sensitive to inhibition by tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, and glimepiride (IC50 values for K23/A1369 vs. E23/S1369=1.15 vs. 0.71 μmol/l; 4.19 vs. 3.04 μmol/l; 4.38 vs. 2.41 nmol/l, respectively). In contrast, KATP channels containing the K23/A1369 haplotype were significantly more sensitive to inhibition by mitiglinide (IC50=9.73 vs. 28.19 nmol/l for K23/A1369 vs. E23/S1369) and gliclazide. Nateglinide, glipizide, and glibenclamide showed similar inhibitory profiles in KATP channels containing either haplotype.

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We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the reference lists of systematic reviews, articles and health technology assessment reports. We asked investigators of the included trials for information about additional trials. The date of the last search of all databases was April 2016.

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starlix tablet 2015-12-14

The combination therapy of vildagliptin and nateglinide is effective and safe in Japanese type 2 diabetes, and the improved glycemic control is as a result of augmentation of nateglinide-induced early phase insulin secretion. This buy starlix online trial was registered with UMIN (no. ID000004010).

starlix maximum dose 2015-01-09

In type 2 diabetic patients mealtime glucose fluctuations are important determinants of overall glucose control and overall risk of diabetes cardiovascular complications. In fact, acute elevation of plasma glucose concentrations trigger an array of tissue response that may contribute to development of such vascular complications since it may result in a thrombophilic condition, causes endothelial dysfunction (possibly through a reduction of nitric oxide availability) and is responsible for non-enzymatic glycation and production of free- radicals with ensuing oxidative stress. To keep post-prandial glucose with narrow range, metiglinide analogues drugs have been developed. In particular, repaglinide and nateglinide seem the most useful ones. In fact, both drugs buy starlix online improve 1(st) phase insulin release but they do not affect the total daily amount of insulin released by the pancreas. Due to the mechanism of action and to pharmacokinetic properties, repaglinide and nateglinide allow diabetic patients to get a more tight metabolic glucose control with a contemporary reduction in the cases of severe hypoglycaemia. In conclusions, repaglinide and nateglinide are new and powerful pharmacological tools not only for achieving a better metabolic glucose control but also for preventing the development of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications.

starlix 60 mg 2015-05-01

The metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with insulin resistance and has been recognized as a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance and/or impaired early-phase insulin secretion are major determinants of postprandial hyperglycemia. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of combination therapy with telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker and nateglinide, a rapid-onset/short-duration insulinotropic agent, for the treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia and metabolic derangements in Zucker Fatty (ZF) rats. ZF rats fed twice daily were given vehicle, 50 mg/kg of nateglinide, 5 mg/kg of telmisartan, or both for 6 weeks. Combination therapy with nateglinide and telmisartan for 2 weeks ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia in ZF rats fed twice daily. Furthermore, 6-week treatment with nateglinide and telmisartan not only decreased fasting plasma insulin, triglycerides, and free fatty acid levels, but also improved the responses of blood glucose to insulin and subsequently reduced the decremental glucose areas under the curve in the buy starlix online ZF rats. Combination therapy also restored the decrease of plasma adiponectin levels in the ZF rats. Monotherapy with nateglinide or telmisartan alone didnot significantly improve these metabolic parameters. These observations demonstrate that combination therapy with nateglinide and telmisartan may improve the metabolic derangements by ameliorating early phase of insulin secretion as well as insulin resistance in ZF rats fed twice daily. Our present findings suggest that the combination therapy with nateglinide and telmisartan could be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

starlix generic cost 2016-03-27

TLFA demonstrated stable and long-lasting hypoglycemic activity buy starlix online in GK rats and showed significant improvement in glucose tolerance in glucose fed hyperglycemic GK rats. Both TLFA and nateglinide controlled the glycosylated hemoglobin levels of the experimental animals very well. Stimulation of insulin secretion was proved to be one of the hypoglycemic mechanism of TLFA, promoting the release of GLP-1 should be another one, and ɑ-glucosidase inhibitory activity of TLFA also contributes to its hypoglycemic activity. In this study, we didn't found that TLFA could effect the body weight of GK rats, which was also verified by the changes of biochemical parameters of blood in experimental rats.

