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Ponstel (Mefenamic Acid)
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Ponstel

Ponstel is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short-term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain. Ponstel blocks the effect of certain substances in the body that are associated with pain and inflammation.

Other names for this medication:

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Celebrex, Voltaren, Dolobid, Lodine, Motrin, Indocin, Orudis, Toradol, Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Voltaren, Aleve, Advil, Celecoxib, Naprosyn, Motrin, Ketoprofen

 

Also known as:  Mefenamic Acid.

Description

Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain.

Ponstel blocks certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation.

Ponstel is also known as Mefenamic acid, Ponstan.

Generic name of Ponstel is Mefenamic Acid.

Brand name of Ponstel is Ponstel.

Dosage

Take Ponstel orally.

Take Ponstel with or without food.

Take Ponstel with a full glass of water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ponstel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Ponstel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ponstel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Ponstel if you are allergic to Ponstel components or to aspirin.

Do not take Ponstel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Ponstel if you have had a severe allergic reaction (e.g., severe rash, hives, trouble breathing, growths in the nose, dizziness) to aspirin or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (e.g., ibuprofen, celecoxib).

Do not take Ponstel if you have had recent or will be having bypass heart surgery.

Do not take Ponstel if you have kidney problems.

Do not take Ponstel if you have ulcers or inflammation of the stomach or bowel.

Do not use Ponstel with aspirin.

Be careful with Ponstel when it is used by children younger than 14 years old and by elderly people.

Avoid machine driving.

Avoid drinking alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Ponstel taking suddenly.

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The target compounds 3-(3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazin-3-yl)-2H-chromen-2-ones 2a-u were synthesized and characterized by spectral data. The antinociceptive properties of target compounds were determined by formalin-induced test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Among the tested compounds, compound 2u bearing 2-(4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)- moiety on benzothiazine ring and 4-(methylsulfonyl)phenacyloxy- group on the 7 position of coumarin nucleus showed better profile of antinocecieption in both models. It was more effective than mefenamic acid during the late phase of formalin-induced test as well as in the acetic acid-induced writhing test.

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The primary objective of this review was to investigate the effectiveness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in achieving a reduction in menstrual blood loss in women of reproductive years HMB.

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The comparison of the IC50 estimates of HL-PST with the therapeutic plasma concentrations of NSAIDs corrected for the plasma unbound fraction was consistent with the view that mefenamic acid and salicylic acid, when administered at therapeutic doses, should impair the hepatic sulfation of those compounds that are substrates of phenol sulfotransferase.

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Subconvulsive doses (25 mg/kg) of pentylenetetrazol were administered at intervals of 4 days for 20 sessions, to induce kindling in conscious, free-moving rats, with chronically-implanted electrodes. This regimen induced an excitation of the CNS, which intensified over the 20 sessions. Periods of motor arrest, concurrent with bursts of electrocortical spike-wave activity, increased to clonic convulsions, concurrent with bursts of spike activity. Separate groups of rats were pretreated over the twenty sessions with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Pretreatment with paracetamol produced a dose-related reduction in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure activity. Pretreatment with 20 mg/kg mefenamic acid attenuated, while 60 mg/kg dose potentiated, the pentylenetetrazol-induced excitation. Pretreatment with 10 or 30 mg/kg ibuprofen had no significant effect, while 90 mg/kg was lethal, by itself, in 58% of the group. When all the groups received a single dose of pentylenetetrazol, three weeks after the twenty sessions, there were no significant differences between the groups in level of pentylenetetrazol-induced excitation, when compared to the control (saline-pretreated) group. This suggests that the effective NSAIDs had influenced the manifestation of, but not development of, epileptogenesis over the 20 sessions.

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Four hundred ninety three female nurses in the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

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We searched ALOIS: the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on 12 April 2011 using the terms: aspirin OR "cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor" OR aceclofenac OR acemetacin OR betamethasone OR celecoxib OR cortisone OR deflazacort OR dexamethasone OR dexibruprofen OR dexketoprofen OR diclofenac sodium OR diflunisal OR diflusinal OR etodolac OR etoricoxib OR fenbufen OR fenoprofen OR flurbiprofen OR hydrocortisone OR ibuprofen OR indometacin OR indomethacin OR ketoprofen OR lumiracoxib OR mefenamic OR meloxicam OR methylprednisolone OR nabumetone OR naproxen OR nimesulide OR "anti-inflammatory" OR prednisone OR piroxicam OR sulindac OR tenoxicam OR tiaprofenic acid OR triamcinolone OR NSAIDS OR NSAID. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of a number of major healthcare databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS), numerous trial registries (including national, international and pharmacuetical registries) and grey literature sources.

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Clinical use of mefenamic acid has generally declined in an era where other NSAID use has flourished. While having modes of action and general toxicities similar to other NSAIDs, mefenamic acid, as a member of the fenamates, nevertheless possesses some unique in vitro effects that have the potential to distinguish this agent from others. Use of this drug remains relevant for pain syndromes and some gynecological disorders, albeit with considerable competition from other NSAIDs. New basic science has considerably improved the understanding of the biochemistry of mefenamic acid. As well as maintaining its use in traditional settings, there is a tremendous potential for expanding the application of mefenamic acid to niche roles.

