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Parlodel

Generic Parlodel is the most effective preparation in struggle against female diseases as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Generic Parlodel can also be helpful for patients with Parkinson`s disease and its symptoms caused by low levels of dopamine in the brain. Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Apokyn, Mirapex, Requip

 

Also known as:  Bromocriptine.

Description

Generic Parlodel is created using perfect medical formula which is a magnificent weapon against women problems such as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Target of Generic Parlodel is to reduce prolactin level and help to produce breast milk and fertility in women.

Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level. When it is used for treatment of Parkinson disease, it works by stimulating dopamine receptors in some certain brain parts.

Parlodel is also known as Bromocriptine, Proctinal.

Generic Parlodel is a hormone (dopamine agonist).

Generic Parlodel can't lead to vaginal bleeding, uterine or breast cancer, breast tenderness.

Generic name of Generic Parlodel is Bromocriptine.

Brand name of Generic Parlodel is Parlodel.

Dosage

Generic Parlodel is available in the form of tablets (2.5 mg) which should be taken by mouth with meals or without it.

Take Generic Parlodel every day at the same time and remember that its dosage depends on patient's health state.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Parlodel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Parlodel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Parlodel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are allergic to Generic Parlodel components.

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Generic Parlodel in case of having uncontrolled high blood pressure, blood poisoning, having recently given birth or have coronary artery disease (chest pain) or any other severe heart disease.

In case you take Generic Parlodel while using birth control pills, remember that birth control pills become less effective

Patients under 15 years should be extremely careful with Generic Parlodel.

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful when you are driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Parlodel taking suddenly.

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Thirty-three patients with advanced Parkinson's disease complicated by end of dose deterioration were treated with bromocriptine. The drug was slowly increased so that by treatment week 24 the mean daily dose of bromocriptine was 22mg and levodopa had been decreased by an average of 15 percent. The majority of improvement in daily fluctuations and Parkinsonian disability score was documented by 8 weeks, at which time the mean daily bromocriptine dose was only 12mg. End of dose deterioration was reduced in 78 percent of the patients (mean 43% improvement). Total Parkinsonian disability score was decreased by 33 percent. Adverse effects were minimal; the most common was mild transient early treatment nausea which occurred in 15 percent of the patients. The slow introduction of small doses of bromocriptine, combined with minimal levodopa reduction, can give Parkinsonian patients significant improvement in end of dose deterioration.

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To observe the maternal and perinatal outcome in pituitary tumor (macro- and micro-adenoma) during pregnancy.

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The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of valvular heart abnormalities in patients taking dopamine agonists as treatment for lactotrope pituitary tumors and to explore any associations with the cumulative dose of drug used.

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PRL plays a diverse role in men's reproduction and health. Detecting and treating elevated PRL may not only improve infertility and hypogonadism but also have a positive effect on the metabolic profile of patient and control of glycemic control and metabolic profile - an important advantage considering dramatic and worldwide increase in obesity and diabetes.

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Effects of inhibiting prolactin secretion and of calf removal at 3 d postpartum on the lipogenic capacity of s.c. adipose tissue were investigated in postpartum beef cows. The rate of fatty acid synthesis (SYN) from [1-14C]acetate and the activity of fatty acid synthetase (FAS) were assessed on adipose tissue obtained by biopsy at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 wk postpartum. Administration of bromocriptine (BR; a drug that suppresses prolactin secretion in rats) between d 7 and 42 postpartum decreased average serum prolactin concentrations nearly 90%, but BR had no effect on lipogenic rates at any week compared to control (CO) cows. Rates of SYN (nmol acetate.min-1.g-1 tissue) increased linearly in CO and BR cows from a nadir of 3.1 at wk 1 to 19.3 by wk 8. Within CO and BR, cows with the greater energy intake relative to requirements for lactation (energy balance) had the faster rates of recovery of SYN. Cows whose calves were weaned early (3 d) showed rapid early increases in SYN, reaching an average maximum rate of 46.2 by wk 2. Activity of FAS generally followed a pattern similar to that of SYN for all groups. Results indicate that prolactin is not responsible for low rates of postpartum lipogenesis in s.c. adipose tissue and that energy intake influences the rate of recovery.

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Bone metabolism was studied in 17 acromegalic patients, who responded to either medical treatment with bromocriptine (12 patients), or to transsphenoidal surgery (5 patients). Parameters of bone turnover decreased, e.g. serum acid phosphatase (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs 8.1 +/- 0.6 U/l, P less than 0.05) and the ratio of hydroxyproline/creatinine (33.6 +/- 4.4 vs 18.3 +/- 2.0, P less than 0.01) in the urine. No changes were observed in parathyroid function or concentrations of calcitonin. Serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol decreased (32.6 +/- 3.6 vs 20.6 +/- 1.8 ng/l, P less than 0.01) and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increased (4.3 +/- 0.6 vs 6.7 +/- 1.0 micrograms/l, P less than 0.05). No correlation between the percentual changes in serum growth hormone levels and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol was found, suggesting an indirect effect of growth hormone on the renal 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-1-alpha-hydroxylase. The possible mechanisms involved are discussed, including the effects of growth hormone and somatomedin on bone.

