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Precose

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Other names for this medication:

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Glucophage, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glucovance, Micronase, Glycomet

 

Also known as:  Acarbose.

Description

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Generic Precose is a glucosidase inhibitor. It works by slowing down the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose; it decreases blood sugar levels following a meal.

Precose is also known as Acarbose, Glucobay, Glucor, Rebose.

Generic name of Generic Precose is Acarbose.

Brand name of Generic Precose is Precose.

Dosage

Take Generic Precose by mouth with food.

If you also take charcoal or digestive enzyme preparations, do not take them within 2 to 4 hours before after taking Generic Precose.

Temporary insulin therapy may be necessary during stressful periods (such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Precose and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Precose are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Precose if you are allergic to Generic Precose components.

Be careful with Generic Precose if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have blockage of the stomach or intestine or are at risk for these problems.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have long-term (chronic) bowel inflammation, colon ulcers, or stomach or intestine problems that interfere with digestion or nutrient absorption.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have cirrhosis of the liver or unexplained abnormal liver function tests.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have diabetic ketoacidosis (high ketone levels) or severe kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have stomach or intestinal problems, liver problems, or kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects, including bleeding, may be increased by Generic Precose; calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormone because they may increase or decrease Precose 's effectiveness; insulin or sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Precose; digoxin because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Precose.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

precose dosing

Platelet dysfunction plays a role in diabetic macrovascular complications. Several studies have assessed the effect of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) on platelet function. Data from both in vivo and in vitro studies show a favorable effect for most of the traditional glucose-lowering therapies, while evidence is limited for the newer ones. Metformin, sulfonylureas, glitazones and acarbose exert a favorable effect on platelet function. Among incretin therapies, only sitagliptin has so far been demonstrated to have a beneficial effect on platelet aggregation. More in vivo and in vitro evidence is required to increase our knowledge on any potential beneficial effects of OHAs on platelet function. Any such effect may have implications for the reduction of cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

precose drug interactions

DPP4is as a second- or third-line add-on treatment provided cardiovascular benefits and posed no increased risks for heart failure, hypoglycaemia or death.

precose 25 mg

A phytochemical study of the grains of S. bicolor, resulting in the isolation of twelve flavonoid glycosides 1-12. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR) and MS data analyses. All compounds were tested on thrombin time (TT) assay and α-glucosidase assay in order to assess their inhibitory effects on blood coagulation and α-glucosidase enzyme. At the concentration of 500 μg/mL, compounds 3, 4, 7 and 10 possessed the potential effects on blood coagulation with inhibitory percentage of 197, 152, 120 and 158 %, respectively, whereas aspirin, which used as a positive control, indicated 181 and 138 % inhibition at 500 and 375 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, compounds 3, 4, 7, 9 and 10 also displayed strong inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase enzyme, with 85.2, 55.7, 43.9, 52.7 and 65.2 % inhibition at 100 μg/mL, respectively, whereas acarbose, as a positive control, possessed only 38.7 % at the same concentration. Taken together, our data suggest that S. bicolor and its flavonoid-enrich extracts could be considered as supplemental and or functional foods having beneficial effects against blood coagulation-induced ischemia, possibly thromboembolism disease, as well as diabetes.

precose drug class

To assess the effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting blood glucose (IFBG), or both.

precose user reviews

The total inhibitory rate of maltose absorption was improved by the combination of GA (0.1g/L-1.0 g/L) and acarbose (0.1 mmol/L-2.0 mmol/L) throughout their effective duration (P <0.05, U test of Mann-Whitney), although the improvement only could be seen at a low dosage during the first hour. With the combination, inhibitory duration of acarbose on maltose absorption was prolonged to 3h and the inhibitory effect onset of GA was fastened to 15 min. GA suppressed the intestinal mobility with a good correlation (r = 0.98) to the inhibitory effect of GA on maltose absorption and the inhibitory effect of 2 mmol/L (high dose) acarbose on maltose hydrolysis was dual modulated by 1g/L GA in vivo indicating that the combined effects involved the functional alteration of intestinal barriers.

precose medication

The proband and the fetus were both GSD II affected. A combination of GAA activity analysis and mutation analysis is efficient for the prenatal diagnosis of GSD II. Mutation analysis should be a routine method in the prenatal diagnosis of GSD II in Asian population, where pseudodeficiency allele can cause low GAA activity in normal individuals which is relatively common in Asian.

