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Animals are not commonly used to assess drug-drug interactions due to poor clinical translatability arising from species differences that may exist in drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, and their regulation pathways. In this study, a transgenic mouse model expressing human pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), CYP3A4/CYP3A7, and CYP2D6 (Tg-composite) was used to investigate the effect of induction mediated by rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and its metabolites. In humans, tamoxifen is metabolized primarily by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, and multiple-day treatment with rifampin decreased tamoxifen exposure by 6.2-fold. Interestingly, exposure of tamoxifen metabolites 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OHT), N-desmethyltamoxifen (NDM), and endoxifen also decreased. In the Tg-composite model, pretreatment with rifampin decreased tamoxifen area under the time-concentration curve between 0 and 8 hours (AUC0-8) from 0.82 to 0.20 µM*h, whereas AUC0-8 of 4OHT, NDM, and endoxifen decreased by 3.4-, 4.7-, and 1.3-fold, respectively, mirroring the clinic observations. In the humanized PXR-CAR (hPXR-CAR) model, rifampin decreased AUC0-8 of tamoxifen and its metabolites by approximately 2-fold. In contrast, no significant modulation by rifampin was observed in the nonhumanized C57BL/6 (wild-type) animals. In vitro kinetics determined in microsomes prepared from livers of the Tg-composite animals showed that, although Km values were not different between vehicle- and rifampin-treated groups, rifampin increased the Vmax for the CYP3A4-mediated pathways. These data demonstrate that, although the hPXR-CAR model is responsive to rifampin, the extent of the clinical rifampin-tamoxifen interaction is better represented by the Tg-composite model. Consequently, the Tg-composite model may be a suitable tool to examine the extent of rifampin-mediated induction for other compounds whose metabolism is mediated by CYP3A4 and/or CYP2D6.
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Signaling pathways that converge on two different transcription factor complexes, NFkappaB and AP-1, have been identified in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers resistant to the antiestrogen, tamoxifen.
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One hundred and ninety two well-characterised patients with ILC were included in the study. Ki67, histological grade and ER were evaluated and combined into a prognostic index (KiGE). All grade 1 tumours and ER-positive (ER+) grade 2 tumours with Ki67 ≤ 30% were classified as low-KiGE and all the others as high-KiGE.
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The data suggested that GNP-NKCT1 induced MCF7 cell inhibition may occur through estrogen receptor pathway via inactivation of CDK4 and inactivation of PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathway with inhibitory effects on NF-κB, reducing the activity of MMP9. This result provides a new mechanism to explain the role of gold nanoparticles conjugated NKCT1 as a potent anti-metastatic agent in MCF7 cells.
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Patients were randomized to receive tamoxifen or exemestane. In a prespecified trial subprotocol, patients underwent transvaginal ultrasound to assess endometrial thickness at baseline and during a 1- to 3-year treatment period.
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To analyze the litterature data concerning the results of the main international randomized trials of adjuvant Aromarase Inhibitors (AI) in adjuvant setting for early breast cancer and the impact on daily practice in the management of breast cancer.
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Due to the high incidence of breast cancer among US females, risk-reduction strategies are essential. Before considering approaches to breast cancer risk reduction, it is important for clinicians to complete individualized qualitative and quantitative assessments of risk for their patients in order to inform physicians' clinical decision making and management and to engage patients collaboratively in a thorough discussion of risks and benefits. This review will summarize information on potential pharmacologic, nutritional, surgical, and behavioral approaches to reducing breast cancer risk. While there is no clear evidence that specific dietary components can effectively reduce breast cancer risk, weight gain and obesity in adulthood are risk factors for the development of postmenopausal breast cancer. Alcohol consumption, even at moderate levels, increases breast cancer risk, although some of the detrimental effects may be reduced by sufficient folate intake. Women at increased risk of breast cancer can opt to reduce their breast cancer risk through the use of tamoxifen or raloxifene; other chemopreventive agents remain under investigation. Surgical approaches to risk reductions are restricted to those patients with a substantially increased risk of developing breast cancer. Patients should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle for their overall well-being and to remain up to date with recommendations for screening and surveillance.
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Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancers are frequently treated with tamoxifen, but resistance is common. It remains elusive how tamoxifen resistance occurs and predictive biomarkers for treatment outcome are needed. Because most biomarker discovery studies are performed using pre-treatment surgical resections, the effects of tamoxifen therapy directly on the tumor cell in vivo remain unexamined. In this study, we assessed DNA copy number, gene expression profiles and ERα/chromatin binding landscapes on breast tumor specimens, both before and after neoadjuvant tamoxifen treatment. We observed neoadjuvant tamoxifen treatment synchronized ERα/chromatin interactions and downstream gene expression, indicating that hormonal therapy reduces inter-tumor molecular variability. ERα-synchronized sites are associated with dynamic FOXA1 action at these sites, which is under control of growth factor signaling. Genes associated with tamoxifen-synchronized sites are capable of differentiating patients for tamoxifen benefit. Due to the direct effects of therapeutics on ERα behavior and transcriptional output, our study highlights the added value of biomarker discovery studies after neoadjuvant drug exposure.
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Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process through which cells overcome stressful conditions. Inasmuch as faulty autophagy has been associated with aging, neuronal degeneration disorders, diabetes, and fatty liver, autophagy is regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning the role of zinc in the regulation of autophagy, the role of autophagy in zinc metabolism, and the potential role of autophagy as a mediator of the protective effects of zinc. Data from in vitro studies consistently support the notion that zinc is critical for early and late autophagy. Studies have shown inhibition of early and late autophagy in cells cultured in medium treated with zinc chelators. Conversely, excess zinc added to the medium has shown to potentiate the stimulation of autophagy by tamoxifen, H2O2, ethanol and dopamine. The potential role of autophagy in zinc homeostasis has just begun to be investigated. Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy dysregulation causes significant changes in cellular zinc homeostasis. Autophagy may mediate the protective effect of zinc against lipid accumulation, apoptosis and inflammation by promoting degradation of lipid droplets, inflammasomes, p62/SQSTM1 and damaged mitochondria. Studies with humans and animal models are necessary to determine whether autophagy is influenced by zinc intake.