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Low-dose bromocriptine administered for antipsychotic drug-induced hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea precipitated an acute psychotic state in a female patient. Discontinuation of the bromocriptine and increase in antipsychotic dosage resulted in complete remission. We advise caution in the use of bromocriptine especially in patients with a pre-existing psychiatric history and recommend monitoring for changes in mental status when bromocriptine is prescribed.

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To evaluate the effect of bromocriptine withdrawal after dopaminergic long-term treatment (15.0 +/- 6.8 mg/day, mean +/- SD) in 12 acromegalic patients on body composition, bioelectrical impedance was measured before and at the end of two weeks of drug withdrawal. During withdrawal basal hGH and IGF-I increased from 2.5 +/- 1.9 micrograms/l and 2.1 +/- 0.8 kU/l to 9.1 +/- 11.7 micrograms/l and 4.9 +/- 2.2 kU/l, respectively, and the hGH secretion deteriorated significantly both after oral glucose load and in the TRH test, indicating recurrence of active acromegaly. Reactance and resistance decreased by 5 +/- 4 and 23 +/- 19 omega, respectively (p less than 0.01), whereas body weight remained constant (+0.4 +/- 2.1 kg). Bioelectrical impedance analysis indicated evident shifts in body composition, i.e. a significant reduction of body fat (-2.0 +/- 1.7 kg) and a simultaneous increase in both lean body mass (+2.4 +/- 2.2 kg) and total body water (+1.8 +/- 1.6 l). The changes in body composition were related to a combined effect of unsuppressed hypersomatotropism and the lack of bromocriptine actions other than inhibition of hGH secretion (for example stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by both the recurred hypersomatotropism and the absence of dopaminergic bromocriptine effects). We conclude that bioelectrical impedance analysis is a good additional tool to assess the pathophysiological effects of bromocriptine withdrawal in long-term treated acromegalic patients.

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Bromocriptine can significantly improve the symptoms of cyclical mastalgia, researchers from Manchester and Turin say.

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Tumor volume on magnetic resonance images had completely disappeared in 50 patients (74%), while all the other 18 patients had residual tumor in the parasellar areas, invading the CS, and 14 patients had a secondary empty sella due to tumor shrinkage. Of those 14 patients, seven still had elevated PRL levels; five had optic chiasmal herniation by different degrees (P < 0.05). There were 49 patients with normal PRL levels (72%); five patients with PRL levels more than 200 ng/ml. After the treatment, 14 patients with tumor volume disappearance on MR images and PRL normalization therefore withdrew from bromocriptine therapy. During a subsequent one-and-a-half-year follow-up, tumor recurrence and PRL increase were not found in those 14 patients. Twenty-seven patients maintained normal PRL levels with low-dose bromocriptine, of which 20 patients had their tumor disappear while seven patients had CS residual tumor.

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The management of non-functioning pituitary adenomas with bromocriptine is controversial, and surgical treatment is usually prescribed when the visual field is affected. Here we report, what we believe to be the first case of a patient with a non-functioning pituitary adenoma who experienced normalization of visual field defects and a substantial improvement in visual acuity after the parenteral administration of depot-bromocriptine. The patient's tolerance to the drug was excellent. The results of the immunohistochemical study of the surgically removed tumor were negative for PRL, GH, LH, FSH, TSH and ACTH. In our opinion, the use of depot-bromocriptine may represent an alternative to surgery in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas associated with visual lesions.

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A consumer-protection assessment and action program aimed at improving reproductive health technologies is reviewed.

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Clinical study of eight cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was performed. These cases consisted of five prepubertal cases and three postpubertal cases induced by prolactin-producing hypophyseal tumor. The former five cases had the chief complaints of incomplete development of their external genitalia. The chief complaints in three postpubertal cases were decreased libido in two and infertility in one. The average testicular volumes were 7.8 ml and 20 ml in prepubertal and postpubertal cases, respectively. The basal levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) were within the normal limit in most cases and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were low in most cases. There were no differences between the levels of these hormones in prepubertal cases and those in postpubertal cases. The range of basal level of prolactin in blood was 92 mg/ml to 1,070 ng/ml in the postpubertal cases. The basal level of testosterone in blood was low in all cases. Most cases had rather good responses of LH and FSH after the administration of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. The plasma level of testosterone was elevated after the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in most cases. The appearance of sperm in the semen was observed after the hCG therapy in only one of the prepubertal cases. On the other hand, all the postpubertal cases showed almost normal findings in semen analysis after hormone therapy.

