Thirty-three patients with advanced Parkinson's disease complicated by end of dose deterioration were treated with bromocriptine. The drug was slowly increased so that by treatment week 24 the mean daily dose of bromocriptine was 22mg and levodopa had been decreased by an average of 15 percent. The majority of improvement in daily fluctuations and Parkinsonian disability score was documented by 8 weeks, at which time the mean daily bromocriptine dose was only 12mg. End of dose deterioration was reduced in 78 percent of the patients (mean 43% improvement). Total Parkinsonian disability score was decreased by 33 percent. Adverse effects were minimal; the most common was mild transient early treatment nausea which occurred in 15 percent of the patients. The slow introduction of small doses of bromocriptine, combined with minimal levodopa reduction, can give Parkinsonian patients significant improvement in end of dose deterioration.
To observe the maternal and perinatal outcome in pituitary tumor (macro- and micro-adenoma) during pregnancy.
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The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of valvular heart abnormalities in patients taking dopamine agonists as treatment for lactotrope pituitary tumors and to explore any associations with the cumulative dose of drug used.
PRL plays a diverse role in men's reproduction and health. Detecting and treating elevated PRL may not only improve infertility and hypogonadism but also have a positive effect on the metabolic profile of patient and control of glycemic control and metabolic profile - an important advantage considering dramatic and worldwide increase in obesity and diabetes.
Effects of inhibiting prolactin secretion and of calf removal at 3 d postpartum on the lipogenic capacity of s.c. adipose tissue were investigated in postpartum beef cows. The rate of fatty acid synthesis (SYN) from [1-14C]acetate and the activity of fatty acid synthetase (FAS) were assessed on adipose tissue obtained by biopsy at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 wk postpartum. Administration of bromocriptine (BR; a drug that suppresses prolactin secretion in rats) between d 7 and 42 postpartum decreased average serum prolactin concentrations nearly 90%, but BR had no effect on lipogenic rates at any week compared to control (CO) cows. Rates of SYN (nmol acetate.min-1.g-1 tissue) increased linearly in CO and BR cows from a nadir of 3.1 at wk 1 to 19.3 by wk 8. Within CO and BR, cows with the greater energy intake relative to requirements for lactation (energy balance) had the faster rates of recovery of SYN. Cows whose calves were weaned early (3 d) showed rapid early increases in SYN, reaching an average maximum rate of 46.2 by wk 2. Activity of FAS generally followed a pattern similar to that of SYN for all groups. Results indicate that prolactin is not responsible for low rates of postpartum lipogenesis in s.c. adipose tissue and that energy intake influences the rate of recovery.
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Bone metabolism was studied in 17 acromegalic patients, who responded to either medical treatment with bromocriptine (12 patients), or to transsphenoidal surgery (5 patients). Parameters of bone turnover decreased, e.g. serum acid phosphatase (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs 8.1 +/- 0.6 U/l, P less than 0.05) and the ratio of hydroxyproline/creatinine (33.6 +/- 4.4 vs 18.3 +/- 2.0, P less than 0.01) in the urine. No changes were observed in parathyroid function or concentrations of calcitonin. Serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol decreased (32.6 +/- 3.6 vs 20.6 +/- 1.8 ng/l, P less than 0.01) and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increased (4.3 +/- 0.6 vs 6.7 +/- 1.0 micrograms/l, P less than 0.05). No correlation between the percentual changes in serum growth hormone levels and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol was found, suggesting an indirect effect of growth hormone on the renal 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-1-alpha-hydroxylase. The possible mechanisms involved are discussed, including the effects of growth hormone and somatomedin on bone.
Low-dose bromocriptine administered for antipsychotic drug-induced hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea precipitated an acute psychotic state in a female patient. Discontinuation of the bromocriptine and increase in antipsychotic dosage resulted in complete remission. We advise caution in the use of bromocriptine especially in patients with a pre-existing psychiatric history and recommend monitoring for changes in mental status when bromocriptine is prescribed.