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Fifteen eligible trials were assessed by three reviewers and eight of these did not meet with the inclusion criteria. Of the seven remaining trials, four of these could be included within the meta-analysis. The remaining three trials had a crossover design and despite contacting the authors and appropriate companies, we were unable to extract the results in a format suitable to include these within the meta-analysis. However the results are included within the text of the review for discussion.

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A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) complicates the clinical course of preterm infants, increasing their risks of developing chronic lung disease (CLD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Indomethacin is used as standard therapy to close a PDA, but is associated with reduced blood flow to the brain, kidneys and gut. Ibuprofen, another cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, may be as effective with fewer side effects.

ponstel dosage instructions

To compare the pattern, efficacy, and tolerability of self-medicated drugs and to assess the adequacy of their dose in primary dysmenorrhea (PD).

ponstel s syrup

The effect of a TEI enhancer mixed system consisting of triethanolamine (T), ethanol (E) and isopropyl myristate (IPM) on the skin permeation of acidic, basic and neutral drugs were evaluated in vitro using excised hairless rat skin. The binary enhancer system consisting of IPM and ethanol (El) produced marked improvement on the penetration of all the drugs tested. When T was added to the EI system, a greater enhancing effect was found only on acidic drugs with a carboxyl group, compared with the flux in the EI system. On addition of another amine to the EI system, instead of T, mefenamic acid (MA), which exhibited the highest enhancing effect of the model drugs, showed an approximately 14-180 times greater flux than when delivered by the EI system. On simultaneous application of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) with MA in the TEI system, the flux of MA increased on increasing the T concentration in the TEI system, while, the flux of ISDN, a neutral drug, was unaffected by the T concentration. Application of MA in the EI system after pretreatment of the TEI system showed that the residual amount of T in the skin plays an important role in the skin permeation of MA. Furthermore, at a fixed concentration of MA, the flux of MA increased on increasing the T concentration in the TEI system, while the flux of E remained unchanged. Finally, the infrared spectrum of MA with amine in the E solution indicated that the carboxyl group of MA was ionized. These results demonstrated that the formation of an ion pair between MA and T, but not the effect of T on the skin, may be responsible for the enhanced skin permeation of MA using the TEI system.

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Thirty-five patients (16--23 years old) who had severe primary dysmenorrhea were each treated with 500 mg of mefenamic acid every eight hours for a maximum of three days during menstruation for three consecutive cycles. A total of 194 treated cycles could be evaluated, 110 cycles with mefenamic acid and 84 with placebo. Mefenamic acid produced complete relief of all the symptoms of dysmenorrhea in 31 (88.6%) patients in all 98 treated cycles and, in another two patients, moderate relief in five of the six cycles. While on placebo, only five patients (13%) experienced moderate to slight relief in 11 of the 15 cycles. It is concluded that the mefenamic acid is safe and effective in most patients for the relief of primary dysmenorrhea and represents a rational short-term therapy for this syndrome.

ponstel capsules

Mefenamic acid (MFA), a carboxylic acid-containing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is metabolized into the chemically-reactive MFA-1-O-acyl-glucuronide (MFA-1-O-G), MFA-acyl-adenylate (MFA-AMP), and the MFA-S-acyl-coenzyme A (MFA-CoA), all of which are electrophilic and capable of acylating nucleophilic sites on biomolecules. In this study, we investigate the nonenzymatic ability of each MFA acyl-linked metabolite to transacylate amino and thiol functional groups on the acceptor biomolecules Gly, Tau, l-glutathione (GSH), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In vitro incubations with each of the MFA acyl-linked metabolites (1 μM) in buffer under physiologic conditions with Gly, Tau, GSH, or NAC (10 mM) revealed that MFA-CoA was 11.5- and 19.5-fold more reactive than MFA-AMP toward the acylation of cysteine-sulfhydryl groups of GSH and NAC, respectively. However, MFA-AMP was more reactive toward both Gly and Tau, 17.5-fold more reactive toward the N-acyl-amidation of taurine than its corresponding CoA thioester, while MFA-CoA displayed little reactivity toward glycine. Additionally, mefenamic acid-S-acyl-glutathione (MFA-GSH) was 5.6- and 108-fold more reactive toward NAC than MFA-CoA and MFA-AMP, respectively. In comparison with MFA-AMP and MFA-CoA, MFA-1-O-G was not significantly reactive toward all four bionucleophiles. MFA-AMP, MFA-CoA, MFA-1-O-G, MFA-GSH, and mefenamic acid-taurine were also detected in rat in vitro hepatocyte MFA (100 μM) incubations, while mefenamic acid-glycine was not. These results demonstrate that MFA-AMP selectively reacts with the amino functional groups of glycine and lysine nonenzymatically, MFA-CoA selectively reacts nonenzymatically with the thiol functional groups of GSH and NAC, and MFA-GSH reacts with the thiol functional group of GSH nonenzymatically, all of which may potentially elicit an idiosyncratic toxicity in vivo.