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The dopamine agonist parlodel was given to 42 patients with parkinsonism for several months. The drug proved effective in more than one-third of the patients. Different side-effects were observed in almost half of the patients. Parlodel may be used alone in mild cases but generally it is used as an adjunct to L-DOPA therapy. The optimum dose of parlodel is individual and varies within a wide range.

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Six women with elevated circulating levels of big big PRL (BBPRL) and apparently normal ovarian function were variously studied through a menstrual cycle and menstruation, through pregnancy and suckling, and during stimulation tests with TRH and suppression with bromocriptine. No significant changes in monomeric PRL were demonstrated during the menstrual cycle, but all subjects showed a small and significant rise in BBPRL during the preovulatory phase. High PRL levels were present in day 1 menstrual plasma, but BBPRL was only present in low concentrations. All subjects (n = 5) demonstrated a rise in both PRL and BBPRL during pregnancy, with a consistent tendency for PRL to increase to a proportionately greater extent than BBPRL. One subject exhibited a rise in PRL (by 93%), but not BBPRL, 30 min after suckling. TRH caused a brisk rise in PRL (by 363 +/- 116%) but only a sluggish rise in BBPRL (by 17.5 +/- 7.4%; n = 3). Bromocriptine rapidly suppressed PRL (by 81.8 +/- 34.4%), but only slowly suppressed BBPRL (by 21.0 +/- 8.7% after 6 h; n = 3). Plasma binding studies did not demonstrate any evidence of a circulating specific PRL-binding protein. These data indicate that plasma concentrations of BBPRL may vary under the influence of a number of factors, but are much less sensitive to TRH stimulation, bromocriptine suppression, pregnancy, and suckling than PRL. The occurrence of BBPRL does not seem to be due to a specific circulating binding protein.

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Twenty-four women with high circulating prolactin became pregnant on 39 occasions, of which 32 ended in delivery. Sixteen patients showed radiological evidence of pituitary tumour, 6 exhibited a normal CT and 2 had an empty sella. The pregnancies were induced in 4 patients after successful pituitary surgery, in 3 after surgery and medical treatment, and in the rest by bromocriptine (16) long-acting repeatable bromocriptine (1) and methergoline (1). No major complications related to hyperprolactinaemia or its treatment were observed during pregnancy in the patients or offspring. Prolactin after pregnancy was lower than before (basal 95 micrograms/l, after 1st pregnancy 38 micrograms/l P < 0.002, after 2nd pregnancy 24 micrograms/l P < 0.005 compared to basal prolactin); this prolactin reduction tended to be greater in the 9 multiparous patients, but did not attain statistical significance, probably because the number of multiparous patients was too small. A new empty sella developed after delivery in 4 women and persisted in another 2, all of which were medically treated; prolactin fell in all 6 cases normalizing in 3; 4 of these patients had undergone two or more pregnancies. The mean period of follow-up from the last pregnancy was 41.6 months (8-101). These data suggest that pregnancy may hasten a tendency to spontaneous improvement of hyperprolactinaemia, and multiparity may be beneficial in this way.

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Bromocriptine reduced 24-h TSH secretion (placebo, 29.8 +/- 4.6 mU/liter . 24 h, vs. bromocriptine, 22.4 +/- 3.7 mU/liter . 24 h; P = 0.001), whereas free T(4) and total T(3) concentrations did not change. Bromocriptine administration reduced the mesor and amplitude of the 24-h rhythm without resetting the phase. The regularity of the subordinate TSH pattern and synchrony between leptin and TSH were unaffected by bromocriptine.

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The nitric oxide (NO)-arginine pathway is intimately connected to the release of dopamine (DA), a neurotransmitter system that may be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Both schizophrenic patients and rats treated with DA agonists present deficits in sensorimotor gating measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI).

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Apathy is defined as reduced goal-directed behavior due to lack of motivation. Traumatic brain injury is a frequent cause. Drugs activating the dopaminergic system provide variable benefit. A 30-year-old patient was the victim of a severe head injury with frontal bruise at the age of 15. At the request of his family, he consulted for a 7-year history that included a lack of initiative and the inability to generate behavior spontaneously, contrasting with the ability to execute behaviors on command. He also presented indifference, major emotional disruption without sadness, pessimism, and other depressive signs. The examination found a severe apathetic syndrome confirmed by specific scales with a mild impairment of executive functions and without depressive syndrome. Encephalic MRI showed atrophy of the whole prefrontal cerebral cortex. The patient was treated with bromocriptine, which he did not tolerate, then with Selegiline at 15 mg per day, which dramatically improved his symptoms. Apathy occurs frequently after traumatic brain injury, in 23-71% of patients according to the authors. The pathophysiology of apathy has been described in anatomical terms as related to disruption of frontal-subcortical pathways. The biochemical hypothesis postulates a disruption in dopaminergic activity. The use of dopaminergic agents usually improves cases similar to our patient. Apathy is frequent following head injury, warranting a search for systematic causes. Since it increases dopaminergic activity, Selegiline is well worth trying in these patients.