starlix pill images 2016-11-29

The detection of diabetic metabolism disorders raises problems in forensic practice and sudden death with a subsequent negative autopsy finding is a common problem. In the case of an unclear hypoglycaemia, the detection of oral antidiabetics allows the differentiation of hypoglycaemia due to oral antidiabetics from that due to other reasons (insulin-induced, insulinoma). The development of an electrospray ionisation (ESI) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) procedure for the simultaneous identification and quantification of oral antidiabetics of the sulfonylurea, the glinide, the thiazolidinedione and the gliptin types in human plasma is desired. The following analytes were included: glimepiride, glibenclamide, gliquidone, glibornuride, glisoxepide, glipizide and gliclazide (sulfonylurea type), nateglinide and repaglinide (glinide type), rosiglitazone and pioglitazone (thiazolidinedione type) and the dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors vildagliptin, sitagliptin and saxagliptin. After a liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether at two pHs, the oral antidiabetics were separated with fast buy starlix online gradient elution over a C(8) column. Identification of the oral antidiabetics was achieved by two specific ion transitions of each analyte in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Quantification was performed by referring the most intense ion transition peak areas to peak areas of the ion transitions of deuterated oral antidiabetics (hydroxytolbutamide-d(9) for the sulfonylureas, repaglinide-ethyl-d(5) for the glinides, pioglitazone-d(4) for the thiazolidinediones and vildagliptin-d(3) for the gliptins). The assay was validated according to international guidelines. The LC-MS/MS assay allows the simultaneous identification of 14 oral antidiabetics and quantification of 11 oral antidiabetics in plasma in the ESI mode in a single run. Linearity is shown up to overdose concentrations. The limits of detection with a signal-noise-ratio greater than 3 were below 1 ng/ml for all analytes. Recoveries ranged from 78 to 105%; for vildagliptin and saxagliptin recoveries were worse (45%) owing to their hydrophilic character. Intraday and interday precision and accuracy were below 20% for 11 drugs at three concentrations. For the gliptins, several validation parameters were out of range and, therefore, quantitatively this method is inappropriate.

starlix drug classification 2015-04-22

There is a rising worldwide prevalence of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is one of the most challenging health problems in the 21st century. The associated complications of diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, diabetic neuropathy, amputations, renal failure, and blindness result in increasing disability, reduced life expectancy, and enormous health costs. T2DM is a polygenic disease characterized by multiple defects in insulin action in tissues and defects in pancreatic insulin secretion, which eventually leads to loss of pancreatic insulin-secreting cells. The treatment goals for T2DM patients are effective control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipids (if elevated) and, ultimately, to avert the serious complications associated with sustained tissue exposure to excessively high glucose concentrations. Prevention and control of diabetes with diet, weight control, and physical activity has been difficult. Treatment of T2DM has centered on increasing insulin levels, either by direct insulin administration or oral agents that promote insulin secretion, improving sensitivity to insulin in tissues, or reducing the rate of carbohydrate absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. This review presents comprehensive and up-to-date information on the mechanism(s) of action, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, pleiotropic effects, drug interactions, and adverse effects of the newer antidiabetic drugs, including (1) peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor-γ agonists (thiazolidinediones, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone); (2) the incretin, glucagon-like peptide-) receptor agonists (incretin-mimetics, exenatide. and liraglutide), (3) inhibitors of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (incretin enhancers, sitagliptin, and vildagliptin), (4) short-acting, nonsulfonylurea secretagogue, meglitinides (repaglinide and nateglinide), (5) amylin anlog-pramlintide, (6) α-glucosidase inhibitors (miglitol and voglibose), and (7) colesevelam (a bile acid sequestrant). In addition, information is presented on drug candidates in clinical trials, experimental compounds, and some plants used in the traditional treatment of diabetes based on experimental evidence. In the opinion of this reviewer, therapy based buy starlix online on orally active incretins and incretin mimetics with long duration of action that will be efficacious, preserve the β-cell number/function, and block the progression of diabetes will be highly desirable. However, major changes in lifestyle factors such as diet and, especially, exercise will also be needed if the growing burden of diabetes is to be contained.