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To evaluate the effect of bromocriptine withdrawal after dopaminergic long-term treatment (15.0 +/- 6.8 mg/day, mean +/- SD) in 12 acromegalic patients on body composition, bioelectrical impedance was measured before and at the end of two weeks of drug withdrawal. During withdrawal basal hGH and IGF-I increased from 2.5 +/- 1.9 micrograms/l and 2.1 +/- 0.8 kU/l to 9.1 +/- 11.7 micrograms/l and 4.9 +/- 2.2 kU/l, respectively, and the hGH secretion deteriorated significantly both after oral glucose load and in the TRH test, indicating recurrence of active acromegaly. Reactance and resistance decreased by 5 +/- 4 and 23 +/- 19 omega, respectively (p less than 0.01), whereas body weight remained constant (+0.4 +/- 2.1 kg). Bioelectrical impedance analysis indicated evident shifts in body composition, i.e. a significant reduction of body fat (-2.0 +/- 1.7 kg) and a simultaneous increase in both lean body mass (+2.4 +/- 2.2 kg) and total body water (+1.8 +/- 1.6 l). The changes in body composition were related to a combined effect of unsuppressed hypersomatotropism and the lack of bromocriptine actions other than inhibition of hGH secretion (for example stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by both the recurred hypersomatotropism and the absence of dopaminergic bromocriptine effects). We conclude that bioelectrical impedance analysis is a good additional tool to assess the pathophysiological effects of bromocriptine withdrawal in long-term treated acromegalic patients.
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Bromocriptine can significantly improve the symptoms of cyclical mastalgia, researchers from Manchester and Turin say.
Tumor volume on magnetic resonance images had completely disappeared in 50 patients (74%), while all the other 18 patients had residual tumor in the parasellar areas, invading the CS, and 14 patients had a secondary empty sella due to tumor shrinkage. Of those 14 patients, seven still had elevated PRL levels; five had optic chiasmal herniation by different degrees (P < 0.05). There were 49 patients with normal PRL levels (72%); five patients with PRL levels more than 200 ng/ml. After the treatment, 14 patients with tumor volume disappearance on MR images and PRL normalization therefore withdrew from bromocriptine therapy. During a subsequent one-and-a-half-year follow-up, tumor recurrence and PRL increase were not found in those 14 patients. Twenty-seven patients maintained normal PRL levels with low-dose bromocriptine, of which 20 patients had their tumor disappear while seven patients had CS residual tumor.
The management of non-functioning pituitary adenomas with bromocriptine is controversial, and surgical treatment is usually prescribed when the visual field is affected. Here we report, what we believe to be the first case of a patient with a non-functioning pituitary adenoma who experienced normalization of visual field defects and a substantial improvement in visual acuity after the parenteral administration of depot-bromocriptine. The patient's tolerance to the drug was excellent. The results of the immunohistochemical study of the surgically removed tumor were negative for PRL, GH, LH, FSH, TSH and ACTH. In our opinion, the use of depot-bromocriptine may represent an alternative to surgery in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas associated with visual lesions.
A consumer-protection assessment and action program aimed at improving reproductive health technologies is reviewed.
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Clinical study of eight cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was performed. These cases consisted of five prepubertal cases and three postpubertal cases induced by prolactin-producing hypophyseal tumor. The former five cases had the chief complaints of incomplete development of their external genitalia. The chief complaints in three postpubertal cases were decreased libido in two and infertility in one. The average testicular volumes were 7.8 ml and 20 ml in prepubertal and postpubertal cases, respectively. The basal levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) were within the normal limit in most cases and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were low in most cases. There were no differences between the levels of these hormones in prepubertal cases and those in postpubertal cases. The range of basal level of prolactin in blood was 92 mg/ml to 1,070 ng/ml in the postpubertal cases. The basal level of testosterone in blood was low in all cases. Most cases had rather good responses of LH and FSH after the administration of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. The plasma level of testosterone was elevated after the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in most cases. The appearance of sperm in the semen was observed after the hCG therapy in only one of the prepubertal cases. On the other hand, all the postpubertal cases showed almost normal findings in semen analysis after hormone therapy.
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The dopamine agonist parlodel was given to 42 patients with parkinsonism for several months. The drug proved effective in more than one-third of the patients. Different side-effects were observed in almost half of the patients. Parlodel may be used alone in mild cases but generally it is used as an adjunct to L-DOPA therapy. The optimum dose of parlodel is individual and varies within a wide range.