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An adult schizophrenic patient developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome following treatment with parenteral haloperidol. An early recognition of the syndrome, immediate discontinuation of the offending agent and prompt treatment with bromocriptine and lorazepam produced a good recovery. The various features of the case are discussed in view of the potential lethality of the syndrome.

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Administration of cis-flupenthixol (0.8-1.2 mg/kg per day) for 18 months enhanced stereotyped behaviour induced by apomorphine, bromocriptine and lergotrile, but not that induced by amphetamine or lisuride. Catalepsy induced by acute administration of haloperidol, trifluoperazine or cis-flupenthixol was reduced by continuous chronic intake of cis-flupenthixol. The number (Bmax) and dissociation constant (KD) of specific [3H]spiperone binding sites on striatal membranes was increased by chronic administration of cis-flupenthixol, but not trans-flupenthixol. In contrast, the Bmax and KD for specific binding of [3H]N,n-propylnorapomorphine were decreased by administration of cis-flupenthixol compared to the effect of the trans-isomer. Specific binding of [3H]piflutixol was unaffected by chronic administration of cis- or trans-flupenthixol, but chronic administration of cis-flupenthixol enhanced stimulation by dopamine of the activity of striatal adenylate cyclase. As a result of chronic continuous administration of cis-flupenthixol dopamine receptors in the striatum appeared to be supersensitive to most dopamine agonists but sub-sensitive to dopamine antagonists. This was reflected by increased numbers of D-2 antagonist receptor sites of decreased affinity, but by a decreased number of agonist sites of higher affinity. The D-1 recognition sites appeared to be unaltered, but activity of adenylate cyclase stimulated by dopamine was enhanced, suggesting post-junctional changes. The D-2 receptors appear to be primarily concerned with altered function of dopamine receptors.

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Prolactin is fundamental for the expression of maternal behaviour. In virgin female rats, prolactin administered upon steroid hormone priming accelerates the onset of maternal care. By contrast, the role of prolactin in mice maternal behaviour remains unclear. This study aims at characterizing central prolactin activity patterns in female mice and their variation through pregnancy and lactation. This was revealed by immunoreactivity of phosphorylated (active) signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5-ir), a key molecule in the signalling cascade of prolactin receptors. We also evaluated non-hypophyseal lactogenic activity during pregnancy by administering bromocriptine, which suppresses hypophyseal prolactin release. Late-pregnant and lactating females showed significantly increased pSTAT5-ir resulting in a widespread pattern of immunostaining with minor variations between pregnant and lactating animals, which comprises nuclei of the sociosexual and maternal brain, including telencephalic (septum, nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala), hypothalamic (preoptic, paraventricular, supraoptic, and ventromedial), and midbrain (periaqueductal grey) regions. During late pregnancy, this pattern was not affected by the administration of bromocriptine, suggesting it to be elicited mostly by non-hypophyseal lactogenic agents, likely placental lactogens. Virgin females displayed, instead, a variable pattern of pSTAT5-ir restricted to a subset of the brain nuclei labelled in pregnant and lactating mice. A hormonal substitution experiment confirmed that estradiol and progesterone contribute to the variability found in virgin females. Our results reflect how the shaping of the maternal brain takes place prior to parturition and suggest that lactogenic agents are important candidates in the development of maternal behaviours already during pregnancy.

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Twelve patients, six women and six men, with macroprolactinomas characterized by extrasellar extension and basal plasma prolactin levels greater than 6 U/l were treated with 10-20 mg bromocriptine daily in four divided doses for a mean period of 2.4 years (range 0.5-3.5 years). The following observations were made: Plasma prolactin levels fell dramatically in all patients and values in the low normal range were obtained in 10 patients. Tumour size was reduced by more than 75% in 11 patients and by 50-75% in one patient. Tumour-reduction was associated with the development of a partial empty sella in eight cases. In four cases the pituitary became visible. Diminished visual acuity (three patients), bitemporal hemianopia (three patients), unilateral or bilateral central scotomas (three patients) and oculomotor palsy (two patients) restored to normal. Hypogonadism (all patients), hypothyroidism (six patients) and hypocorticism (three patients) improved or normalized in most cases. It is concluded that in the medical treatment of macroprolactinomas 10-20 mg bromocriptine in four divided doses effectively reduces both plasma prolactin level and tumour size.