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Mefenamic acid 500 mg orally was administered to nine healthy volunteers on four occasions 7 days apart. On two occasions allocated at random, activated charcoal (2.5 g of medicoal) was administered 1 h after the drug. Hyoscine butylbromide (20 mg intramuscularly) was given immediately after mefenamic acid on one of these occasions, and on one occasion after mefenamic acid without charcoal. Hyoscine significantly delayed the time to maximum mefenamic acid concentrations but did not affect the area under the plasma concentration-time curve. Charcoal reduced the area under the plasma concentration curve by 36% and charcoal and hyoscine reduced the area under the plasma concentration curve by 42% from their respective control values. We conclude that early charcoal administration in a ratio of 5 g to 1 g of drug effectively reduces the area under the plasma concentration-time curve after oral mefenamic acid administration. Early charcoal administration may be of value therefore in reducing the toxicity of mefenamic acid after deliberate or accidental overdosage.

ponstel drug interaction

The action of nonsteroid antiinflammatory substances on the content in the inflammation focus of the inflammation reaction mediators, histamine, serotonin and kinines, and some aspects of their metabolism were studied. Sodium mephenaminate and butadion are shown to bring down the histamine content in the exudate of rats with experimental pleurisy. Sodium mephenaminate depresses the histamine synthesis (by inhibiting histidine decarboxylase in the pulmonary tissue), while butadion activates decomposition of this amine (by raising histaminase activity). All the study compounds (except sodium mephenaminate) force down the serotonin level in the exudate and inhibit 5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase. The content of kininogen in the exudate decreases only under the influence of butadion. Sodium mephenaminate and butadion mitigate the reaction of the dermal vessels to exogenous histamine and serotonin and chingamine does so only in response to histamine.

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This study deals with the synthesis, pharmacological activity, and kinetic studies of mefenamic acid (MA) prodrugs of tyrosine and glycine. The synthesis involved a series of protection and deprotection reactions. The hydrolysis of these prodrugs in the intestine was confirmed by hydrolysis kinetics studies in simulated gastric fluid, simulated intestinal fluid, and 80% plasma. The prodrugs were also evaluated for analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and ulcerogenic activities. The glycine prodrug showed maximum analgesic activity of 86%, and both tyrosine and glycine prodrugs showed better anti-inflammatory activity of 74% and 81%, respectively, when compared to the 40% of MA. Further, the prodrugs showed fewer gastric ulcers compared to MA; tyrosine and glycine prodrugs had an average ulcer index of 9.1 and 4.5, respectively, while an average ulcer index of 24.2 was observed with MA. These findings suggest that both prodrugs are better in action as compared to MA, and are advantageous in having fewer gastrointestinal side effects.

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We have described a patient with severe rheumatoid arthritis and a history of mefenamic acid nephropathy in whom hyperkalemia and inappropriate hypoaldosteronism were caused by both indomethacin and naproxen, without major decline in renal function. It is likely that preexisting renal disease predisposed this patient to type IV renal tubular acidosis with prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. Because he was unable to discontinue nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy, fludrocortisone was added, correcting the hyperkalemia and allowing indomethacin therapy to be continued safely.

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Anthranilic acid derivatives are a group of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs that include glafenine and fenamates. We report a woman who had immediate adverse reactions to glafenine and meclofenamate sodium. Skin prick and intradermal tests were performed with solutions of glafenine and meclofenamate in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and with the drugs bound to human serum albumin (HSA). Prick and intradermal tests with PBS solutions were negative for both drugs as were prick tests with HSA solutions. Intradermal tests with HSA-glafenine, however, were positive at 20 minutes, and at 6 and 24 hours. Intradermal tests with HSA-meclofenamate elicited a positive response at 6 and 24 hours. These tests were negative when performed in control subjects. A leukocyte histamine release test and a RAST assay were negative for both drugs. The patient was challenged following a double-blind placebo-controlled oral procedure and tolerated therapeutic doses of aspirin, indomethacin, ibuprofen, dipyrone, diclofenac, piroxicam, and acetaminophen. The oral challenge with glafenine and meclofenamate reproduced the reactions (eliciting doses: 50 mg and 15 mg, respectively), and the patient also reacted to 30 mg of mefenamic acid, an anthranilic acid derivative she had never previously received. This is an exceptional case of selective adverse reactions to glafenine and fenamates, anthranilic acid derivatives, in a patient tolerating aspirin and other cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Our study implicates an immunologic mechanism, and the existence of cross-reactivity between the drugs (or some active metabolite generated in vivo).

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Potential trials were independently assessed by at least two review authors. The review authors extracted the data independently and data were pooled where appropriate. Risk ratios (RRs) were estimated from the data for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes. The primary outcomes were reduction in menstrual blood loss and satisfaction; in addition, rate of adverse effects, changes in quality of life, failure of treatment and withdrawal from treatment were also assessed.