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Six women with elevated circulating levels of big big PRL (BBPRL) and apparently normal ovarian function were variously studied through a menstrual cycle and menstruation, through pregnancy and suckling, and during stimulation tests with TRH and suppression with bromocriptine. No significant changes in monomeric PRL were demonstrated during the menstrual cycle, but all subjects showed a small and significant rise in BBPRL during the preovulatory phase. High PRL levels were present in day 1 menstrual plasma, but BBPRL was only present in low concentrations. All subjects (n = 5) demonstrated a rise in both PRL and BBPRL during pregnancy, with a consistent tendency for PRL to increase to a proportionately greater extent than BBPRL. One subject exhibited a rise in PRL (by 93%), but not BBPRL, 30 min after suckling. TRH caused a brisk rise in PRL (by 363 +/- 116%) but only a sluggish rise in BBPRL (by 17.5 +/- 7.4%; n = 3). Bromocriptine rapidly suppressed PRL (by 81.8 +/- 34.4%), but only slowly suppressed BBPRL (by 21.0 +/- 8.7% after 6 h; n = 3). Plasma binding studies did not demonstrate any evidence of a circulating specific PRL-binding protein. These data indicate that plasma concentrations of BBPRL may vary under the influence of a number of factors, but are much less sensitive to TRH stimulation, bromocriptine suppression, pregnancy, and suckling than PRL. The occurrence of BBPRL does not seem to be due to a specific circulating binding protein.
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Twenty-four women with high circulating prolactin became pregnant on 39 occasions, of which 32 ended in delivery. Sixteen patients showed radiological evidence of pituitary tumour, 6 exhibited a normal CT and 2 had an empty sella. The pregnancies were induced in 4 patients after successful pituitary surgery, in 3 after surgery and medical treatment, and in the rest by bromocriptine (16) long-acting repeatable bromocriptine (1) and methergoline (1). No major complications related to hyperprolactinaemia or its treatment were observed during pregnancy in the patients or offspring. Prolactin after pregnancy was lower than before (basal 95 micrograms/l, after 1st pregnancy 38 micrograms/l P < 0.002, after 2nd pregnancy 24 micrograms/l P < 0.005 compared to basal prolactin); this prolactin reduction tended to be greater in the 9 multiparous patients, but did not attain statistical significance, probably because the number of multiparous patients was too small. A new empty sella developed after delivery in 4 women and persisted in another 2, all of which were medically treated; prolactin fell in all 6 cases normalizing in 3; 4 of these patients had undergone two or more pregnancies. The mean period of follow-up from the last pregnancy was 41.6 months (8-101). These data suggest that pregnancy may hasten a tendency to spontaneous improvement of hyperprolactinaemia, and multiparity may be beneficial in this way.
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Bromocriptine reduced 24-h TSH secretion (placebo, 29.8 +/- 4.6 mU/liter . 24 h, vs. bromocriptine, 22.4 +/- 3.7 mU/liter . 24 h; P = 0.001), whereas free T(4) and total T(3) concentrations did not change. Bromocriptine administration reduced the mesor and amplitude of the 24-h rhythm without resetting the phase. The regularity of the subordinate TSH pattern and synchrony between leptin and TSH were unaffected by bromocriptine.
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The nitric oxide (NO)-arginine pathway is intimately connected to the release of dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter system that may be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Both schizophrenic patients and rats treated with DA agonists present deficits in sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI).
Apathy is defined as reduced goal-directed behavior due to lack of motivation. Traumatic brain injury is a frequent cause. Drugs activating the dopaminergic system provide variable benefit. A 30-year-old patient was the victim of a severe head injury with frontal bruise at the age of 15. At the request of his family, he consulted for a 7-year history that included a lack of initiative and the inability to generate behavior spontaneously, contrasting with the ability to execute behaviors on command. He also presented indifference, major emotional disruption without sadness, pessimism, and other depressive signs. The examination found a severe apathetic syndrome confirmed by specific scales with a mild impairment of executive functions and without depressive syndrome. Encephalic MRI showed atrophy of the whole prefrontal cerebral cortex. The patient was treated with bromocriptine, which he did not tolerate, then with Selegiline at 15 mg per day, which dramatically improved his symptoms. Apathy occurs frequently after traumatic brain injury, in 23-71% of patients according to the authors. The pathophysiology of apathy has been described in anatomical terms as related to disruption of frontal-subcortical pathways. The biochemical hypothesis postulates a disruption in dopaminergic activity. The use of dopaminergic agents usually improves cases similar to our patient. Apathy is frequent following head injury, warranting a search for systematic causes. Since it increases dopaminergic activity, Selegiline is well worth trying in these patients.