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parlodel 10 mg 2015-06-27

In experimental duodenal ulceration, dopamine levels, turnover, and binding sites are influenced. Dopamine agonists and antagonists exert anti- and proulcerogenic effect, respectively, probably by influencing duodenal hyper- or hypomotility, rather than effecting gastric secretion. The duodenal ulcerogenic effect of the dopamine neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) given to rats in multiple daily doses (p.o. or s.c.) also induced in a dose-dependent manner duodenal ulcers. Duodenal ulcers were prevented by pretreatment with dopamine agonists (e.g. bromocriptine, lergotrile) or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (e.g. pargyline or 1-deprenyl). Our hypothesis suggests that duodenal ulcerogens may interfere with the action of dopamine resulting in loss of the inhibitory function of dopamine, and producing tissue damage from the accumulated auto-oxidation products of dopamine. Alternatively a motility disorder buy parlodel online induced by cysteamine, propionitrile or MPTP may contribute to the pathogenesis probably by involving localized hyperacidity in the duodenal bulb because of decreased neutralization and impaired duodenal emptying of acid.

parlodel 5 mg 2016-10-27

Inbred male WF rats were castrated at 40 days of age and divided into 5 groups. Group I was given no further treatment. Groups III, IV, and V received pellet implants of 5.0 mg diethylstilbestrol (DES) concurrently with castration. At 50-55 days of age, groups II, IV, and V were given drinking water containing 5.0 mg N-nitrosobutylurea (NBU) per day for 30 days (subthreshold dose). At the termination of NBU treatment, group V further received daily sc injections of 2-bromoergocryptine (CB-154; 0.4 mg/100 g body wt) four times a week throughout the experiment. None of castrated rats or rats castrated and treated with NBU alone developed hepatic tumors (HT) and pituitary tumors (PT). Incidences of HT and PT in groups III, IV, and V were 4/9 (44%) and 7/9 (78%), 15/17 (88%) and 12/17 (71%), and 17/20 (85%) and 4/ buy parlodel online 20 (20%), respectively. The treatment of DES alone resulted in the concurrent development of HT and PT in castrated male rats (group III), and further NBU treatment significantly increased the incidence of HT (group IV). CB-154 treatment did not change the incidence of HT, the number of HT per rat, and the liver weight, although it significantly reduced the incidence of PT, the pituitary weight, and the serum prolactin level in castrated male rats given DES and NBU (group V). These results indicate that DES itself had a direct carcinogenic effect on the liver; this effect was not mediated by prolactin, and NBU increased the effect of DES in this process.

parlodel and alcohol 2016-05-18

A retrospective study was used to assess the diagnostic value of the metoclopramide (MCP)-stimulation test for diagnosing hormonal infertility in women. 1326 couples sought help at the hormone-counselling laboratories at the University Gynaecological Hospital in Heidelberg during buy parlodel online a six year period and were evaluated with a standardized diagnostic program. The patients were grouped as manifestly hyperprolactinaemic, normoprolactinaemic or functionally hyperprolactinaemic, according to their basal serum prolactin (Pr)-level, and the results of the MCP-stimulation test. The number of patients in the normoprolactinaemic group varied from 894 to 1188 and functionally hyperprolactinaemic varied from 263 to 19 patients, depending on the cut-off value selected. We used cut-off values of 200, 250, 300 or 400 ng/ml in evaluating the MCP response. During a two year follow-up, 40% of the women conceived. Increasing Pr-levels, at stimulation, were associated with significantly more spontaneous pregnancies. Thus more women conceived in the functional hyperprolactinaemic group than in the normoprolactinaemic group. 281 women had used a dopamine agonist (21%). Women in the bromocriptine group (except manifestly hyperprolactinaemic patients) had significantly higher pregnancy rates than those not treated with bromocriptine. This results was particularly significant for women with normoprolactinaemic. It was caused by higher bromocriptine induced conception rate. 60% of the therapeutic pregnancies occurred in normoprolactinaemic women receiving the dopamine agonist therapy. Our results suggest that MCP-stimulation induced functional hyperprolactinaemia is not required for a successful approach. In sterility of unknown origin with normal basal Pr serum levels, a three month trial with low-dose dopamine agonist can be tried.

parlodel dosage hyperprolactinemia 2016-10-14

The psychopharmacological properties of RU 24213 were compared to those of other dopaminergic agonists (apomorphine, dexamphetamine, bromocriptine and L-dopa) in various behavioural tests. In naive mice the drug reduced the locomotor hyperactivity in the primary exploratory phase and produced stimulation in the subsequent stabilized activity period. In rats it provoked dose-related stereotypies, specially gnawing and sniffing. It delayed the cataleptic state induced by prochlorperazine without affecting its intensity. In animals unilaterally lesioned with 6-OHDA in the nigro-striatal pathway, RU 24213 caused contralateral turning. It exhibited relatively weak emetic and anorexic effects in dogs. Core temperature recordings in rats revealed a buy parlodel online biphasic hypo- and hyperthermic activity. In drug interaction studies it was obsers in rats with unilateral electrolytical striatal lesion. The results obtained suggest that RU 24213 stimulates dopamine receptors both directly and indirectly. In this respect it could be compared to bromocriptine but unlike this latter compound it has an immediate effect which is of shorter duration.