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The present study introduces two novel organic matrices for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for the analysis of small molecules. The first matrix is "2-amino-4,5-diphenylfuran-3-carboxylic acid" (also called furoic acid, FA) which was synthesized and then characterized by ultraviolet (UV), infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance NMR ((1)H and (13)C) and mass spectrometry. The compound has organic semiconductor properties and exhibits intense UV-absorption which is suitable for the UV-MALDI laser (N2 laser, 337 nm). The second matrix is mefenamic acid (MA). The two matrices can be successfully applied for various classes of compounds including adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP, 0.5 µL(10.0 nmol)), spectinomycin (spect, 0.5 µL(14.0 nmol)), glutathione (GSH, 0.5 µL(9.0 nmol)), sulfamethazole (SMT, 0.5 µL(2.0 nmol)) and mixture of peptides gramicidin D (GD, 0.5µL (9.0 nmol)). The two matrices can effectively absorb the laser energy, resulting in excellent desorption/ionization of small molecules. The new matrices offer a significant enhancement of ionization, less fragmentation, few interferences, nice reproducibility, and excellent stability under vacuum. Theoretical calculations of the physical parameters demonstrated increase in polarizability, molar volume and refractivity than the conventional organic matrices which can effectively enhance the proton transfer reactions between the matrices with the analyte molecules. While the reduction in density, surface tension and index of refraction can enhance homogeneity between the two new matrices with the analytes. Due to the sublimation energy of mefenamic acid is (1.2 times) higher than that of the DHB, it is more stable to be used in the vacuum.

ponstel dosage dysmenorrhea

1. The inhibition of the human liver phenol sulphotransferase (HL-PST) and catechol sulphotransferase (HL-CST) by five fenamates has been studied and the activities of HL-PST and HL-CST were measured with 4-nitrophenol and dopamine as substrates, respectively. 2. The IC50 for inhibition of HL-PST were 0.02 microM (mefenamic acid); 0.12 microM (tolfenamic acid); 0.28 microM (niflumic acid); 0.87 microM (meclofenamic acid) and 1.50 microM (flufenamic acid). 3. HL-CST was less susceptible than HL-PST to the inhibition by fenamates and the IC50 for HL-CST were 36 microM (tolfenamic acid); 70 microM (flufenamic acid); 76 microM (mefenamic acid); 180 microM (niflumic acid) and 185 microM (meclofenamic acid). 4. The ratios of the IC50 for HL-CST:HL-PST were drug-dependent and ranged from 47 (flufenamic acid) to 3800 (mefenamic acid). Mefenamic acid is a relatively potent and selective inhibitor of HL-PST. 5. The IC50 for HL-PST obtained with mefenamic acid was three orders of magnitude lower than the peak plasma concentration of this drug after an oral dose of 0.5 g. Accordingly, mefenamic acid should impair sulphation in vivo.

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Pharmaceuticals are a class of chemicals whose fate in the environment has received increasing attention in the past few years. A quantitative method was developed for the determination of acidic pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, and diclofenac), caffeine and the antibacterial triclosan in wastewater effluent. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples on Waters Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction columns, derivatized with N,O-bis [Trimethylsilyl] trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Estimated method detection limits ranged from 6 to 45 ng/L based on replicate analyses (n = 10). This method was applied to the analysis of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and compounds were detected at concentrations of 18-72 ng/L.

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The phenomenon of histamine tachyphylaxis previously observed in tracheal smooth muscle from canine species was investigated in isolated tracheal smooth muscle from subhuman primates. Tachyphylaxis to histamine was readily demonstrated by repetitive exposure to histamine. However, similar testing with acetylcholine did not indicate decreased responsiveness to this agent. The development of histamine tachyphylaxis could be prevented or reversed by inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis (indomethacin, mefenamic acid, oxyphenbutazone). In indomethacin treated tissue, exogenous administration of prostaglandin E2 reduced the histamine response. It is concluded that the histamine tachyphylaxis which is present in subhuman primate tracheal smooth muscle is prostaglandin mediated.

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ponstel drug interactions 2016-09-26

Phase III buy ponstel online , Single centre, open, randomised, comparative, parallel group study.

ponstel medication dosage 2015-06-21

This open-label randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture and combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill in treating moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhea. Fifty-two participants were randomly assigned to receive either acupuncture (n = 27) or COC (n = 25) for three menstrual cycles. Mefenamic acid was prescribed as a recue analgesic drug with both groups. The statistical approach used for efficacy and safety assessments was intention-to-treat analysis. By the end of the study, both treatments had resulted in significant improvement over baselines in all outcomes, that is, maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores, days suffering from dysmenorrhea, amount of rescue analgesic used, and quality of life assessed by SF-36 questionnaire. Over the three treatment cycles, COC caused greater reduction in maximal pain scores than acupuncture, while improvements in the remaining outcomes were comparable. Responders were defined as participants whose maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores decreased at least 33% below their baseline. Response rates following both interventions at the end of the study were not statistically different. Acupuncture buy ponstel online commonly caused minimal local side effects but did not cause any hormone-related side effects as did COC. In conclusion, acupuncture is an alternative option for relieving dysmenorrhea, especially when COC is not a favorable choice.

