In vitro and in vivo experiments were used to determine the relationship between 5-hydroxytryptaminergic and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in regulation of growth hormone secretion in cattle. Activation of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic receptors (10(-8), 10(-6), 10(-4) M quipazine) or alpha 2-adrenergic receptors (10(-8), 10(-6), 10(-4) M clonidine) had no effect on secretion of growth hormone from perifused anterior pituitary cells. In vivo, quipazine (0.2 mg/kg body wt, i.v.) and clonidine (8 micrograms/kg body wt, i.v.), when injected separately, each maximized secretion of growth hormone in Holstein steers. However, concurrent administration of quipazine and clonidine at these doses additively increased secretion of growth hormone (mean areas under curves = 439, 914, 1425, and 2359 +/- a pooled SEM of 246 ng.ml-1.min for vehicle, clonidine, quipazine, and quipazine plus clonidine treatments, respectively). Blockade of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic receptors with cyproheptadine (0.2 or 1.0 mg/kg body wt, s.c., 0740 hr) decreased basal concentrations of growth hormone but had no effect on the ability of clonidine (8 micrograms/kg body wt, i.v., 0840 hr) to increase secretion of growth hormone (mean areas under curves = 591, 1218, 363, 1087, and 1002 +/- a pooled SEM of 177 ng.ml-1.min for vehicle-vehicle, vehicle-clonidine, 0.2 mg cyproheptadine-vehicle, 0.2 mg cyproheptadine-clonidine and 1.0 mg cyproheptadine-clonidine treatments, respectively). Blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors with either yohimbine (5 mg/kg body wt, s.c., 0740 hr) or idazoxan (20 mg/kg body wt, s.c., 0740 hr) suppressed both basal and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic receptor-stimulated (0.2 mg quipazine/kg body wt, i.v., 0840 hr) secretion of growth hormone (mean areas under curves = 568, 1252, 410, and 558 +/- a pooled SEM of 108 ng.ml-1.min for vehicle-vehicle, vehicle-quipazine, yohimbine-vehicle, and yohimbine-quipazine treatments, respectively, and means of 553, 1468, 194, and 686 +/- a pooled SEM of 221 ng.ml-1.min for vehicle-vehicle, vehicle-quipazine, idazoxan-vehicle, and idazoxan-quipazine treatments, respectively). We conclude that two mechanisms in the central nervous system mediate 5-hydroxytryptaminergic receptor-stimulated secretion of growth hormone in cattle; one independent and another dependent on alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, possibly via regulation of basal growth hormone secretion. In contrast, alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-induced secretion of growth hormone occurs independently of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic receptors.
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Both histamine (0.001-10 micromol/l) and LTD(4) (0.001-10 micromol/l) produced a concentration-dependent increase in the lumen area of nasal mucosa arteries and veins. Histamine (0.01 micromol/l) alone produced a 24 and 12% increase in cross-sectional areas of arteries and veins, respectively. LTD(4) (0.001 micromol/l) alone increased artery and vein dilation by about 17 and 9%, respectively. Combination treatment with histamine (0.01 micromol/l) and LTD(4) (0.001 micromol/l) increased vessel dilation by 65% (arteries) and 26% (veins). In our in vivo Brown Norway rat studies, oral loratadine (0.01-10 mg/kg) and montelukast (0.01-10 mg/kg) significantly reduced antigen-induced total nasal inflammatory cell infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. The antiinflammatory dose-response curve of loratadine was shifted to the left when studied in combination with montelukast (0.01 mg/kg). Similarly, the dose-response characteristics of montelukast (0.01-10 mg/kg) was shifted in the presence of loratadine (0.01 mg/kg).
Infection with Trichinella spiralis in mice was accompanied by allergic sensitization as evidenced by anaphylactic death after intravenous injection of the antigen. Pre-treatment of the animals with oxatomide, a new orally active anti-allergic drug, resulted in significant protection of the animals; the lowest effective dose of the compound was 1.25 mg/kg orally. In contrast to cyproheptadine, oxatomide offered little protection against serotonin toxicity in mice. The present data suggest that, in this model of systemic hypersensitivity, the anti-anaphylactic effect of oxatomide can be attributed mainly to inhibition of release of allergic mediators.