parlodel drug 2015-01-07

Systematic PubMed searches were conducted including December 2014, using the keywords: "cocaine", dopaminergic drug ("disulfuram-methylphenidate-bupropion-bromocriptine-sibutramineapomorphine- caffeine") and ("psychosis-psychotic symptoms-delusional-paranoia"). Articles in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, buy parlodel online and Italian were included. Articles in which there was no history of cocaine abuse/dependence, absence of psychotic symptoms, systematic reviews, and animal studies, were excluded.

parlodel tablet uses 2015-03-01

From a series of 207 patients with pituitary adenoma operated on by microsurgical technique from 1973 to February, 1982, the cases of nine young people whose symptoms had appeared between the ages of 11 and 15 years are presented. The most important data are that all the children were pubertal and that in seven the tumor was, or later became, invasive. By contrast, the tumor was buy parlodel online enclosed in eight of nine other patients whose symptoms manifested between the ages of 16 and 20 years, and in 152 of the remaining 189 patients whose symptoms appeared after the age of 20 years. Considering the gravity of the disease treated, the results in this series may be termed encouraging. The treatment was multidisciplinary: starting with surgery, followed by radiotherapy, endocrine replacement therapy, and, in adenomas secreting prolactin and/or growth hormone, medical therapy with bromocriptine. The divergence between authors on the subject of childhood adenomas, especially as to whether they are more often invasive or enclosed, could be overcome, at least in part, if the term "pediatric age" were unequivocally defined and if there were an agreed distinction between puberty and childhood on the one hand and puberty and adolescence on the other.

parlodel generic 2015-04-05

Though success in ovulation induction and pregnancies was greater in women with low FSH than high FSH, pregnancies following ovulation induction were nevertheless buy parlodel online achieved even in women in apparent menopause.

parlodel gel 2015-10-14

Several experiments were conducted to study the effects of established or potential antiparkinsonian drugs on the tremulous jaw movements induced by the anticholinesterase tacrine (9-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroaminoacridine hydrochloride). In the first group of four experiments, separate groups of animals that received 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg tacrine showed a dose-dependent decrease in tremulous jaw movements following co-administration of the non-selective dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine, the full dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine, and the full dopamine D1 receptor agonist APB (R(+)-6-bromo-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-3-benzazepine). Co-administration of the partial dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF 38393 (R(+)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-l phenyl-1 H-benzazepine: 7.5-30.0 mg/kg) did not reduce tremulous jaw movements produced by 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg tacrine. In animals treated with 2.5 mg/kg tacrine, co-administration of SKF 38393 resulted in a dose-related trend towards a potentiation of tremulous jaw movements. In the second group of experiments, all rats received 2.5 mg/kg tacrine. The dopamine precursor L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), the dopamine and norepinephrine releasing agent amantadine, and the muscarinic receptor antagonist benztropine all reduced tremulous jaw movements induced by buy parlodel online 2.5 mg/kg tacrine. Across all experiments, it was noted that apomorphine, bromocriptine and benztropine were more potent than amantadine and L-DOPA. These results are broadly consistent with the therapeutic doses of these agents noted in the clinical literature. The results of these experiments indicate that tremulous jaw movements in rats may be a useful model for evaluating potential antiparkinsonian agents.

parlodel tabs 2016-10-23

As reflected in the results of the clinical trials included in this review, dyskinesia associated with DA therapy buy parlodel online may be linked to stimulation of the D(1) receptor. Fibrosis (including VHD) seemed to be a class effect of the ergot-derived DAs. Each of the DAs except pramipexole has the potential to interact with other drugs via the CYP enzyme system.

parlodel dose 2017-05-15

A prospective clinical study included 30 infertile women with micro-macro prolactinoma. We analyzed clinical parameters, the function of sex hormones, the maximum buy parlodel online tumor diameter before and after 24-month therapy with bromocriptine.

parlodel tab 2015-07-05

Prolactin is required from d 70 to 110 of gestation for normal mammary development of gilts. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of inhibiting prolactin with bromocriptine during specific time windows during the second half of gestation on mammary gland development in gilts. Crossbred primigravid gilts were assigned as controls (n = 12) or received 10 mg of bromocriptine orally three times daily from d 50 to 69 (BR50, n = 12), d 70 to 89 (BR70, n = 12), or d 90 to 109 (BR90, n = 12) of gestation. Jugular blood samples were collected on d 50, 70, 90, and 109 of gestation and assayed for prolactin and estradiol. Gilts were slaughtered on d 109 of gestation and fetuses were counted and weighed. One row of mammary glands was used for dissection of parenchymal and buy parlodel online extraparenchymal tissues, and for biochemical analyses. Tissue from the other row was used for measures of prolactin receptor number and affinity. Concentrations of prolactin were decreased markedly (P < 0.001) at the end of each bromocriptine treatment period compared with controls, but there was no overall treatment effect (P > 0.1) on estradiol concentrations. Extraparenchymal tissue weight of the mammary glands was unaffected by treatments (P > 0.1), but weight of parenchymal tissue, total DNA, and total RNA were lower (P < 0.01) in BR90 than control gilts. The percentage of DM in parenchymal tissue was unaffected by treatments (P > 0.1), but percentage of fat was higher and percentage of protein lower (P < 0.01) in BR90 gilts compared with controls. Cell size, as estimated by the protein:DNA ratio, also was lower (P < 0.01) in the BR90 group. Number and affinity of prolactin receptors in parenchymal tissue were not significantly altered by treatments. In conclusion, there is a specific time period in the second half of gestation, from 90 to 109 d, during which prolactin is essential for normal mammary parenchymal tissue development.