ponstel dose 2017-04-21

The pulmonary-renal cascade may regulate the respiration and skeletal muscle contractility. To evaluate this working hypothetical model, we conducted experiments to ascertain the buy ponstel online skeletal muscle tone of the Swiss mice (20-35 g). The animals were evaluated for their skeletal muscle tone via several techniques i.e. inclined plane test, grip strength test and swim test. Groups of mice (n=6) were pre-treated with mefenamic acid (60 mg/kg, i.p), carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg i.p) or vehicle only 15 minutes before the treatment with heparin (500 U/kg, i.v), urokinase (5500 U/kg, i.v) and erythropoietin (150 U/kg, i.v). Heparin potentiated the loss of skeletal muscle tone induced by mefenamic acid and carbenoxolone while urokinase & erythropoietin significantly enhanced the skeletal muscle tone as evaluated by all or one of the tests. Other groups of mice (n=6) were pretreated with mefenamic acid (1 mg i.c.v), carbenoxolone (160 microg i.c.v) or minoxidil (30 microg i.c.v) and the effects of heparin & urokinase and erythropoietin on skeletal muscle tone were evaluated. To study the effects of heparin and urokinase on nerve regeneration, two groups of mice underwent a sham and sciatic nerve crush procedure. The mice treated with urokinase recovered much faster as compared to those treated with heparin or saline. These experimental results suggest that gap junction blockers and potassium channel openers interact with heparin, urokinase and erythropoietin to control the skeletal muscle tone.

ponstel generic 2016-12-03

A fairly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination buy ponstel online of ibuprofen, ketoprofen, piroxicam, diclofenac sodium, mefenamic acid or enfenamic acid in bulk samples and pharmaceutical preparations is described, based on the formation of a chloroform-soluble, coloured ion-association complex between the drug and Methylene Violet at pH 7.6.

ponstel 250mg capsules 2017-10-22

The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2 is crucial for the metabolism of many drugs, for example, tizanidine. As the effects of several non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and female sex steroids on CYP1A2 activity in vitro are unknown, their effects on phenacetin O-deethylation were studied and compared with the effects of model inhibitors in human liver microsomes, followed by prediction of their interaction potential with tizanidine in vivo. In vitro, fluvoxamine, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid and rofecoxib potently inhibited CYP1A2 [the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) < 10 microM]. Ethinyloestradiol, celecoxib, desogestrel and zolmitriptan were moderate (IC(50) 20-200 microM), and etodolac, ciprofloxacin, etoricoxib and gestodene weak inhibitors of CYP1A2 (IC(50) > 200 microM). At 100 microM, the other tested NSAIDs and steroids inhibited CYP1A2 less than 35%. Pre-incubation increased the inhibitory effects of rofecoxib, progesterone and desogestrel. Using the free portal plasma inhibitor concentration and the competitive inhibition model, the effect of fluvoxamine and the lack of effects of tolfenamic acid and celecoxib on tizanidine pharmacokinetics in human beings were well predicted. However, the effects of ciprofloxacin, rofecoxib and oral contraceptives were greatly underestimated even when the predictions were based on their total portal plasma concentration. Besides rofecoxib, and possibly mefenamic acid, other NSAIDs were predicted not to significantly inhibit CYP1A2 in human beings. The type of enzyme inhibition, particularly metabolism-dependent inhibition, free inhibitor concentration and accumulation of the inhibitor into the hepatocytes should be considered in extrapolations of in vitro buy ponstel online results to human beings.

ponstel medication information 2015-05-26

Prospective observational buy ponstel online study.

ponstel capsules 2015-02-18

Clinical trials of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (PGSIs) prescribed for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea were reviewed as to pain relief effectiveness, frequency and nature of side effects, and methodological adequacy. The review investigated 51 PGSI buy ponstel online trials for a total of 1,649 women and 682 menstrual cycles and found that, over all, 72% of dysmenorrheic women reported significant pain relief to PGSI, 18% reported minimal or no pain relief, and 15% showed placebo response. Comparisons among the fenamatic compounds, ibuprofen, indomethacin, and naproxen showed the fenamates to be more effective in providing pain relief. PGSI-associated side effects were minimal for all PGSIs with the exception of indomethacin. Results were evaluated with respect to several methodological problems. Conclusions were drawn that despite these shortcomings, PGSIs are undoubtedly effective and safe for the majority of women with primary dysmenorrhea.

ponstel s dosage 2015-04-24

There are no studies verifying that mefenamic acid is more effective than other NSAID (= non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). However, there are several notions in the literature that this drug is less well-tolerated than other NSAID buy ponstel online because over a prolonged period of application more lesions of the upper gastro-intestinal tract are induced as well as occasionally renal insufficiency. Compared to other NSAID the systemic toxicity starts already with relatively low doses above the maximal daily dose. Considering current knowledge there is no reason to prefer mefenamic acid to other NSAID.

ponstel 250 tablets 2016-10-13

Fifty-five women with a convincing clinical history of menorrhagia associated with recognizable pelvic disease (40 women) or a confirmed coagulation disorder (15 women) were studied through one or more cycles with measurements of menstrual blood loss volume by a modified alkaline hematin method. Women with leiomyomata almost always exhibited large volumes of menstrual bleeding, which was invariably reduced by myomectomy and sometimes helped by mefenamic acid. Women buy ponstel online with other pelvic disease such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, and myometrial hyperplasia also often exhibited genuine menorrhagia that responded to mefenamic acid, whereas others were found to have normal blood loss even when the history was convincing. Some women with coagulation disorders due to platelet dysfunction exhibited gross menorrhagia but others had blood loss within normal limits.

