Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ropinirole.
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication.
Generic Requip is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, muscle spasms, poor muscle control.
Requip is also known as Ropinirole, Ropidon, Adartrel, Ropark.
Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Generic Requip has some of the same effects as a chemical called dopamine, which occurs naturally in your body. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease.
Generic name of Generic Requip is Ropinirole.
Brand names of Generic Requip are Requip, Requip XL.
Take Generic Requip orally.
Take Generic Requip with or without food.
The dose and timing of Generic Requip in treating Parkinson's disease is different from the dose and timing in treating RLS.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Requip suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Requip and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Requip overdosage: nausea, vomiting, weakness, fainting, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, muscle twitching, tingly feeling, chest pain.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Requip are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Requip if you are allergic to Generic Requip components.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you have heart disease, high or low blood pressure, mental illness or compulsive behaviors, kidney or liver disease.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are taking levodopa, ciprofloxacin (Cipro), fluvoxamine (Luvox), metoclopramide (Reglan), omeprazole (Prilosec); medication used to treat nausea and vomiting or mental illness, such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), mesoridazine (Serentil), perphenazine (Trilafon), thioridazine (Mellaril), promazine (Sparine), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), thiothixene (Navane), or haloperidol (Haldol); estrogen such as Premarin, Prempro, Estratest, Ogen, Estraderm, Climara, Vivelle, estradiol and others.
Avoid getting up too fast from a sitting or lying position. Get up slowly and steady yourself to prevent a fall.
Avoid alcohol and smoking.
Avoid machine driving.
It can be dangerous to stop Generic Requip taking suddenly.
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A systematic review of the medical literature was carried out for relevant English language articles in the MEDLINE database and Cochrane Library from January 1975 to November 2008. The searches were limited to either double-blind clinical trials or randomized clinical trials that included both patients with early Parkinson's disease receiving dopamine agonist monotherapy, and patients at a later stage on combined treatment with levodopa. The Cochrane Collaboration guidelines were followed and the following data were extracted from each study: identifier (title and bibliographical reference), classification of the quality of the evidence (Jadad criteria), type and design of the study, number of patients, patient demographics (average age, sex), Parkinson's disease stage (Hoehn and Yahr Scale), treatment (monotherapy or adjuvant to levodopa), drugs used (including dosage and duration), study objective (safety or tolerability), method of evaluation of results, randomization and blinding, and description of all the adverse events in all treatment groups. A meta-analysis was performed, calculating relative risks (RRs) and confidence intervals for the 12 most relevant adverse events. On the basis of incidence and clinical importance criteria, the final selection of 12 adverse events was made by consensus between the investigators.
The efficacy and safety of ropinirole, a novel nonergot dopamine D2-like receptor agonist, was assessed as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease. In this double-blind, multicenter trial, patients were randomly allocated in a ratio of 2:1 to receive, over a 12-week period, either ropinirole or placebo. Clinical status was assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UP-DRS), Clinician's Global Evaluation (CGE), and a finger-tapping score. In all, 41 patients received ropinirole and 22 received placebo. The end-point analysis, on an intention-to-treat basis, revealed a significant difference (p = 0.018) in improvement in UP-DRS motor score from baseline between treatment groups (ropinirole, 43.4%; and placebo, 21.0%). Other parameters, including the number of responders and improvement in CGE, showed similar results. Three patients in the ropinirole group and one patient in the placebo group discontinued the study because of adverse events. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups in the overall incidence of adverse events. Although the dopaminergic side effects were reported significantly more frequently in the ropinirole group than in the placebo group (dizziness, p = 0.0326; nausea, p = 0.001; and somnolence, p = 0.005), none necessitated study withdrawal. There was no evidence of any chronic effect of the study medication on vital signs. In conclusion, ropinirole is a safe and well-tolerated drug and, as monotherapy, provided significant therapeutic benefit compared with placebo to patients in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.