precose patient review

Obesity is the most important modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and most patients with diabetes are overweight or obese. It is well known that excess bodyweight induces or aggravates insulin resistance, which is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes. Thus, bodyweight plays a central role in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Recent data suggest that lifestyle intervention in patients with impaired glucose tolerance results in an impressive reduction in the conversion to overt diabetes, which is greater than the effect of early intervention with drugs such as metformin or acarbose. The prevention of diabetes has been shown to be associated with the extent of weight loss. In patients with type 2 diabetes, weight loss by any means is followed by an improvement of metabolic control and associated risk factors. The most appropriate recommendation for obese patients with type 2 diabetes is a nutritionally balanced, moderately hypocaloric diet with a reduced intake of saturated fat and an increase in physical activity. If this standard approach is only partly successful or not at all, additional strategies such as weight-lowering drugs, very low-calorie diets for limited periods of up to 12 weeks, and, for severely obese patients, bariatric surgery should be carefully considered. A large body of data suggests that such measures can be very effective in this patient group by improving metabolic disturbances and blood pressure. However, it is extremely important for the long-term outcome that the treatment is tailored to the needs and wishes of the individual patient. There is growing agreement that due to the low success rate of conventional therapies and the overwhelming benefit from weight loss, more determined and aggressive strategies may be appropriate to achieve the central goal of weight reduction in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

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Polyphenol-rich extracts from a range of berries inhibited α-amylase in vitro, but the most effective were from raspberry and rowanberry (IC50 values of 21.0 and 4.5 μg/mL, respectively). The inhibitory components were examined by different approaches. Extracts from yellow and red raspberries were equally able to inhibit α-amylase. Because the yellow raspberry extracts effectively lacked anthocyanins, this suggested that they were not crucial for amylase inhibition. Notably, however, higher levels of other phenolic components in yellow raspberries (particularly, ellagitannins) did not increase amylase inhibition. Amylase inhibition in rowanberry was recovered in a fraction enriched in proanthocyanidins (PACs). Inhibition was ameliorated by bovine serum albumin, suggesting that PACs acted by binding to amylase. Co-incubation of rowanberry PACs with acarbose reduced the concentration of acarbose required for effective amylase inhibition. Such synergistic interactions could have implications for the current clinical use of acarbose for postprandial glycaemic control in type-2 diabetics.

precose 100 mg

The physiological functions of dietary fiber and its role in health promotion and risk reduction of some chronic diseases has been well documented. In the present investigation, the effect of three dietary fiber sources, oats (OA), barley (BA) and psyllium husk (PH) on glucose adsorption, diffusion and starch hydrolysis were studied using in vitro techniques by simulating gastrointestinal conditions and compared with the commercial dietary fiber sources wheat bran (WB), acarbose (ACB) and guar gum (GG). The glucose binding capacity of all the samples was higher than WB and ACB at 5 mM concentration. In all the samples, the diffusion of glucose was directly proportional to the time and diffusion rate was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.01) in the system containing various samples compared to control. Glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) was 100 for OA, BA and PH at 60 min, at 120 min the maximal GDRI was in PH. Whereas; WB and ACB exhibited maximal GDRI at 180 and 240 min. All of these mechanisms might create a concerted function in lowering the rate of glucose absorption and as a result, decrease the postprandial hyperglycemia.

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Mean HbA1c was reduced from 8.98+/-1.20% to 7.82+/-1.95% with pioglitazone treatment and from 9.03+/-1.32% to 8.55+/-1.96% with acarbose treatment during the 26-week study. The change from baseline to endpoint was significantly greater for pioglitazone compared with acarbose when analyzed for all patients (p < 0.001) and for those who had (p = 0.009) or had not (p < 0.001) received previous medication for diabetes mellitus. Compared with acarbose, pioglitazone produced a significantly greater decrease in fasting glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (p < 0.001 for each). Triglycerides were decreased by 71.1+/-184.1 mg/dl with pioglitazone compared with 38.1+/-171.3 mg/dl with acarbose (p = 0.001 for difference between groups). High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level was increased by 7.8+/-10.2 mg/dl with pioglitazone compared with a decrease of 0.8+/-24.1 mg/dl with acarbose (p < 0.001). While serum low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels remained unchanged with both treatment regimens, the decrease from baseline in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol was significantly greater with pioglitazone than with acarbose (p < 0.04). Pioglitazone decreased systolic blood pressure by 5.6+/-17.7mm Hg compared with a 0.4+/-18.4mm Hg increase during acarbose treatment (p < 0.001). Pioglitazone caused a significantly greater decrease compared with acarbose in serum levels of gamma-glutamyl aminotransferase (p < 0.001) and alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.004).