starlix 30 mg 2015-06-03

To investigate the efficacy and safety of vildagliptin, a potent dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, as add- buy starlix online on to nateglinide, compared with switching to vildagliptin in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients poorly controlled with nateglinide.

starlix medication 2017-10-18

Piperine (CAS no: 94-62-2), an alkaloid obtained from Piper nigrum and P. longum is a known inhibitor of various enzymes (CYP isozymes) responsible for biotransformation buy starlix online of drugs. By inhibiting the metabolism of drugs, piperine improves the bioavailability of drugs. In the present study piperine (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the dose-dependent anti-hyperglycemic activity of nateglinide (CAS no: 105816-04-4) as evaluated by glucose challenged and alloxan-induced diabetic models, when it was administered with nateglinide. Nateglinide plasma concentrations were also increased, when administered with piperine. The synergistic anti-hyperglycemic activity of nateglinide when administered with piperine can be attributed to increased plasma concentration of nateglinide. The results of this study demonstrate that piperine could be used as a potential bioenhancer along with nateglinide.

starlix drug information 2015-11-21

A new group of hybrid nitric oxide-releasing type II antidiabetic drugs possessing a 1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (13 and 18), 1-(N,N-diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (14 and 19), or nitrooxyethyl (15 and 20) moiety attached to the carboxylic acid group of the type II antidiabetic drugs nateglinide and meglitinide were synthesized. These prodrugs, based on the beneficial buy starlix online properties of nitric oxide (NO), were designed to reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. Ester prodrugs (13-15 and 18-20) exhibited appreciable oral antihyperglycemic activity comparable to the parent drugs in nonfasted diabetic rats. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure profiles validated the beneficial hypotensive properties of these prodrugs. These prodrugs released NO (1.3-72.2% range) upon incubation with either phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 or in the presence of serum. This new type of hybrid NO donor prodrug represents an attractive approach for the rational design of type II antidiabetic drugs with a reduced risk of contraindicated cardiovascular events.

starlix medicine 2017-10-25

This analysis shows that the frequency of reported hypoglycaemia within the study cohorts was relatively low. The rates of hypoglycaemia were not equal between drug classes. Treatment with nateglinide or repaglinide was characterized by a higher incidence of hypoglycaemia at the beginning of buy starlix online treatment. Further investigation is necessary to assess whether women treated with TZDs are more prone to hypoglycaemia than men. Findings from this study should be taken into account with other clinical and pharmacoepidemiological studies.

starlix drug 2016-09-12

Studies have shown that repeated post-prandial hyperglycemia may play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis by buy starlix online suppressing endothelial function. α-Glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), which reduce post-prandial hyperglycemia without stimulating insulin secretion, significantly reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), whereas glinides, which improve post-prandial hyperglycemia through post-prandial insulin secretion, do not appear to affect CAD.

starlix generic name 2016-05-03

Study 1 was a 12-week, multicentre, randomized, double blind and buy starlix online placebo-controlled study of nateglinide monotherapy (120 mg, before meals) in 66 drug-naïve patients with T2DM aged >or=65 years. Study 2 was a 104-week, multicentre, randomized, double blind and active-controlled study of nateglinide (120 mg, before meals) or glyburide (up to 5 mg bid) in combination with metformin (up to 1000 mg bid) in 69 treatment-naïve patients with T2DM aged >or=65 years. HbA(1c), fasting and postprandial glucose levels, and safety assessments were made.