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The semi-aerobic landfill is a widely accepted landfill concept in Japan because it promotes stabilization of leachates and waste via passive aeration without using any type of mechanical equipment. Ambient air is thought to be supplied to the landfill through a perforated pipe network made of leachate collection pipe laid along the bottom and a vertically erected gas vent. However, its underlying air flow path and driving forces are unclear because empirical data from real-world landfills is inadequate. The objective of this study is to establish scientific evidence about the aeration mechanisms and air flow path by an on-site survey of a full-scale, semi-aerobic landfill. First, all passive vents located in the landfill were monitored with respect to temperature level and gas velocity in different seasons. We found a linear correlation between the outflow rate and gas temperature, suggesting that air flow is driven by a buoyancy force caused by the temperature difference between waste in the landfill and the ambient temperature. Some vents located near the landfill bottom acted as air inflow vents. Second, we conducted a tracer test to determine the air flow path between two vents, by injecting tracer gas from an air sucking vent. The resulting slowly increasing gas concentration at the neighboring vent suggested that fresh air flow passes through the waste layer toward the gas vents from leachate collection pipes, as well as directly flowing through the pipe network. Third, we monitored the temperature of gas flowing out of a vent at night. Since the temperature drop of the gas was much smaller than that of the environment, the air collected at the gas vents was estimated to flow mostly through the waste layer, i.e., the semi-aerobic landfill has considerable aeration ability under the appropriate conditions.
Bivalve siphons have important functional roles in nutritional physiology, defense, and reproductive mechanisms, yet little is known about their neuromuscular control. In the present study, tension measurements and video observations of siphons and adjacent mantle tissue were used to investigate responses to serotonin (5-HT). 5-HT caused relaxation at 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M, contraction or biphasic responses at 10(-4) M and 10(-3) M, and siphon opening at 10(-4) M and 10(-3) M. Responses were slow and lasted 5-10 min after much shorter (20 s) applications of 5-HT. The relaxation phase was enhanced in high potassium medium. Contractile responses could be mimicked by alpha-1-methyl-5-HT and 2-methyl-5-HT but not by 8-OH-DPAT. The responses were not affected by methiothepin, TFMPP, 1-(1-naphthyl)piperazine, metergoline, NAN-190, mianserin, cyproheptadine, and ketanserin. The pharmacology of the 5-HT receptor(s) mediating these siphon/mantle responses is, therefore, different from previously described 5-HT receptors involved in spawning. The siphon/mantle contains previously undescribed longitudinal muscle fibers in the mantle and circular muscle fibers around the siphons. Serotonergic innervation of the siphon margins and mantle tissue was observed by immunohistology. The presence of 5-HT in the siphon/mantle tissue and the responsiveness of these preparations to 5-HT suggest that 5-HT may be a physiological regulator of mantle and siphon movements in the zebra mussel.
The metabolism of the antihistamine azatadine by the zygomycete fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 9245 was investigated. Within 72 h from the addition of the drug to 48-h-old cultures grown in Sabouraud dextrose broth, 95% of azatadine was biotransformed. Two major metabolites, 7-hydroxyazatadine (25%) and 8-hydroxyazatadine (50%), and two minor metabolites, N-desmethylazatadine and 9-hydroxyazatadine, were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized by mass spectrometric and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses.
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From the galls of Pistacia terebinthus we obtained an extract that proved to be effective against chronic and acute inflammation. Now we report on the isolation and identification of three triterpenes: two tirucallane-type lanostanoids and one oleanane, which we have identified as masticadienonic acid (1), masticadienolic acid (2), and morolic acid (3), respectively. All of them showed effectiveness on the mouse ear inflammation induced by repeated applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and on the phospholipase A2-induced foot paw edema. The pharmacological activity of the compounds was ratified by a histological study of the ear samples. In addition, they inhibited leukotriene B4 production in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated with calcium ionophore A 23187.
A 5-year-old male domestic longhair cat was examined because of urine spraying and masturbation. The cat had sprayed urine from the time it was acquired as a stray 4 years earlier. The cat was cryptorchid, and at 1 year of age, the scrotal testicle was removed. The cryptorchid testicle was surgically removed several months later; however, urine spraying and masturbation persisted. A diagnosis of territorial marking and separation anxiety was made. Serum testosterone concentration was within the reference range for sexually intact male cats. Treatment included behavior modification and administration of cyproheptadine (2 mg, p.o., q 12 h), which has been shown to have antiandrogenic effects in other species. Frequency of urine marking and masturbation decreased, along with serum testosterone concentration. The cat continued to do well as long as medication was given consistently. Eventually, the cat underwent a laparotomy for removal of remnant testicular tissues but was then lost to follow-up.
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Information was retrieved from a MEDLINE English-literature search from January 1986 to July 1998 and by review of references. Indexing terms included sexual dysfunction, antidepressants, selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, clomipramine, buspirone, nefazodone, bupropion, cyproheptadine, amantadine, yohimbine, and central nervous system stimulants.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially ibuprofen, should be preferred to acetaminophen for acute attacks of migraine or tension-type headache, because they were usually more effective and well tolerated. Triptans could be used more frequently as first or almost second choice for treating migraine attack in adolescents. Non-pharmacological preventive treatments are recommended by some pediatric guidelines as first-line interventions for primary headaches and their use should be implemented in clinical practice. Prospective multicenter studies based on larger series are warranted to better understand the best treatment strategies for young people with primary headaches.