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Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs accompanied by uncomfortable sensations that occur at night or at time of rest. Pharmacological therapy should be limited to patients who suffer from clinically relevant symptoms. Chronic RLS is usually treated with either a dopamine agonist (pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) or an α2δ calcium-channel ligand (gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, pregabalin). Augmentation is the main complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment, and frequently requires a reduction of current dopaminergic dose or a switch to non-dopaminergic medications. Opioids as monotherapy or add-on treatment should be considered when alternative satisfactory regimens are unavailable and the severity of symptoms warrants it. In a recent Phase III trial, oxycodone-naloxone prolonged release (PR) demonstrated a significant and sustained effect on patients with severe RLS inadequately controlled by previous treatments. The adverse-event profile was consistent with the safety profile of opioids. The most frequent adverse events were fatigue, constipation, nausea, headache, hyperhidrosis, somnolence, dry mouth, and pruritus. Adverse events were usually mild or moderate in intensity. No cases of augmentation were reported. Oxycodone-naloxone PR is approved for the second-line symptomatic treatment of adults with severe to very severe idiopathic RLS after failure of dopaminergic treatment. Further studies are needed to evaluate if oxycodone-naloxone PR is equally efficacious as a first-line treatment. Moreover, long-term comparative studies between opioids, dopaminergic drugs and α2δ ligands are needed.
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L-dopa induced dyskinesia is a complication of long-term L-dopa administration in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study uses the rodent model of dyskinesia to determine whether prior dopamine agonist treatment causes long-term changes that influence the development of L-dopa mediated behaviours. Rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions were injected with dopamine agonists (ropinirole, piribedil bromocriptine, all 1mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) daily for 21 days. Following a 1-week drug free interval L-dopa was administered for 15 days (10mg/kg with benserazide 15 mg/kg in saline s.c.). Rotational behaviour and abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) were recorded at regular intervals. All dopamine agonists induced a contralateral rotational response on day 1, which increased in response to repeated administration but did not by themselves induce overt dyskinesias. On day 1 of L-dopa administration animals pre-treated with piribedil and ropinirole produced a more severe rotational response. In the saline pre-treated group, AIMs developed with repeated L-dopa administration, which was reflected in the increased expression of PPE-B mRNA. There was a trend for the same pattern in the dopamine agonist treated groups but this was non-significant. Therefore, while locomotor sensitivity is altered by the pre-treatment with dopamine agonists, there appears to be no increased risk of developing AIMs.
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Excessive daytime sleepiness is common even in patients with PD who are independent and do not have dementia. Sudden-onset sleep without warning is infrequent. The Epworth score has adequate sensitivity for predicting prior episodes of falling asleep while driving and its specificity can be increased by use of the Inappropriate Sleep Composite Score. It is unknown if routinely performing these assessments could be more effective in predicting future risk for these rare sleep attacks. Patients should be warned not to drive if they doze in unusual circumstances.
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Although the restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder with a relatively high prevalence rate (8% in Austria) and leads to insomnia and excessive daytime tiredness, there is a paucity of sleep laboratory data concerning objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate 12 untreated RLS patients as compared with 12 normal controls and subsequently measure the acute effects of 0.5 mg ropinirole (Requip((R))) - a nonergoline dopamine agonist - as compared with placebo. In 3 nights (adaptation, placebo, ropinirole night) sleep induction, maintenance and architecture were measured objectively by polysomnography, subjective sleep and awakening quality were assessed by self-rating scales and visual-analog scales, and objective awakening quality was evaluated by a psychometric test battery. In polysomnography, RLS patients demonstrated, as compared with normal controls, a decreased total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficacy, increased wakefulness during the total sleep period and frequency of nocturnal awakenings, increased sleep stage S1, decreased S2 and increased stage shifts. Subjective sleep quality tended to decrease, and morning well-being, mood, affectivity and wakefulness were deteriorated. In the noopsyche, fine motor activity and reaction time performance were deteriorated. Ropinirole 0.5 mg induced, as compared with placebo, an increase in TST, sleep efficacy, S2 sleep and stage shifts. In the morning, somatic complaints increased slightly, while fine motor activity and reaction time performance improved. Our findings suggest a key-lock principle in the diagnosis/treatment of RLS and a dopaminergic mechanism in its pathogenesis, which is supported by the data on periodic leg movements during sleep and arousals of the subsequent paper.