starlix dosing 2017-03-18

This study evaluated the addition of nateglinide, buy starlix online a d-phenylalanine derivative that restores early phase insulin release, to metformin in type 2 diabetes patients stabilized on high-dose metformin.

starlix dosage 2017-02-24

Twenty-six weeks of valsartan treatment increased glucose-stimulated insulin release and insulin sensitivity in normotensive subjects with IGM. These findings may partly explain the beneficial effects of valsartan in the reduced incidence of type 2 buy starlix online diabetes.

starlix reviews 2016-09-15

This study involves the design and characterization of Nateglinide (NAT) microspheres to enhance patient compliance. Ionic gelation technique was used to prepare Nateglinide Microspheres by using rate controlling polymers Carbopol-940 and Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC). Shape and surface were evaluated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Percentage Yield, Particle size analysis, Encapsulating Efficiency, Micromeritic analysis, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC) were done for characterization of Microspheres. Drug release studies were performed at Cialis 5mg Cost pH 1.2 and 7.2 using USP dissolution type-II apparatus and release rates were analyzed by the application of different pharmacokinetic models. The size of microspheres was found to be varied from 781μm to 853μm. Rheological studies proved excellent flow behavior while percentage yield was found to be varied from 72% to 79%. Absence of drug-polymers interactions was confirmed from FTIR and DSC results. The microspheres prepared with sodium alginate showed cracks while microspheres obtained from blend of Carbopol-940 plus sodium alginate were smooth and spherical. Maximum entrapment efficiency (71.4%) was achieved for Microspheres with Carbopol-940. The greater retardation in drug release was observed for microspheres containing Carbopol-940 and release pattern followed Higuchi kinetics model and negligible drug release was observed at pH 1.2.

starlix tabs 2015-07-16

Both therapy decreased Requip 25 Mg blood glucose levels under the postprandial curve but neither affected glucagon and GLP-1 levels. Nateglinide was associated with higher insulin and pro-insulin secretion, but similar pro-insulin/insulin ratio when compared with rosiglitazone. Only rosiglitazone decreased Homa β, PAI-1 activity, CRP, fibrinogen, TGFβ, FFA and triglyceride levels.

starlix generic 2015-06-08

Nateglinide is an oral antidiabetic agent that should be administered 10-30 min before the meal, but it shows low and pH-dependent solubility that may reduce its oral bioavailability. To improve nateglinide dissolution rate, the active was co-milled with three different super-disintegrants or with some hydrophilic excipients, in 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4 drug to carrier ratio (w:w). The three super-disintegrants Zocor And Alcohol were crosslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPC), sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and crosslinked carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCC). The three hydrophilic excipient were amorphous silica (AS), mannitol (M) and Poloxamer (PO). A strong enhancement of drug dissolution rate was obtained from the nateglinide:super-disintegrant co-milled systems in 1:4 ratio, which can be explained by a combination of several factors: an increase in wettability, due to the hydrophilic nature of the carriers, a possible reduction of particle size and a more intimate dispersion of the drug onto the carrier, as a result of the mechanical treatment.

starlix medication cost 2015-08-15

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common diabetic eye disease and a leading Reglan Dose cause of blindness. The role of angiopoietin-2 a tyrosine kinase receptor is well-reported in angiogenesis during the onset of the disease. The purpose of this study is to screen out more potential herbal molecules which can evidently be used as a better, natural and safe herbal drug against this disease.