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The current double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-center studies were undertaken to determine the safety and tolerability of desloratadine syrup in children aged 2 years-11 years with AR or CIU. Over 14 days, subjects aged 2 years-5 years were randomly assigned to receive once a day either 1.25 mg of desloratadine syrup (0.5 mg/mL) or matching placebo, and subjects aged 6 years-11 years were randomly assigned to receive once a day either 2.5 mg of desloratadine syrup or matching placebo. Safety evaluations included adverse event report collection, monitoring of vital signs, clinical laboratory measurements, and standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements.
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Results showed that eNO in children with perennial allergic rhinitis was reduced by nasal budesonide and oral montelukast within 2 weeks (24.56 +/- 14.42 vs 18.42 +/- 12.48, P < 0.001, in budesonide group; 27.81 +/- 13.4 vs 19.09 +/- 10.45, P < 0.001, in montelukast group), but not in the loratadine and cromoglycate groups. In contrast, loratadine or sodium cromoglycate also did not decrease eNO levels although they could decrease the symptom scores.
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Drug selection for optimal treatment of allergic rhinitis may be difficult and involve many diverse factors.
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Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative condition characterized by dysfunction in striatal and cortical neurons. There are currently no approved drugs known to slow the progression of HD.
A randomised, open-label, single dose crossover study in which healthy adults received a single, oral dose of desloratadine 7.5mg, 50% greater than the recommended dose of 5mg, under fed or fasted conditions and were then crossed over to receive the other treatment regimen.
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The patients in our series improved significantly when the serotonin antagonist cyproheptadine was added to their regimens. Fever dropped at least 1.5 degrees C, and heart rate dropped from rates of 120 to 140 to less than 100bpm. Reflexes, tone, and myoclonus also decreased. Patients reported dramatic reduction in itching after cyproheptadine. These changes were associated temporally with cyproheptadine dosing.
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1. The effects of an extract of Ginkgo biloba (Gb) were studied using the guinea-pig isolated ileum. 2. Using isometric recording, the dose-response relation for the action of Gb was complex, and at 400 micrograms/ml was reproducibly biphasic--a relaxation followed by a contraction. 3. Droperidol (3 X 10(-7) M - 10(-6) M), cyproheptadine (10(-7) M), and diphenhydramine (10(-7) M) prolonged the relaxation and usually decreased the amplitude of the contraction produced by Gb (400 micrograms/ml), whereas phentolamine, hexamethonium, methysergide, or cimetidine (10(-7) or 10(-6) M) did not affect the response to Gb. 4. The action of Gb on the guinea-pig ileum might involve mechanisms associated with dopamine and/or histamine.
Desloratadine (5 mg) appears to be free of adverse effects on psychomotor performance, daytime sleep latencies, and subjective sleepiness, and could prove suitable for those involved in skilled activity and transportation.
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Mycosis fungoides and its leukaemic counterpart Sézary syndrome are the most frequent cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL), and there is no cure for these diseases. We evaluated the effect of clinically approved antihistamines on the growth of CTCL cell lines. CTCL cell lines as well as blood lymphocytes from patients with Sézary syndrome were cultured with antihistamines, and the cell were analysed for proliferation, apoptosis and expression of programmed death molecules and transcription factors. The two antihistamines clemastine and desloratadine, currently used for symptom alleviation in allergy, induced potent reduction of the activities of the constitutively active transcription factors c-Myc, STAT3, STAT5a and STAT5b in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome cell lines. This inhibition was followed by apoptosis and cell death, especially in the Sézary syndrome-derived cell line Hut78 that also showed increased expression of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) after clemastine treatment. In lymphocytes isolated from Sézary syndrome patients, the CD4-positive fraction underwent apoptosis after clemastine treatment, while CD4-negative lymphocytes were little affected. Because both c-Myc and STAT transcription factors are highly expressed in proliferating tumours, their inhibition by clemastine, desloratadine and other inhibitors could complement established chemotherapies not only for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas but perhaps also other cancers.
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We aimed to identify the prescription patterns for anticholinergic drugs in elderly outpatients with a documented diagnosis of dementia through a retrospective analysis of electronic medical records. In addition, the study aimed to identify factors influencing these prescription patterns.
The competitive (non-inactivating) antagonists clozapine and mesulergine released the wash-resistant [(3)H]risperidone binding to the h5-HT(7) receptor. The competitive antagonists clozapine, SB269970, mianserin, cyproheptadine, mesulergine, and ICI169369 reactivated the risperidone-inactivated h5-HT(7) receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The potencies for reactivation closely match the affinities of these drugs for the h5-HT(7) receptor (r(2) = 0.95), indicating that the reactivating antagonists are binding to and producing their effects through the orthosteric binding site of the h5-HT(7) receptor. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analyses indicate that the h5-HT(7) receptor forms homodimers.