precose reviews

Sugar beet α-glucosidase (SBG), a member of glycoside hydrolase family 31, shows exceptional long-chain specificity, exhibiting higher kcat/Km values for longer malto-oligosaccharides. However, its amino acid sequence is similar to those of other short chain-specific α-glucosidases. To gain structural insights into the long-chain substrate recognition of SBG, a crystal structure complex with the pseudotetrasaccharide acarbose was determined at 1.7 Å resolution. The active site pocket of SBG is formed by a (β/α)8 barrel domain and a long loop (N-loop) bulging from the N-terminal domain similar to other related enzymes. Two residues (Phe-236 and Asn-237) in the N-loop are important for the long-chain specificity. Kinetic analysis of an Asn-237 mutant enzyme and a previous study of a Phe-236 mutant enzyme demonstrated that these residues create subsites +2 and +3. The structure also indicates that Phe-236 and Asn-237 guide the reducing end of long substrates to subdomain b2, which is an additional element inserted into the (β/α)8 barrel domain. Subdomain b2 of SBG includes Ser-497, which was identified as the residue at subsite +4 by site-directed mutagenesis.

precose 50 mg

We used data from Optum LifeSciences Research Database to identify patients using a brand-name version of a study drug (acarbose tablets, salmon calcitonin nasal spray, enoxaparin sodium injection, and venlafaxine extended release tablets) or a control drug. We followed patients to identify switching to generic versions and then followed those who switched to identify whether they switched back to brand-name versions. We calculated switch and switch-back rates and used Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests to compare rates between study and control drugs.

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Acarbose represents a new pharmacological approach to achieving the metabolic benefits of a slower carbohydrate absorption in diabetes, by acting as a potent, competitive inhibitor of intestinal alpha-glucosidases. Acarbose molecules attach to the carbohydrate binding sites of alpha-glucosidases, with an affinity constant that is much higher than that of the normal substrate. Because of the reversible nature of the inhibitor-enzyme interaction, the conversion of oligosaccharides to monosaccharides is only delayed rather than completely blocked. Acarbose has the structural features of a tetrasaccharide and does not cross the enterocytes after ingestion. Thus, its pharmacokinetic properties are well suited to the pharmacological action directed exclusively towards the intestinal glucosidases. The most important clinical consequence of the delayed carbohydrate digestion caused by acarbose is the attenuation of postprandial increases in blood glucose levels. Other effects have also been described: a decreased beta-pancreatic response to meals, and influences on gut hormone secretion and plasma lipid levels. Gastrointestinal discomfort is frequently reported as an adverse effect of acarbose administration, but incidence usually decreases with time. The suitability of acarbose for improving glucose homeostasis as an adjunct to dietary control or to administration of sulphonylureas or insulin has been extensively studied in patients both with type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Acarbose can be used as first-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes which is poorly controlled by diet alone. Moreover, the lack of bodyweight gain or hypoglycaemic effects reported during acarbose treatment may be advantageous for obese or elderly patients. Finally, the reduction in fluctuations of glucose levels throughout the day may help to control type 1 diabetes in patients with 'brittle diabetes'. Long term prospective studies are still needed to confirm these indications and the usefulness of acarbose in conditions other than diabetes, notably reactive hypoglycaemia and dumping syndrome.

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Dependent on the dosages used, digestion and absorption inhibitors or disaccharidase inhibitors, such as Acarbose, might cause malabsorption of nutrients, and hence, among other effects, affect caloric balances. This negative effect on caloric balance has actually been well documented in animal experimentation. However, in nondiabetic subjects with excessive degrees of obesity, no consistent weight reduction could be induced by disaccharidase inhibitors. Subsequently, Acarbose has been advocated for type 2 diabetic patients in dosages that might reduce postprandial hyperglycemia and insulinemia, whereas significant degrees of malabsorption should be excluded. At these dosages of the drug, there is no clinical perspective with regard to weight-reducing (side) effects of disaccharidase inhibitors. Whether a hypothetical diminution of serum insulin daily profiles during Acarbose treatment in obese type 2 diabetic patients might contribute to a normalization of the metabolic syndrome and to a facilitation of weight-reducing efforts remains speculative. At present, there does not seem to be much rationale in trying to exploit digestion and/or absorption inhibitors for weight-reduction therapies in obesity, unless they are used to enforce a negative caloric balance by malabsorption of nutrients.

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In this 56-week, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre comparison, patients were randomised to acarbose or placebo in a 2 : 1 ratio. An 8-week forced titration phase (from 50-300mg three times daily) was followed by a 48-week maintenance phase during which patients received the highest dose tolerated during titration. Patients were assessed at 13 visits with respect to adverse events/intercurrent illnesses, abnormal laboratory values (serum chemistry, urinalysis, complete blood and reticulocyte count, serum iron and total iron binding capacity, and serum vitamin B(6), B(12), D and folate levels), discontinuation rates, ECG findings, vital signs and evaluation of the patients' diaries with regard to gastrointestinal events. A total of 359 patients (acarbose 240, placebo 119) were valid for analysis; 21% had type 1 diabetes. Most patients received concomitant insulin or sulfonylurea treatment.