starlix brand name 2017-04-23

Nateglinide is a novel rapid- and short-acting insulin secretagogue that ameliorates postprandial hyperglycemia by improving insulin secretory dynamics to a near normal level more effectively than sulfonylureas. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that postprandial hyperglycemia can result in arteriosclerosis, and that advanced arteriosclerosis is present in the initial stage of impaired glucose tolerance Cefixime 500 Mg . Since postprandial hyperglycemia could be well treated by nateglinide, we examined the background factors of type 2 diabetic patients to determine the optimal indication for nateglinide. Our results indicate that nateglinide is most effective in young and obese patients. Furthermore, fewer responders had microangiopathy or were previously on oral hypoglycemic agents or sulfonylureas compared with non-responders. Although nateglinide is generally indicated for patients with mild HbA1c level, the present findings indicate that the drug was effective in the aforementioned patients regardless of pretreatment HbA1c levels. In one obese patient, nateglinide improved late hyperinsulinemia to near normal secretory dynamics. Our findings suggest that nateglinide is a physiologically preferable and useful drug for early type 2 diabetes without microangiopathy.

starlix and alcohol 2017-04-08

Subjects for this study consisted of 10 patients with NASH. They all suffered from diabetes and they were all diagnosed with fatty liver by abdominal ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was diagnosed as the result of liver biopsy. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, the nateglinide-treated group and the non-treated control group. Each group contained five patients. The members of the nateglinide-treated group were administered nateglinide every day (270mg/day) before each meal for a period of 20 weeks. Both groups continued to receive diet and exercise therapy. Body mass index (BMI), blood chemistry, plasma glucose and HbAlc, abdominal US and CT were measured Omnicef Dosage Forms before treatment, and every four weeks thereafter. Liver biopsy was performed over again at 16 weeks af terinitiating treatment.

starlix diabetes medication 2015-02-16

The change in area under the curve (AUC) of glucose from 0 to 180 min (AUC0-180 min) during the meal test by nateglinide was similar to that by sitagliptin. As expected, the change in active glucagon like peptide-1 was significantly higher after a single-dose of sitagliptin than nateglinide. Then, insulin secretion relative to glucose elevation (ISG) (ΔISG0-180 min: ΔAUC0-180 min insulin/AUC0-180 min glucose) was significantly enhanced by nateglinide compared with sitagliptin. Conversely, glucagon level (ΔAUC0-180 min glucagon) was increased by administration of nateglinide, whereas the glucagon level was reduced by administration of sitagliptin.

starlix nateglinide generic 2015-10-11

Phase analysis was performed by X-ray powder diffraction, IR and elemental analysis and the melting point was determined by differential scan calorimetry.

starlix 120 mg 2016-10-18

Repaglinide (Prandin), NovoNorm, GlucoNorm, an oral insulin secretagogue, was the first meglitinide analogue to become available for use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The drug lowers postprandial glucose excursions by targeting early-phase insulin release, an effect thought to be important in reducing long-term cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Repaglinide provided similar overall glycaemic control to that achieved with glibenclamide (glyburide), as assessed by glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and fasting blood glucose levels, and was generally well tolerated in well designed clinical trials. Its rapid onset and relatively short duration of action allow for flexible meal schedules. Two modelled US cost-effectiveness analyses projected lifetime costs and outcomes for a hypothetical cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Both analyses projected long-term complications using data on HbA(1c) level changes from short-term clinical trials. Repaglinide plus rosiglitazone was dominant over rosiglitazone in one analysis, and repaglinide plus metformin was dominant over nateglinide plus metformin in the other. A similar Canadian analysis showed a favourable incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (

starlix drug class 2016-04-17

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of nateglinide in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and to identify a dose appropriate for use in a diabetes prevention study.

starlix cost 2016-04-06

The S-form nateglinide is a new crystal form.

starlix tablet 2015-05-31

To investigate the hormonal and cellular selectivity of the prandial glucose regulators, we have undertaken a series of experiments, in which we characterised the effects of repaglinide and nateglinide on ATP-sensitive potassium ion (KATP) channel activity, membrane potential and exocytosis in rat pancreatic alpha-cells and somatotrophs. We found a pharmacological dissociation between the actions on KATP channels and exocytosis and suggest that compounds that, unlike repaglinide, have direct stimulatory effects on exocytosis in somatotrophs and alpha- and beta-cells, such as sulphonylureas and nateglinide, may have a clinically undesirable general stimulatory effect on cells within the endocrine system.