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Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs) are common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), but little is known about the burden of the full range of NMSs in de novo PD patients.
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To estimate the cost-effectiveness of pramipexole versus no treatment and ropinirole in moderate to very severe idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) in the UK and Sweden.
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This study evaluated the effects of ropinirole prolonged-release (RPR) in comparison with ropinirole immediate-release (RIR) on sleep-related disorders in Parkinson disease (PD).Thirty-three PD patients (aged 62.5 [SD, 8] years; PD duration, 9 [SD, 4] years) were evaluated on a stable dose of RIR and 5 to 13 weeks after switch to the closest possible dose of RPR. The following questionnaires were administered: Epworth Sleepiness Scale, PD Sleep Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire, and PD Questionnaire 39. We further monitored the occurrence of restless legs syndrome and sleep attacks (SAs). Motor disability was evaluated by PD diary and by Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale part 3 on medication (ON) and after medication withdrawal (OFF). In 8 patients with marked subjective sleep disturbance, polysomnography, and multiple sleep latency test were performed.After switching to RPR, there was an improvement in PD Sleep Scale (94.9 [SD, 23] vs 102.2 [SD, 27]; P < 0.05 corrected), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (7.2 [SD, 3] vs 5.8 [SD, 3]; P < 0.05 corrected), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (14.1 [SD, 5] vs 12.0 [SD, 6]; P < 0.05 corrected) and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale part 3 in the ON state (20.9 [SD, 10] 10 vs 17.6 [SD, 10]; P < 0.05 corrected). Thirteen patients reported disappearance of SAs on RPR. Polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test showed no changes in a subgroup of 8 patients after the switch to RPR.Ropinirole prolonged-release compared with RIR improved subjective quality of sleep, reduced daytime sleepiness, and led to disappearance of SAs in some patients possibly due to a more stable plasma level of ropinirole.
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Episodes of uncontrollable somnolence were reported by 22% of all respondents. After controlling for age, sex, PD duration and severity, frailty, and other medication use, we found that patients receiving a dopamine agonist (pramipexole, ropinirole, or pergolide) were nearly 3-fold as likely to have episodes of sudden uncontrollable somnolence (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.2) compared with all other PD medication users. Similar risks were seen for the 3 agents, pramipexole, ropinirole, and pergolide, each compared with levodopa alone (odds ratio, 2.2, 1.8, and 2.1, respectively), with a clear dose-response relationship for each. No increase in risk was seen with any other drugs studied.
Male Long Evans rats were trained to perform the rSMT. The D2-like agonist ropinirole, or saline, was then delivered continuously for 28 days via osmotic mini-pump. The effects of ropinirole on baseline rSMT performance, as well as extinction and reinstatement sessions, were determined during this time. Brain samples from key frontostriatal regions implicated in GD and PD were then harvested immediately or after a 4-week washout period during which behaviour returned to pre-drug baseline.
A 12 week, prospective, double blind, randomised comparison involving 284 patients from 10 European countries. All participants had a score of > or =15 on the international restless legs scale (IRLS). Patients were randomised (1:1) to receive either ropinirole 0.25-4.0 mg once daily or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was mean change from baseline to week 12 in total IRLS score. Global improvements (clinical global impression (CGI) scale) and improvements in sleep, health related quality of life (QoL; using generic and disease specific measures), work, and other activities were also assessed.
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In the present study we investigated polymer-lipid microparticles loaded with ropinirole hydrochloride (RH) for nasal delivery. RH microparticles were further evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ζ-potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In vitro release studies were performed in simulated nasal electrolyte solution (SNES) pH5.5 at 35°C. Ex vivo permeation studies were conducted across sheep nasal mucosa. Cytocompatibility was tested in cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3). SEM studies revealed spheroid microparticles in the range of 2.09μm to 2.41μm. The presence of trimethylchitosan (TMC) induced a slight shift towards less negative ζ-potential values. Surface chemistry (XPS) revealed the presence of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) onto microparticles' surface, further corroborating the FT-IR and XRD findings. In vitro release studies showed that the microparticle composition can partly modulate the release of RH. Ex vivo studies demonstrated a 2.35-folded enhancement of RH permeation when RH was co-formulated with TMC of low molecular weight, compared to the control. All formulations tested were found to be non-toxic to cells. The results suggest that polymer-lipid microparticles may be a promising carrier for the nasal delivery of RH.