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About 33% of people diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes based on postprandial hyperglycemia have normal FPG. PPG contributes > or =70% to the total glycemic load in patients who are fairly well controlled (HbA1c <7.3%). Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between the risk of CV death and the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Increased mortality is evident at OGTT levels of approximately 90 mg/dL (5 mmol/L), which is well below current definitions of type 2 diabetes. Biphasic insulin aspart was shown to be more effective at reducing HbA1c below currently recommended levels than basal insulin glargine (66% vs 40%; P < 0.001), and it reduced endothelial dysfunction more effectively than regular insulin (P < 0.01). Repaglinide achieved regression of carotid atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness) in 52% of patients versus 18% for glyburide (P < 0.01) over 1 year, although levels of HbA1c and CV risk factors were similar for both treatment groups. Finally, acarbose reduced the relative risk of CV events by 49% over 3.3 years versus placebo in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (2.2% vs 4.7%; P = 0.03) and by 35% over > or =1 year in patients with type 2 diabetes (9.4% vs 6.1%; P = 0.006).

precose medicine

Zygophyllum album has been used as herbal medicine in Southern Tunisia to treat several diseases such as diabetes mellitus. This study is aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the antihyperglycemic potential, the anti-inflammatory and the protective hematological proprieties of this plant in diabetic rats. The inhibition of the α-amylase activity by different solvent-extract fractions of Z. album was tested in vitro. The fraction endowed with the powerful inhibitory activity against α-amylase was administered to surviving diabetic rats for 30 days. Data from in vitro indicated that each extract from the medicinal plant showed moderate inhibition of α-amylase enzyme except the ethyl acetate extract which was ineffective. The powerful inhibition was achieved by ethanol extract of Z. album (EZA) with an IC50 of 43.48 μg/ml as compared to acarbose (Acar) with an IC50 of 14.88 μg/ml. In vivo, the results showed that EZA decreased the α-amylase levels in serum, pancreas and intestine of diabetic rats by 40 %, 45 % and 46 %, respectively, associated with considerably reduction in blood glucose rate by 61 %. Moreover, the EZA helped to protect the structure and function of the β-cells. Interestingly, EZA had a potent anti-inflammatory effect which is manifested by decreases in CRP and TNF-α levels. Overall, a notable reduction in lipase activity both in serum and small intestine of treated diabetic rats resulted in the improvement of serum and liver lipids profile. Z. album showed a prominent antidiabetic effect via inhibition of carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes and ameliorated the inflammation and the disturbance of hematological biomarkers in diabetes.

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This study examines the hypoglycemic effects of GF in vitro and in vivo, and analyzes the chemical profiles of its bioactive components.

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Participants were overweight adult subjects with screen-detected type 2 diabetes. β-cell function was measured using hyperglycaemic clamps and oral glucose tolerance testing. The primary outcome was the change in β-cell function from baseline to year 1, the time point where the maximal glucose-lowering effect was seen.

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The pseudooligosaccharide acarbose is a potent inhibitor of amylases, glucosidases, and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and is clinically used for the treatment of so-called type II or insulin-independent diabetes. The compound consists of an unsaturated aminocyclitol, a deoxyhexose, and a maltose. The unsaturated aminocyclitol moiety (also called valienamine) is primarily responsible for the inhibition of glucosidases. Due to its structural similarity to maltotetraose, we have investigated whether acarbose is recognized as a substrate by the maltose/maltodextrin system of Escherichia coli. Acarbose at millimolar concentrations specifically affected the growth of E. coli K-12 on maltose as the sole source of carbon and energy. Uptake of radiolabeled maltose was competitively inhibited by acarbose, with a Ki of 1.1 microM. Maltose-grown cells transported radiolabeled acarbose, indicating that the compound is recognized as a substrate. Studying the interaction of acarbose with purified maltoporin in black lipid membranes revealed that the kinetics of acarbose binding to LamB is asymmetric. The on-rate of acarbose is approximately 30 times lower when the molecule enters the pore from the extracellular side than when it enters from the periplasmic side. Acarbose could not be utilized as a carbon source since the compound alone was not a substrate of amylomaltase (MalQ) and was only poorly attacked by maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ).

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The validity of the results of the STOP-NIDDM trial is seriously flawed. The clinical benefit of Acarbose and of the reduction of post-prandial glycaemia is unproven.

precose tablet

Heracleum dissectum Ledeb. has long been used as a wild edible vegetable by local people in China. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antidiabetic potential of aerial part of H. dissectum methanol extract (HdME) and the chemical constituents. Ten compounds including eight coumarins were isolated and four of them were found from H. dissectum for the first time. HdME potently inhibited the elevation of plasma glucose after its oral administration to glucose-loaded mice, and its petroleum ether (PE) fraction exerted the greatest inhibitory activities. Meanwhile, HdME (125 and 250mg/kg) also significantly decreased the blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic mice, but had no effect in normoglycemic mice. Additionally, HdME showed weak inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase activity and DPPH free radicals scavenging. In conclusion, HdME has antidiabetic action and PE fraction is the active part where coumarins possibly play an important role in antidiabetic activity.