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2 antagonist, on 5-HT-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated porcine coronary artery preincubated with ketanserin (3 x 10(-6) M) and precontracted by U 46619 (5 x 10(-9) M) and compare its effects with other 5-HT2 antagonists such as ritanserin and cyproheptadine. The investigation showed that sarpogrelate (10(-7)-10(-5) M) had a weak antagonistic effect on 5-HT-induced relaxation and its effect was weaker than that of ritanserin (10(-9)-10(-7) M) and cyproheptadine (10(-8)-10(-6) M). The rank order of the antagonistic effects was: ritanserin > cyproheptadine > sarpogrelate. The study also showed that both sarpogrelate and ritanserin had no inhibitory effect on bradykinin-induced relaxation. In our previous study, we investigated the binding affinity of sarpogrelate, ritanserin and cyproheptadine to the 5-HT2A-receptor in rabbit cerebral cortex membranes and the pKi values found were 7.22, 8.98 and 7.54, respectively (M. Rashid et al., Jpn J Pharmacol 87, 189-194, 2001). Rank order of the calculated ratio of concentration of pA2 or pD'2 vs Ki was: sarpogrelate > ritanserin > cyproheptadine. Thus, these findings suggest that sarpogrelate has the lowest antagonistic effect on 5-HT-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and the highest selectivity towards 5-HT2A receptor and might also be the safest drug with respect to its clinical implications in comparison with ritanserin and cyproheptadine.
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To present our experience using cyproheptadine, a potent serotonin antagonist used to stimulate appetite, to treat dyspeptic symptoms in children.
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Amplitude of contraction of uterine smooth muscle and skeletal muscle.
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Recently, we demonstrated improvements in hind limb locomotor-like movements following grafting of embryonic raphe nuclei cells into the spinal cord below the level of total transection in adult rats. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether this improvement was due to newly established serotonergic innervation between the graft and the host. Two months after intraspinal grafting of the embryonic raphe nuclei, the spinalized rats, when put on a treadmill, could be induced to walk with regular alternating hind limb movements with the plantar contact with the ground during the stance phase, and ankle dorsiflexion during the swing phase of each step cycle. In the same situation the spinal rats, that did not receive the graft, were not able to initiate the dorsiflexion of the ankle joint during the swing phase and very often the dorsal surface of the foot was dragged along the ground. Intraperitoneal application of directly acting 5-HT2 antagonist Cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg) impaired reversibly the hind limb locomotor-like movements in grafted rats. This impairment lasted for 2-3 h. The same procedure in control rats did not markedly alter the hind limb locomotor-like movements. The effect of Cyproheptadine in grafted rats was reversed by i.p. injections of the 5-HT2 agonist Quipazine (0.5 mg/kg). These results show that the graft-induced restitution of hind limb locomotor abilities in adult spinal rats is brought about by the new serotonergic innervation of the host spinal cord circuitry from the grafted neurons and is mediated by 5-HT2 receptors.
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The LC-MS/MS method can be used for simultaneous determination of desloratadine and 3-OH desloratadine in human plasma, which has been successfully applied-to a bioequivalence study.
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The effects of serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on sympathetic nervous discharge (SND) recorded from the external carotid and splanchnic nerves were studied in baroreceptor-denervated cats. Intravenous administration of the 5-HT antagonists methysergide (0.025-1.6 mg/kg), metergoline (0.01-0.32 mg/kg), cyproheptadine (0.05-1.6 mg/kg) and cinanserin (0.2-6.4 mg/Kg) was associated with a prolonged dose-related inhibition of SND. Maximum reductions in SND produced by methysergide, metergoline, cyproheptadine and cinanserin were 90, 72, 71 and 50%, respectively. In contrast, a progressive increase in SND was observed in vehicle control animals. Methysergide, metergoline and cyproheptadine failed to reduce SND in cats pretreated with the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine. Clonidine (20 micrograms/kg i.v.) significantly inhibited SND (-73%) in p-chlorophenylalanine-treated cats. The selective 5-HT agonists 5-methoxydimethyltryptamine and lisuride also reduced SND in a dose-dependent manner. The time course of the depressor effects of 5-methoxydimethyltryptamine and lisuride correlate well to their ability to inhibit 5-HT cell firing. These data indicate that 5-HT agonists which act presynaptically to inhibit 5-HT cell firing and antagonists which act postsynaptically to block the effect of synaptically released 5-HT both mediate a central reduction in SND. It is concluded that central 5-HT neurons facilitate transmission in central sympathetic pathways.