ponstel dosing 2017-11-04

41 patients suffering from moderate to severe pain were included in a multicentric double-blind study comparing 100 mg 4-(p-fluorophenyl)-1-isopropyl-7-methyl-2(1H)-quinazolinone (fluproquazone) to 250 mg mefenamic acid during a three-day period. Both medications produced a clinically highly relevant analgesic effect in the patient population considered. Fluproquazone appears to be significantly more effective than mefenamic acid after the first dose buy ponstel online as well as after 6-h period. Fluproquazone was better tolerated than mefenamic acid: one and four patients, respectively, experienced side-effects in the two treatment groups. These results indicate a significantly better therapeutic profile for fluproquazone as compared to mefenamic acid in the management of post-operative pain.

ponstel user reviews 2017-10-19

Preliminary studies with Combretum erythrophyllum buy ponstel online showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Seven antibacterial flavonoids were subsequently isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation, i.e. apigenin; genkwanin; 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone, rhamnocitrin; kaempferol; quercetin-5,3'-dimethylether; rhamnazin. All compounds had good activity against Vibrio cholerae and Enterococcus faecalis, with MIC values in the range of 25-50 microg/ml. Rhamnocitrin and quercetin-5,3'-dimethylether also inhibited Micrococcus luteus and Shigella sonei at 25 microg/ml. With the exception of 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-flavone the flavonoids were not toxic towards human lymphocytes. This compound is potentially toxic to human cells and exhibited the poorest antioxidant activity whereas rhamnocitrin and rhamnazin exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Genkwanin; rhamnocitrin; quercetin-5,3'-dimethylether; rhamnazin had a higher anti-inflammatory activity than the positive control mefenamic acid. Although these flavonoids are known, this is the first report of biological activity with several of these compounds.

ponstel medicine 2015-07-05

Benzodiazepines are commonly used for the treatment of tension-type headache (TTH), however, there are few buy ponstel online randomized controlled trials recommending the use of these drugs in Japan. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of etizolam, a thienodiazepine derivative, in combination with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) as an acute treatment for TTH.

ponstel tablets 2015-05-08

A simple luminescent methodology for the simultaneous determination of mefenamic and tolfenamic acids in pharmaceutical preparations and human urine is proposed. Since the native fluorescence of both analytes is not intense, the method takes advantage of the lanthanide-sensitized luminescence, which provides a higher sensitivity. Due to the strong overlapping between the luminescence spectra of both terbium complexes, the use of luminescence decay curves to resolve mixtures of the analytes is proposed, since these curves are more selective. A factorial design with three levels per factor coupled to a central composite design was selected to obtain a calibration matrix of thirteen standards plus eight blank samples that was processed using a partial least-squares (PLS) analysis. In order to assess the goodness of the proposed method, a prediction set of synthetic samples was analyzed, obtaining recovery percentages between 90 and 104 %. Limits of detection, calculated by means of a new criterion, were 14.85 μg L(-1) and 15.89 μg L(-1) for tolfenamic and mefenamic acids, respectively. The method was tested in a pharmaceutical preparation containing mefenamic acid, obtaining recovery buy ponstel online percentages close to 100 %. Finally, the simultaneous determination of both fenamates in human urine samples was successfully carried out by means of a correction of the above-explained model. No extraction method neither prior separation of the analytes were needed.

ponstel syrup 2017-01-24

The combined use of warfarin and NSAIDs Prandin Diabetes Medication is generally discouraged because of the increased risk of bleeding in these patients. In patients receiving warfarin who also require NSAIDs, phenylbutazone and its analogs, high-dose aspirin, mefenamic acid, excessive use of topical methyl salicylate, and NSAIDs that are associated with a higher risk of bleeding peptic ulcers should be avoided. Patients should be closely monitored for anticoagulant control and bleeding complications during the combined use of warfarin and NSAIDs.

ponstel reviews 2015-01-02

The inhibitory effect on drug crystallization in aqueous solution was evaluated using various forms of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS). HPMCAS suppressed crystallization of carbamazepine (CBZ), nifedipine (NIF), mefenamic acid, and dexamethasone. The inhibition of drug crystallization mainly derived from molecular level hydrophobic interactions between the drug and HPMCAS. HPMCAS with a lower succinoyl substituent ratio strongly suppressed drug crystallization. The Reglan Dosing inhibition of crystallization was affected by pH, with the CBZ crystallization being inhibited at a higher pH due to the hydrophilization of HPMCAS derived from succinoyl ionization. The molecular mobility of CBZ in an HPMCAS solution was evaluated by 1D-(1)H NMR and relaxation time measurements. CBZ mobility was strongly suppressed in the HPMCAS solutions where strong inhibitory effects on CBZ crystallization were observed. The mobility suppression of CBZ in the HPMCAS solution was derived from intermolecular interactions between CBZ and HPMCAS leading to an inhibition of crystallization. The effect of HPMCAS on the drug dissolution rate was evaluated using an NIF/HPMCAS solid dispersion. The dissolution rate of NIF was increased when HPMCAS with a higher succinoyl substituent ratio was used.