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of modulated current application using iontophoresis- and microneedle-mediated delivery on transdermal permeation of ropinirole hydrochloride. AdminPatch® microneedles and microchannels formed by them were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dye staining and confocal microscopy. In vitro permeation studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cells, and skin extraction was used to quantify drug in underlying skin. Effect of microneedle pore density and ions in donor formulation was studied. Active enhancement techniques, continuous iontophoresis (74.13 ± 2.20 µg/cm(2)) and microneedles (66.97 ± 10.39 µg/cm(2)), significantly increased the permeation of drug with respect to passive delivery (8.25 ± 2.41 µg/cm(2)). Modulated iontophoresis could control the amount of drug delivered at a given time point with the highest flux being 5.12 ± 1.70 µg/cm(2)/h (5-7 h) and 5.99 ± 0.81 µg/cm(2)/h (20-22 h). Combination of modulated iontophoresis and microneedles (46.50 ± 6.46 µg/cm(2)) showed significantly higher delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride compared to modulated iontophoresis alone (84.91 ± 9.21 µg/cm(2)). Modulated iontophoresis can help in maintaining precise control over ropinirole hydrochloride delivery for dose titration in Parkinson's disease therapy and deliver therapeutic amounts over a suitable patch area and time.
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This study suggests that breakthrough crises are common in moderate-to-severe RLS and have a negative effect on quality of life. More studies are needed to investigate whether breakthrough crises reflect disease progression or, at least for those patients undergoing dopaminergic treatment, whether they represent an early indication of RLS augmentation.
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A 63-year-old African-American man with a history of Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and status post-cardio-vascular accident was evaluated for symptoms of progressing stiffness and rigidity. Ropinirole was added to his current therapy for Parkinson disease, with a corresponding decrease in the dose of levodopa/carbidopa to allow levodopa sparing. On laboratory evaluation, he was noted to have an increased INR nine days after these adjustments; the INR had previously been stable. No other significant medication, social, or diet changes were noted. Warfarin was withheld for four days and restarted at approximately 75% of the previous weekly dose. The patient had no obvious signs of bleeding. Furthermore, the warfarin dose was again increased after discontinuation of ropinirole due to common gastrointestinal adverse effects.
Ropinirole is both effective and safe in the treatment of Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease.
Ropinirole produced a significantly greater response rate than bromocriptine (odds ratio 2.995, 95 % C. I. (1.157, 7.751) p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference between the groups in the proportion of patients who were 'improved' on the CGI improvement scale (91.9 % for ropinirole, 74.3 % for bromocriptine, p = 0.046). Other measures, including at least a 20 % improvement in the UPDRS motor score (70 % for ropinirole and 63.3 % for bromocriptine), and a 20 % reduction in 'off' duration (81 % for ropinirole and 52.4 % for bromocriptine) showed a trend in favour of ropinirole. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the overall incidence of adverse effects (ropinirole, 59.5 %; bromocriptine, 59 %). In each group, the most common side-effects were dizziness, dyskinesia and nausea/vomiting. No patients were withdrawn from the study because of side-effects.
DAWS is a disabling complication of DA use. Critical features of the syndrome are the strong link with impulse control disorders, possibly the independence of DA dosage and type, and the resistance to treatment, including levodopa. Further studies are required to characterise those at risk as well as to define an effective treatment.
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Current Health Canada instructions for use of the dopamine agonists (DA), pramipexole and ropinirole, state that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients should be told not to drive. The objective was to assess neurologists' actual clinical practice concerning driving advice they give to PD patients starting a DA.
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A total of 1679 patients aged 18-79 years with primary moderate-to-severe RLS who received ropinirole (835 patients) or placebo (844 patients).
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Total and grouped item PD Sleep Scale (PDSS) scores were analyzed post hoc in patients with baseline PDSS total scores ≤ 100 (troublesome nocturnal symptoms) and >100.
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