parlodel maximum dose 2015-12-05

These results show that a single oral dose of pramipexole buy parlodel online induces sleepiness as assessed by MSLT in healthy young subjects, independent of disease-related sleep dysfunction.

parlodel 30 mg 2016-08-18

Prolactin (Prl) release, both in the experimental animal and in man, is stimulated by serotonin (5HT) and inhibited by dopamine (DA). Data also suggest that LH release in the animal is stimulated by norepinephrine and inhibited by DA. The role of 5HT in the control of LH release is less clear. It would appear to stimulate episodic LH release and to inhibit the LH surge at the pro-oestrus in animals, but the effect of 5HT on LH release has not yet been evaluated in man. In the present paper we have studied the effect of various DA-ergic drugs (DA, iv l-dopa, po l-dopa and bromoergocriptine) and of two anti-5HT drugs, metergoline and methysergide, on Prl and LH release in normal women. DA-ergic drugs lowered plasma Prl and LH levels; anti-5HT drugs, at doses able to lower Prl levels, did not affect Minipress Tablets basal LH release nor the inhibiting effect of iv l-dopa on LH release. These data indicate that DA inhibits both LH and Prl release in normal women, and that 5HT stimulates Prl release but is not involved in the regulation of LH secretion. The fact that, at variance to all the DA-ergic drugs used, the two anti-5HT drugs did not vary LH release, suggests that metergoline and methysergide are devoid of DA-ergic activity in man, at least at the doses able to inhibit Prl release.

parlodel cost 2016-02-01

Hypoprolactinemia inhibited epididymal energy metabolism and steroidogenesis and retarded growth of epididymal structure. Hyperprolactinemia promoted the above parameters. Bromocriptine had Duphaston Tab Dose no direct effect on epididymis, while prolactin directly influenced the tissue metabolism. The epididymal maturation seems to be dependent on the circulating levels of prolactin.

parlodel medication 2016-01-24

The program was effective in improving the supply and regulation of some, but not Detrol Usual Dosage all products studied. Impact on health and utilization are unknown.

parlodel ovulation drug 2017-11-09

The influence of 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine (CB-154) and 2-chloro-6-methyl-ergoline-8beta-acetonitrile methanesulfonate (lergotrile mesylate) on prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) secretion in mice was investigated. Both drugs inhibited the nursing-induced rise in serum PRL in lactating mice, CB-154 being effective at a somewhat lower dosage than lergotrile mesylate. Both drugs reduced basal concentrations of serum PRL by more than 90% within an hr Arava Dosage after administration, but the effect of CB-154 lasted for several hr longer than that of lergotrile mesylate. CB-154 did not change the resting concentrations of GH in mice, but it promoted the induction of GH release by nursing; injection of lergotrile mesylate, on the other hand, seemed to enhance the basal concentrations of GH in lactating mice that were separated from their young for 12 hr. The results show that both drugs can be used successfully for reducing PRL secretion in the mouse.

parlodel brand name 2016-09-12

To clarify the effects of Trandate 20 Mg bromocriptine on prolactinoma cells in vivo, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and morphometrical analyses were applied to estrogen-induced rat prolactinoma cells 1 h and 6 h after injection of bromocriptine (3 mg/kg of body weight). One h after treatment, serum prolactin levels decreased markedly. Electron microscopy disclosed many secretory granules, slightly distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, and partially dilated Golgi cisternae in the prolactinoma cells. Morphometric analysis revealed that the volume density of secretory granules increased, while the volume density of cytoplasmic microtubules decreased. These findings suggest that lowered serum prolactin levels in the early phase of bromocriptine treatment may result from an impaired secretion of prolactin due to decreasing numbers of cytoplasmic microtubules. At 6 h after injection, serum prolactin levels were still considerably lower than in controls. The prolactinoma cells at this time were well granulated, with vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum and markedly dilated Golgi cisternae. Electron microscopical immunohistochemistry revealed positive reaction products noted on the secretory granules, Golgi cisternae, and endoplasmic reticulum of the untreated rat prolactinoma cells. However, only secretory granules showed the positive reaction products for prolactin 6 h after bromocriptine treatment of the adenoma cells. An increase in the volume density of secretory granules and a decrease in the volume densities of rough endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules was determined by morphometric analysis, suggesting that bromocriptine inhibits protein synthesis as well as bringing about a disturbance of the prolactin secretion.