ponstel and alcohol 2015-08-03

The design space of the granulation process of mefenamic acid tablets, based on Box and Behnken design datasets, was described by a response surface method incorporating multivariate spline interpolation. The reliability of the optimal solutions and the acceptance ranges were evaluated by a bootstrap (BS) resampling technique. The distribution of the BS optimal solutions was almost symmetrical; however, several solutions, which were quite different from the original solution, were mixed. The reason for this problem was considered to be the mixing of the global and the local optima. Therefore, we applied self-organizing map (SOM) clustering for dividing data into several clusters and identified the cluster containing the global optima. The accuracy and reproducibility of the optimal solution in the cluster containing the optimal solution were quantitatively evaluated. In addition, the response surfaces modeled from all the BS datasets contained in the cluster were plotted into the same coordinates with the original response surface. The plots of BS optimal solutions were distributed around the original solution. Moreover, the average of all the BS response surfaces sufficiently corresponded with the original response surface. The conservative limits of the 95% confidence intervals of the acceptance ranges in three response variables could be calculated using the standard deviations of the BS response surfaces. Consequently, it was considered that a novel evaluation method based on BS resampling and SOM could be used for quantitatively evaluating the precision of the nonlinear Cytoxan Tablet Form response surface model.

ponstel 250 reviews 2015-12-23

Studies were assessed for methodological quality and the data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) over 4 to 6 hours was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. These derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours. Numbers of participants using rescue medication Abilify 5mg Reviews over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected.

ponstel medication 2015-07-26

The effect of fenamates on prostaglandin E receptor binding was examined in myometrial samples collected Clomid Ovulation Pills at hysterectomy. Sodium meclofenamate and mefenamic acid inhibited binding of PGE2 to its specific receptor in a dose-dependent manner, with an ED50 of 20 mumol/l and 200 mumol/l, respectively.

ponstel generic name 2016-06-28

The effects of anaesthetics on the Evista Generic Substitute microcirculation of the diaphragm are incompletely understood. Therefore, we assessed by in vivo intravital microscopy in rats the action of halothane on diaphragmatic arteriolar diameter and the role of nitric oxide and prostaglandins on halothane-induced diaphragmatic arteriolar diameter. We studied 54 rats anaesthetized with thiopentone. Dose-response curves to topically applied Krebs' solution saturated with halothane at increasing concentrations of 0%, 1%, 3% and 5% were carried out in the presence of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis (N omega-nitro-L-arginine (LNA), 300 mumol litre-1) or inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis (mefenamic acid 20 mumol litre-1 or indomethacin 20 mol litre-1) or in the absence of any inhibitor. We found dose-dependent arteriolar dilatation which was abolished by mefenamic acid and indomethacin. In contrast, the effect of halothane was not modified by LNA. These data demonstrated that halothane-induced arteriolar dilatation in the diaphragm of the rat was mediated by prostaglandins but not by nitric oxide.

ponstel dosage instructions 2015-06-07

Mefenamic acid was more effective than placebo in short-term treatment Cymbalta Anxiety Dosage of irregular bleeding and spotting associated with Implanon use.

ponstel buy 2017-10-15

Hepatotoxicity is one of the common side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We investigated the cytotoxicity of 18 acidic NSAIDs (3 salicylic acids, 3 anthranilic acids, 6 arylacetic acids, 6 arylpropionic acids) to freshly isolated rat hepatocytes as assessed by the NSAID-induced leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in order to determine structural Flagyl Tablets 500mg requirements for the direct hepatotoxicity of the NSAIDs. Diflunisal (salicylic acids), flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid (anthranilic acids), diclofenac, indomethacin, acemetacin (arylacetic acids) and flurbiprofen (arylpropionic acids) caused significant LDH leakage, indicating that substituent position of a carboxyl group does not relate to the hepatotoxicity of the NSAIDs. Because the cytotoxic NSAIDs were of two types as classified by their "skeleton," diphenyl and diphenylamine, we tested the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Diphenyl did not cause LDH leakage, but diflunisal, which has the diphenyl structure, was cytotoxic. On the other hand, diphenylamine induced LDH leakage to the same degree as diclofenac, which has the diphenylamine structure. Therefore, diphenylamine itself was suggested to be responsible for the cytotoxicity of diclofenac and anthranilic acids, whereas a substituted group(s) in addition to diphenyl structure seems to be important for diflunisal cytotoxicity. All of the cytotoxic NSAIDs and diphenylamine extensively decreased hepatocellular ATP content, whereas the noncytotoxic NSAID did not, indicating that the NSAID-induced decrease in ATP, probably by their uncoupling effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, is involved in the hepatotoxicity of the NSAIDs.

ponstel drug 2016-08-09

The transformation kinetics of mefenamic acid form II to form I in three kinds of solvents and under high humidity conditions were extensively investigated. Form II crystals were suspended in water, 50% ethanol and ethanol at 28, 33 and 37 degrees C, or stored at 50, 60 and 70 degrees C at 97% RH. Form II transformed to form I under all storage conditions and the rate of transformation depended on the kind of solvent. The transformation followed the three-dimensional nuclei growth mechanism, depending on temperature. The nuclei formation and growth processes were significantly accelerated in ethanol compared with water. The addition of seed crystals of the stable form I shortened the both nuclei formation and growth processes and therefore the transformation was accelerated.