An adult schizophrenic patient developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome following treatment with parenteral haloperidol. An early recognition of the syndrome, immediate discontinuation of the offending agent and prompt treatment with bromocriptine and lorazepam produced a good recovery. The various features of the case are discussed in view of the potential lethality of the syndrome.
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Administration of cis-flupenthixol (0.8-1.2 mg/kg per day) for 18 months enhanced stereotyped behaviour induced by apomorphine, bromocriptine and lergotrile, but not that induced by amphetamine or lisuride. Catalepsy induced by acute administration of haloperidol, trifluoperazine or cis-flupenthixol was reduced by continuous chronic intake of cis-flupenthixol. The number (Bmax) and dissociation constant (KD) of specific [3H]spiperone binding sites on striatal membranes was increased by chronic administration of cis-flupenthixol, but not trans-flupenthixol. In contrast, the Bmax and KD for specific binding of [3H]N,n-propylnorapomorphine were decreased by administration of cis-flupenthixol compared to the effect of the trans-isomer. Specific binding of [3H]piflutixol was unaffected by chronic administration of cis- or trans-flupenthixol, but chronic administration of cis-flupenthixol enhanced stimulation by dopamine of the activity of striatal adenylate cyclase. As a result of chronic continuous administration of cis-flupenthixol dopamine receptors in the striatum appeared to be supersensitive to most dopamine agonists but sub-sensitive to dopamine antagonists. This was reflected by increased numbers of D-2 antagonist receptor sites of decreased affinity, but by a decreased number of agonist sites of higher affinity. The D-1 recognition sites appeared to be unaltered, but activity of adenylate cyclase stimulated by dopamine was enhanced, suggesting post-junctional changes. The D-2 receptors appear to be primarily concerned with altered function of dopamine receptors.
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Prolactin is fundamental for the expression of maternal behaviour. In virgin female rats, prolactin administered upon steroid hormone priming accelerates the onset of maternal care. By contrast, the role of prolactin in mice maternal behaviour remains unclear. This study aims at characterizing central prolactin activity patterns in female mice and their variation through pregnancy and lactation. This was revealed by immunoreactivity of phosphorylated (active) signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5-ir), a key molecule in the signalling cascade of prolactin receptors. We also evaluated non-hypophyseal lactogenic activity during pregnancy by administering bromocriptine, which suppresses hypophyseal prolactin release. Late-pregnant and lactating females showed significantly increased pSTAT5-ir resulting in a widespread pattern of immunostaining with minor variations between pregnant and lactating animals, which comprises nuclei of the sociosexual and maternal brain, including telencephalic (septum, nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala), hypothalamic (preoptic, paraventricular, supraoptic, and ventromedial), and midbrain (periaqueductal grey) regions. During late pregnancy, this pattern was not affected by the administration of bromocriptine, suggesting it to be elicited mostly by non-hypophyseal lactogenic agents, likely placental lactogens. Virgin females displayed, instead, a variable pattern of pSTAT5-ir restricted to a subset of the brain nuclei labelled in pregnant and lactating mice. A hormonal substitution experiment confirmed that estradiol and progesterone contribute to the variability found in virgin females. Our results reflect how the shaping of the maternal brain takes place prior to parturition and suggest that lactogenic agents are important candidates in the development of maternal behaviours already during pregnancy.
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Twelve patients, six women and six men, with macroprolactinomas characterized by extrasellar extension and basal plasma prolactin levels greater than 6 U/l were treated with 10-20 mg bromocriptine daily in four divided doses for a mean period of 2.4 years (range 0.5-3.5 years). The following observations were made: Plasma prolactin levels fell dramatically in all patients and values in the low normal range were obtained in 10 patients. Tumour size was reduced by more than 75% in 11 patients and by 50-75% in one patient. Tumour-reduction was associated with the development of a partial empty sella in eight cases. In four cases the pituitary became visible. Diminished visual acuity (three patients), bitemporal hemianopia (three patients), unilateral or bilateral central scotomas (three patients) and oculomotor palsy (two patients) restored to normal. Hypogonadism (all patients), hypothyroidism (six patients) and hypocorticism (three patients) improved or normalized in most cases. It is concluded that in the medical treatment of macroprolactinomas 10-20 mg bromocriptine in four divided doses effectively reduces both plasma prolactin level and tumour size.