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precose tablets 2017-08-08

In subjects with type 2 diabetes consuming 30-60% of energy from carbohydrate, the effect of acarbose on HbA1c and gastrointestinal symptoms was not related to carbohydrate intake. Because most people consume at least 30% of energy from carbohydrate, we conclude that no buy precose online special diet is needed for acarbose to be effective in improving blood glucose control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

precose user reviews 2015-06-20

Of the 146 patients screened, 102 patients were included in the study. Exclusions were primarily due to patients not being on acarbose for at least 3 months (n=43). The average HbA1c before and buy precose online after acarbose initiation was 9.08% (SD=1.74) and 8.43% (SD=1.74) respectively, with an average HbA1c reduction of 0.65% (n=102, p=0.0005). Forty patients (39.2%) discontinued acarbose after at least 3 months of use. Of the 73 patients not on insulin at the time of acarbose initiation, 19 (26%) were started on insulin therapy despite addition of acarbose.

precose buy 2017-05-05

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing owing to lifestyle changes leading to obesity. This syndrome is a complex association of several interrelated abnormalities that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and progression to diabetes mellitus (DM). Insulin resistance is the key factor for the clustering of risk factors characterizing the metabolic syndrome. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III defined the criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome and established the basic principles for its management. According to these guidelines, treatment involves the improvement of the underlying insulin resistance through lifestyle modification (eg, weight reduction and increased physical activity) and possibly by drugs. The coexistent risk factors (mainly dyslipidemia and hypertension) should also be addressed. Since the main goal of lipid-lowering treatment is to achieve the NCEP low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target, statins are buy precose online a good option. However, fibrates (as monotherapy or in combination with statins) are useful for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome that is commonly associated with hypertriglyceridemia and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. The blood pressure target is < 140/90 mm Hg. The effect on carbohydrate homeostasis should possibly be taken into account in selecting an antihypertensive drug. Patients with the metabolic syndrome commonly have other less well-defined metabolic abnormalities (eg, hyperuricemia and raised C-reactive protein levels) that may also be associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. It seems appropriate to manage these abnormalities. Drugs that beneficially affect carbohydrate metabolism and delay or even prevent the onset of DM (eg, thiazolidinediones or acarbose) could be useful in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, among the more speculative benefits of treatment are improved liver function in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and a reduction in the risk of acute gout.

precose medicine 2015-04-11

Results indicated that, buy precose online antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

precose 25 mg 2015-11-10

Polyphenol-rich extracts from certain berries inhibited α-glucosidase activity in vitro. The two most effective berry extracts, from black currant and rowanberry, inhibited α-glucosidase with IC(50) values respectively of 20 and 30μg GAE/ml and were as effective as the pharmaceutical inhibitor, acarbose. These berry extracts differed greatly in their polyphenol composition: black currant was dominated by anthocyanins (∼70% of total) whereas rowanberry was enriched in chlorogenic acids (65% total) and had low levels of anthocyanins. Both black currant and rowanberry extracts potentiated the inhibition caused by acarbose and could replace the inhibition lost by reducing buy precose online the acarbose dose. However, no additive effects were noted when black currant and rowanberry extracts were added in combination. The mechanisms underlying the synergy between acarbose and the berry polyphenols and the lack of synergy between the berry components are discussed. These extracts exhibited the potential to replace acarbose (or reduce the dose required) in its current clinical use in improving post-prandial glycaemic control in type 2 diabetics. As a result, these polyphenols may offer a dietary means for type 2 diabetics to exercise glycaemic control.

precose 50 mg 2017-05-25

The G-250A promoter polymorphism of the LIPC gene is associated with an increased risk of development of type 2 diabetes in high-risk subjects with IGT. Therefore, buy precose online genes regulating atherogenic dyslipidaemia are promising candidate genes for type 2 diabetes.