ponstel cost 2017-07-18

Triphasic depressor-pressor-depressor blood pressure responses to neurotensin (NT: 1.67 micrograms/kg i.v.) in anesthetized rats were not elicited when the second dose of NT was administered 20 min after the first injection. Pretreatment of animals with histamine markedly reduced the depressor response to NT, and vice versa. The triphasic blood pressure pattern remained unaffected with acetylcholine and serotonin treatment, and hypotensive effects of acetylcholine and serotonin were not modified by NT. Attenuation of depressor response induced by the second injection of NT was antagonized by pretreatment with prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as indomethacin, mefenamic acid and acetylsalicylic acid. These results suggest that histamine and prostaglandins play a role in the development of desensitization to NT in rat blood pressure.

ponstel generic price 2017-05-06

Exacerbation of heart tissue damage by reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium is a well documented phenomenon. The present study was undertaken to evaluate prostaglandin (PG) involvement in reperfusion-induced damage of isolated globally ischemic rat hearts. Reperfusion produced significant increases in creatinephosphokinase (CPK) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux which was accompanied by enhanced PG release. Three non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs; indomethacin, mefenamic acid and ASA, and the steroidal agents; dexamethasone, hydrocortisone and methylprednisolone significantly reduced both the release of CPK and PGs upon reperfusion whereas only indomethacin and mefenamic acid decreased LDH release. There was a significant correlation between the inhibition of PG synthesis and the attenuation of CPK leakage by both non-steroidal (P less than 0.001) and steroidal (P = 0.02) antiinflammatory agents. In spite of beneficial effects on enzyme release, drug treatment did not enhance recovery of mechanical function after reperfusion. The results suggest that inhibition of PG biosynthesis may be beneficial in preserving membrane, particularly mitochondrial integrity of the reperfused myocardium.

buy ponstel online 2015-03-27

Firstly, we measured the blocking potencies and selectivities of fenamates on TRPM3 and TRPV4 as well as TRPC6 and TRPM2 by Ca(2+) imaging in the heterologous HEK293 cell system. Secondly, we further investigated the effects of mefenamic acid on cytosolic Ca(2+) and on the membrane voltage in single HEK293 cells that exogenously express TRPM3. Thirdly, in insulin-secreting INS-1E cells, which endogenously express TRPM3, we validated the effect of mefenamic acid on cytosolic Ca(2+) and insulin secretion.

ponstel drug interaction 2015-03-25

The inclusion criteria were randomised comparisons of individual NSAIDs with either each other, placebo or other medical treatments in women with regular heavy periods measured either objectively or subjectively and with no pathological or iatrogenic (treatment induced) causes for their heavy menstrual blood loss.

ponstel generic cost 2016-08-20

An automated synthesis system using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) system and column packed with octadecylsilica (ODS), which was coated with phospholipid and loaded with dog liver microsomes, was developed for synthesis of glucuronides. Preparation of the microsome-immobilized SPE column, glucuronidation of drugs to synthesize the glucuronides and elution of the products were performed by an automated synthesis system. The phospholipid-coated SPE column and then the microsome-immobilized SPE column were readily prepared by allowing a solution containing L-alpha-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine to flow through the SPE column, and then by recycling a buffer solution containing dog liver microsomes through the resulting phospholipid-coated SPE column. The microsome-immobilized SPE column exhibiting the uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase activity catalyzed the glucuronidation of mefenamic acid and estradiol to the corresponding glucuronides in the presence of UDP-glucuronic acid, and three glucuronides of mefenamic acid and estradiol were synthesized using the automated synthesis system, by simply recycling a buffer solution containing UDP-glucuronic acid through the microsome-immobilized SPE column loaded with the substrate. We used beta-cyclodextrin as a solubilizing agent for the synthesis of the glucuronides of estradiol that is practically insoluble in aqueous solutions. The productivity of these glucuronides using the microsome-immobilized SPE column was higher than that using the free microsomes (batch method). Furthermore, we developed a fully automated synthesis-isolation system by coupling the automated synthesis system to an automated preparative HPLC system. The automated synthesis system as well as the fully automated synthesis-isolation system should be very useful for synthesizing glucuronides for drug development.

ponstel dosage dysmenorrhea 2015-11-23

Primary dysmenorrhea is a prevalent problem and its effects decrease the quality of life in many women across the world. The aim of this study was to research the effect of Teucrium polium compared to mefenamic acid on primary dysmenorrhea.

ponstel pills 2016-11-25

Women were randomized after levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system placement to oral tranexamic acid (500 mg), mefenamic acid (500 mg), or placebo three times daily during bleeding or spotting episodes over a 90-day treatment period. Treatment was initiated from onset of a bleeding or spotting episode and continued until the first day after bleeding or spotting stopped and restarted with a new bleeding or spotting episode. The primary efficacy variable was reduction in the number of bleeding or spotting days. Tranexamic acid and mefenamic acid were compared with placebo using a one-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Bonferroni-Holm adjustment was used to account for multiple testing.