parlodel 2 mg 2017-12-25

The authors report a 14-year-old girl who had galactorrhea with regular menstruation. Furthermore, this galactorrhea case was associated with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma. The patient tolerated and responded well to therapy with bromocriptine. The serum prolactin levels decreased from 103.27 Accutane Gel ng/mL to 24.25 ng/mL after 8 weeks of treatment and 12.48 ng/mL after 6 months of treatment. No pituitary tumor was demonstrated after 12 months of therapy and the galactorrhea had not recurred 1 year after ending the bromocriptine treatment.

parlodel buy 2015-06-27

Numerous studies have shown that endogenous and/or environmental neurotoxins and oxidative stress may participate in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. While dopamine (DA) replacement therapy with L-DOPA (levodopa) improves PD symptoms, it does not inhibit the degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra. Recently, bromocriptine, pramipexole Astelin Overdose and several other agonists of the dopamine D2-receptor subfamily (including D2, D3 and D4-subtypes) have been shown to have neuroprotective effects in parkinsonian models in vitro and in vivo. Their neuroprotective effects may be mediated directly and/or indirectly by antioxidant effects, mitochondrial stabilization or induction of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family.

parlodel pills 2017-02-10

All 39 patients were Claritin Infant Dosage treated first with quinagolide for 12 months and then with cabergoline for 12 months. A wash-out period was performed in all patients after 12 months of both treatments in order to evaluate recurrence of hyperprolactinaemia.

parlodel user reviews 2017-07-15

To present a case of prolactinoma presenting as a failed vasectomy Buy Azulfidine reversal.

parlodel drug study 2016-01-29

Different treatment regimes were performed during three periods. During the first period there was no administration of octreotide or bromocriptine, during the second period 100 micrograms octreotide was given subcutaneously three times a day, and during the third period 100 micrograms octreotide was given subcutaneously three times a day in combination with bromocriptine, given orally 5 mg twice daily. When the patients were without any treatment a single oral dose of 5 mg bromocriptine was given at 0730 h. Individual GH levels were assessed as the mean value of 11 observations during the day, at hourly intervals from 0730 to 1530 h, and at 1730 and 1930 h, and the GH levels for the whole group were calculated as the mean of the individual mean values. Serum IGF-I and PRL were measured in fasting samples at 0730 h on the same days as GH, GH, IGF-I, and PRL were evaluated at the end of each treatment regime.

parlodel y alcohol 2017-04-29

This study evaluated bromocriptine treatment in nine patients with prolactin secreting adenomas who continued to have elevated circulating levels of prolactin after surgery, and who were interested in improving their sperm counts. These patients were brought into the study 3.2 +/- 1.8 years (mean +/- SD) after surgery. All of them presented with high circulating levels of prolactin, and eight of the patients had oligozoospermia (range 0-10 X 10(6) spermatozoa/ml). LH and testosterone levels were low in seven patients, and eight patients had low FSH values. All patients were treated for 90 days with 7.5 mg/day of bromocriptine. After treatment, prolactin levels decreased significantly in all patients, while sperm counts increased significantly in five of them. Testosterone levels increased in four subjects. Bromocriptine therefore seems useful in the management of this type of patient because of the observed decline in prolactin levels and the increase in sperm counts. Possible mechanisms involved in this action are discussed.

parlodel dosage used 2015-02-15

Since 2012, Matsudo City Hospital has increased the number of pharmacists stationed in the ward on weekday mornings at the emergency care center, the intensive care unit (ICU) and the high care unit (HCU). Multidisciplinary joint meetings and joint conferences are conducted in the emergency care center, and patient and drug information is shared. A 20-year-old man was transferred to our hospital after a traffic accident. He was diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage and brain contusion. He exhibited violent movement and intense restlessness. He was sedated with a continuous intravenous infusion of 5 mg/h midazolam and 20 μg/h fentanyl, with intubation. Propofol was also used intermittently. The midazolam infusion was concluded on day 5 of hospitalization. However, his restlessness recurred so an intravenous drip infusion of 150 mg/h haloperidol was administered. On the 7th day, he developed a high-grade fever, muscle rigidity, perspiration, and leukocytosis, and malignant syndrome or malignant hyperthermia was suspected. For malignant syndrome treatment, he received an intravenous drip infusion of 60 mg dantrolene, followed by the combined oral administration of 100 mg/d dantrolene and 7.5 mg/d bromocriptine. Considering various pharmacological effects, we selected an intravenous drip infusion of 25 mg hydroxyzine hydrochloride as the drug to alleviate restlessness. The patient's course continued without recurrence of malignant syndrome; his symptoms improved because of pharmaceutical care with an awareness of patient benefits through clinical and laboratory findings, consultation with the attending physician, presentation of information on causative and therapeutic drugs, and coordinated planning of a prescription design.