precose drug 2015-06-18

Appropriate insulin therapy is central to the management of all individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The potential role of adjunctive therapy in type 1 diabetes is to improve insulin action, and facilitate the ability of all individuals with type 1 diabetes to achieve and maintain 'better' metabolic control. The landmark clinical trial in type 1 diabetes is the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). The DCCT showed that there is no threshold below which a reduction in glycemia would not provide further benefit against diabetes-related microvascular complications. This study in particular provides the rationale for attempting to achieve as near normoglycemia as possible. We review the use of recognized pharmacologic agents as potential insulin adjunctives in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Adjunctive therapies can be grouped into the following categories based on their putative mechanism of action: enhancement of insulin action (e.g. the biguanides and thiazolidinediones), alteration of gastrointestinal nutrient delivery (e.g. acarbose and amylin), and other targets of action (e.g. pirenzepine and insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], which reduce growth hormone secretion, and glucagon-like peptide-1, which acts to stimulate insulin secretion). Many of these agents have been found to be effective in short-term studies with decreases in glycosylated hemoglobin of 0.5-1.0%, lowered postprandial blood glucose levels, and decreased daily insulin doses. Adverse effects such as poor gastrointestinal tolerability (metformin, acarbose) or potential acceleration of retinopathy (IGF-1) indicates the need for further studies of efficacy, safety, and patient selection before these adjunctive therapies buy precose online can be widely recommended in type 1 diabetes.

precose acarbose tablets 2016-01-06

In a biometrically planned, randomised double blind crossover study the influence of a glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, (Bay g 5421, pseudotetrasaccharide) on the blood glucose in a total of 10 dieting obese NIDDM patients was compared with placebo. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to age, height, body weight and duration of diabetes. After a 2-week preliminary period 5 patients received Bay g 5421 for 4 weeks and then placebo for a further 4 weeks. After the same preliminary period the other 5 patients buy precose online received placebo for 4 weeks and then Bay g 5421 for the second period of 4 weeks. On average, the blood glucose profiles were lower after Bay g 5421 than after placebo. This was statistically almost significant (p less than or equal to 0.09) for the area of the profiles, i.e., the average value of the 13 points of the daily profiles. The fraction of glycosylated hemoglobins (Hb A1a-c) was also lower during the period when the patients were treated with Bay g 5421 than with placebo. There was, however, no statistically significant difference. In contrast, the glucosuria-decrease during the Bay g 5421 period was significant. The serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides did not show any therapy-dependent difference. Thus it may be concluded that Bay g 5421 effectively reduces the blood glucose concentration, in particular, postprandial hyperglycemia in dieting diabetic patients type 2.

precose dose 2017-11-19

To compare the different buy precose online therapeutic principles of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and sulphonylureas as first-line treatment in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients with dietary failure.

precose drug interactions 2016-05-13

The effects of acarbose on cataract development, lens aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) activity and lenticular reduced-glutathione content in diabetic sand rats (Psammomys obesus) were determined. Diabetic sand rats (diet-induced) were fed on diets with or without acarbose (0.4 g/kg) for 39 d. Daily plasma glucose, cataract incidence, aldose reductase and glutathione content were evaluated. After 19 d on acarbose, daily plasma glucose profile was significantly reduced compared with that of sand rats not receiving acarbose. Cataract incidence was markedly lower in sand rats treated with acarbose. After 20 d, cataracts had developed in 90% of the animals fed without acarbose, whereas none was observed in sand rats fed with acarbose. After 37 d acarbose treatment the incidence of cataracts reached only 30%. Compared with untreated animals, lens aldose reductase activity was buy precose online significantly lower in sand rats fed with acarbose for 39 d (7.6 (SE 0.78) v. 3.5 (SE 0.55) mumol NADPH/mg protein per min respectively, P < 0.001). Concomitantly, significantly higher lenticular protein and reduced-glutathione contents (90 (SE 23) v. 240 (SE 23.5) micrograms/mg tissue respectively, P < 0.001 and 369 (SE 48.6) v. 645 (SE 71.1) micrograms/mg tissue respectively, P < 0.001) were found. These results suggest that decreasing hyperglycaemia, accompanied by lower aldose reductase activity obtained by acarbose, led to a significant preventive effect on cataract development in sand rats.

precose dosing 2017-03-12

Zhumeria majdae (Lamiaceae) is an endemic species growing in the South parts of Iran especially Hormozgan province. The plant is so-called Mohrekhosh locally and widely buy precose online used for medicinal purposes including stomachache and dysmenorrhea.

precose cost 2015-09-16

1. Groups of lean and obese LA/N buy precose online -cp rats were administered the intestinal glucosidase inhibitor acarbose at 150 or 300 mg/kg diet from 7 until 17 weeks of age and the effects of the drug on food intake patterns and adiposity determined. 2. Dose related effects on body weights, adiposity and feed efficiency ratio were observed (control greater than 150 mg greater than 300 mg drug/kg diet) following treatment in both phenotypes, with the greatest differences observed in the obese phenotype. 3. Acarbose at both dosages was associated with phenotype-specific alterations in food intake amount and feeding pattern, resulting in an attenuation of age-associated increases in food intake. The feed efficiency ratio decreased in both phenotypes, and approached normally fed lean controls in obese rats administered the greater dosage. 4. These results indicate that patterns of food intake and weight gain differ markedly between lean and obese rats of this strain, and acarbose brings about a dose-related attenuation of developing food intake patterns in both phenotypes and which are associated with decreases in weight gain and adiposity. Thus, this drug may have therapeutic potential as an adjunct agent in the treatment of obesity and/or other disorders of carbohydrate intolerance.

precose drugs 2015-03-20

The methanol extract of leaves of C. alata, which showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC₅₀, 63.75 ± 12.81 µg/ml), was fractionated. Active fractions were taken for further analysis by a variety of techniques including HPLC and Combiflash chromatography. The identity of the isolated compounds was established by spectroscopic analysis while their potential antidiabetic activity buy precose online was assessed by in vitro enzyme inhibition studies.

precose online 2016-02-16

Microbial conversion of unsaturated fatty acids often leads to special changes in their product structures and in biological potential. In our continuous effort to screen natural products for their antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitor activities, we found that 10-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (HOD) exhibited strong anti-alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) activity. HOD is an intermediate in the bioconversion of oleic acid to 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) by a bacterial isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PR3). Diabetes mellitus is the most serious, chronic metabolic disorder characterized by defect in insulin secretion and action, which can lead to damage blood vessels and nerves. We analyzed the inhibitory activity of HOD and the commercially available antidiabetic remedy, acarbose. We found that HOD exhibited a better inhibition (IC(50) 0.07+/-0.12) on alpha-glucosidase as compared to acarbose (IC(50) 0.42+/-0.1). HOD showed competitive inhibition against yeast alpha-glucosidase Hyzaar 25 Mg . Our study is the first report on anti-alpha-glucosidase activity of HOD and could be helpful to develop medicinal preparation or functional food for diabetes and related symptoms.

precose tabs 2016-09-07

Diabetic patients received acarbose, 150 mg/day during four weeks and this dose was increased to 300 mg/day during 3 months. Afterwards Flonase Drug Class , patients were followed for a period of 12 weeks without acarbose. Fasting and post-prandial blood glucose and glycosilated hemoglobin were measured sequentially during the study.

precose dosage 2017-07-17

Eleven Japanese patients with T2DM underwent four meal tolerance tests with single administration of acarbose, miglitol, sitagliptin, or nothing. Fasting Zofran Liquid Dosage and postprandial plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin, and des-acyl ghrelin were measured.

precose drug class 2016-12-01

The inhibilitory model of in vitro Sporanox Alcohol alpha-glucosidase was established. Active extracts of A. maculatus were isolated and identified bymultiple chromatographic methods, and their molecular structures were identifiied by spectral techniques.

precose reviews 2016-07-09

The UPLC-MS/MS assay of Glc₄ in urine was discriminative between Glc₄ and M₄ and confirmed the diagnosis in >98% of GSD-II cases. Amoxil 500 Tablets

buy precose online 2016-02-12

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are recommended in some international guidelines as first-line, second-line and third-line treatment options but are not used Prilosec Max Dose worldwide due to perceived greater effectiveness in Asians than Caucasians.

precose tablet 2016-07-16

Our data do Luvox Dosing not support that acarbose has a cardio-protective effect similar to metformin as a first-line antidiabetic agent.

precose generic name 2017-07-16

Inclusion criteria were: age 18-69 years, BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), type 2 diabetes treated with diet, metformin or acarbose and known disease duration of ≤ 5 years. Exclusion criteria were: HbA1c >75 mmol/mol (9.0%), type 1 or secondary diabetes types and acute or chronic diseases including cancer. Patients taking any medication affecting the immune system or insulin sensitivity, other than metformin, were also excluded. Of 59 patients (randomised using randomisation blocks [four or six patients] with consecutive numbers), 37 (54% female) obese type 2 diabetic patients completed this controlled parallel-group 8-week low Cleocin Drug Classification -energy dietary intervention. The participants consumed either a diet high in cereal fibre (whole grain wheat/rye: 30-50 g/day) and coffee (≥ 5 cups/day), and free of red meat (L-RISK, n = 17) or a diet low in fibre (≤ 10 g/day), coffee-free and high in red meat (≥ 150 g/day) diet (H-RISK, n = 20). Insulin sensitivity and secretion were assessed by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance tests with isotope dilution. Whole-body and organ fat contents were measured by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

acarbose precose medication 2016-09-18

The test drugs were dosed as follows: 100 mg acarbose (A) three times a day, 1 placebo tablet three times a day, 3.5 mg glibenclamide tablets dosed 1-0-0 or 1-0-1, mean dose 4.3 mg/day. Compared with the placebo, both drugs showed the same mean efficacy on fasting BG (-1.4 mM with acarbose, -1.6 mM with glibenclamide), 1-h postprandial BG (-2.2 mM with acarbose, -1 Celexa Generic .9 mM with glibenclamide), and HbA1c (-1.1% with acarbose, -0.9% with glibenclamide); but they showed a marked difference in 1-h postprandial insulin values (-80.7 pM with acarbose, 96.7 pM with glibenclamide). The mean relative insulin increase (1-h postprandial) was 1.5 in the placebo group, 1.1 in the acarbose group, and 2.5 in the glibenclamide group. No changes in body weight could be observed. No adverse events were seen under placebo. Acarbose led to mild or moderate intestinal symptoms in 38% of patients. Glibenclamide led to hypoglycemia, which could be solved by dose reduction, in 6% of patients. No dropouts occurred in any of the treatment groups.

precose 100 mg 2015-05-29

The present study was conducted in order to examine the effect of acarbose, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on renal function in rats with mild streptozotocin-diabetes. Male Wistar rats were made mildly diabetic by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) and were supplied a standard solid chow containing 0.1% acarbose for 8 weeks. Diabetic rats showed mild hyperglycemia under non-fasting condition and their urine albumin excretion (UAE) rate was markedly increased compared to non-diabetic control rats, while acarbose treatment resulted in a significant suppression of blood glucose level and UAE in diabetic rats. Examination by electron microscope revealed that the number of anionic sites in the lamina rara externa per 1000 nm of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was significantly decreased in diabetic rats compared to control value (15.7 +/- 0.9 vs. 20.9 +/- 0.3 P < 0.001), whereas, significant recovery (19.6 +/- 0.6 P < 0.01) was observed after 8 weeks of acarbose treatment. In conclusion, acarbose treatment suppressed blood glucose level of mildly-insulin deficient animal model without insulin treatment and prevented from a reduction in the number of anionic sites in GBM which might ameliorate an increased permeability of GBM leading to albuminuria.

precose generic 2016-04-06

Participants were randomized to: (i) an 8-week intensive metabolic intervention, (ii) a 16-week intensive metabolic intervention, or (iii) standard diabetes care. During the intensive intervention period, weight loss and normoglycemia were targeted using lifestyle approaches and treatment with metformin, acarbose, and insulin glargine. Diabetes drugs were then discontinued in the intervention groups and participants were followed for hyperglycemic relapse.

precose patient review 2015-07-30

To assess if treatment with the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose can reduce cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients.

precose medication 2017-07-21

Patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with vildagliptin or an active comparator, acarbose, for four weeks, in a randomized cross-over trial. Blood was sampled at the end of each treatment period and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and stimulated with a broad spectrum of pattern recognition receptor agonists.

precose tablets 2016-02-26

Five subjects completed the pilot study. The AUC(gluc) from dosing until 1 h post-dose (AUC(gluc,1 h)) was significantly different between the placebo and acarbose. A total of 33 subjects completed the main study. The mean differences in G(max) (ΔG(max)) and AUC(gluc,1 h) (ΔAUC(gluc,1 h)) for the reference formulation compared with placebo were 22·0 ± 18·3 mg/dL and 928·2 ± 756·0 mg min/dL, respectively. The corresponding values for the test formulation were 23·3 ± 21·2 mg/dL and 923·0 ± 991·4 0 mg min/dL, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) of the test formulation to the reference formulation for ΔG(max) and ΔAUC(gluc, 1 h) were 1·06 and 1·00, respectively, and the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) corresponding values were 0·79-1·39 and 0·64-1·36, respectively.

precose user reviews 2015-06-29

The purpose of our review was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety profile of treatment with acarbose alone and combined with other antidiabetic drugs.

precose buy 2017-09-17

We describe here the synthesis of dihydropyrimidines derivatives 3a-p, and evaluation of their α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition activities. Compounds 3b (IC50=62.4±1.5 μM), 3c (IC50=25.3±1.26 μM), 3d (IC50=12.4±0.15 μM), 3e (IC50=22.9±0.25 μM), 3g (IC50=23.8±0.17 μM), 3h (IC50=163.3±5.1 μM), 3i (IC50=30.6±0.6 μM), 3m (IC50=26.4±0.34 μM), and 3o (IC50=136.1±6.63 μM) were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors in comparison to the standard drug acarbose (IC50=840±1.73 μM). The compounds were also evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against PC-3, HeLa, and MCF-3 cancer cell lines, and 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. All compounds were found to be non cytotoxic, except compounds 3f and 3m (IC50=17.79±0.66-20.44±0.30 μM), which showed a weak cytotoxic activity against the HeLa, and 3T3 cell lines. In molecular docking simulation study, all the compounds were docked into the active site of the predicted homology model of α-glucosidase enzyme. From the docking result, it was observed that most of the synthesized compounds showed interaction through carbonyl oxygen atom and polar phenyl ring with active site residues of the enzyme.