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Indian hedgehog (Ihh) controls multiple aspects of endochondral skeletal development by signaling to both chondrocytes and perichondrial cells. Previous efforts to delineate direct effects of Ihh on chondrocytes by Col2-Cre-mediated ablation of Smoothened (Smo, encoding a transmembrane protein indispensable for Ihh signaling) has been only partially successful, due to the inability to discriminate between chondrocytes and perichondrial cells. Here we report a transgenic line (Col2-Cre) expressing under the control of the Colalpha1(II) promoter an inert form of Cre that is activatable by exogenous tamoxifen (TM); TM administration at proper times during embryogenesis induced Cre activity in chondrocytes but not in the perichondrium. By using this mouse line, we deleted Smo within subsets of chondrocytes without affecting the perichondrium and found that Smo removal led to localized disruption of the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and the morphology of chondrocytes. Unexpectedly, TM invariably induced Cre activity in a subset of cells associated with the trabecular bone surface of long bones. These cells, when genetically marked and cultured in vitro, were capable of producing bone nodules. Expression of the Col2-Cre transgene in these cells likely reflected the endogenous Colalpha1(II) promoter activity as similar cells were found to express the IIA isoform of Colalpha1(II) mRNA endogenously. In summary, the present study has not only provided evidence that Ihh signaling directly controls PTHrP expression and chondrocyte morphology in the growth region cartilage, but has also uncovered a distinct cell type associated with the trabecular bone that appears to possess osteogenic potential.
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CD24 has been reported to have a role in metastasis of several malignancies including breast cancer. We investigated the effect of CD24 expression on biologic features in human breast cancer cells, and found that CD24 expression is associated with more rapid growth and enhanced ability of adhesion and invasion in MCF-7. The proportion of cells was higher in synthetic phase and lower in arrestic phase for CD24(high) than for CD24(low/-) cells. Cyclin D1 and p27 had stronger expressions in CD24(low/-) cells than CD24(high) cells. These suggested one possible pathway for CD24 effect on proliferation.
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We constituted a cohort of 13,479 women with BC who received at least one prescription of tamoxifen or AI between 1998 and 2008, in the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Days covered by medication and treatment discontinuation were studied. Time to treatment discontinuation was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates.
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One of the crucial steps in endochondral bone formation is the replacement of a cartilage matrix produced by chondrocytes with bone trabeculae made by osteoblasts. However, the precise sources of osteoblasts responsible for trabecular bone formation have not been fully defined. To investigate whether cells derived from hypertrophic chondrocytes contribute to the osteoblast pool in trabecular bones, we genetically labeled either hypertrophic chondrocytes by Col10a1-Cre or chondrocytes by tamoxifen-induced Agc1-CreERT2 using EGFP, LacZ or Tomato expression. Both Cre drivers were specifically active in chondrocytic cells and not in perichondrium, in periosteum or in any of the osteoblast lineage cells. These in vivo experiments allowed us to follow the fate of cells labeled in Col10a1-Cre or Agc1-CreERT2 -expressing chondrocytes. After the labeling of chondrocytes, both during prenatal development and after birth, abundant labeled non-chondrocytic cells were present in the primary spongiosa. These cells were distributed throughout trabeculae surfaces and later were present in the endosteum, and embedded within the bone matrix. Co-expression studies using osteoblast markers indicated that a proportion of the non-chondrocytic cells derived from chondrocytes labeled by Col10a1-Cre or by Agc1-CreERT2 were functional osteoblasts. Hence, our results show that both chondrocytes prior to initial ossification and growth plate chondrocytes before or after birth have the capacity to undergo transdifferentiation to become osteoblasts. The osteoblasts derived from Col10a1-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes represent about sixty percent of all mature osteoblasts in endochondral bones of one month old mice. A similar process of chondrocyte to osteoblast transdifferentiation was involved during bone fracture healing in adult mice. Thus, in addition to cells in the periosteum chondrocytes represent a major source of osteoblasts contributing to endochondral bone formation in vivo.
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Global miRNA expression profiling using microarray technology was conducted in 56 systemically untreated BC patients who had corresponding mRNA expression profiles available. Results were further confirmed using qRT-PCR in an independent dataset of 89 ER-positive BC patients homogeneously treated with tamoxifen only. MiR-210 functional analyses were performed in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 BC cell lines using lentiviral transduction.
A patient with malignant melanoma of the oral cavity who lived for a long period despite developing liver metastasis is presented. An 81-year-old female was referred to our hospital because of a pigmented tumor of the lower gingiva. Under the clinical diagnosis of malignant melanoma, she underwent bilateral functional neck dissection and marginal mandiblectomy. Histological diagnosis of the operation material was malignant melanoma with regional lymph node metastasis. In spite of loco-regional control, liver metastasis developed at 7 months after the surgery. She then underwent combination chemotherapies with dimethyl triazeno imidazole carboxamide (DTIC), nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) and vincristin (DAV therapy), or cisplatin, DTIC, ACNU and tamoxifen (DAC-tam), but no marked response was obtained. Considering the advanced age of the patient, immunotherapy with a biological response modifier, OK432, alone was started. After administration of OK432, the metastatic tumor gradually decreased, and she is alive without any clinical symptoms of tumor at 46 months after the detection of liver metastasis, although it is still present on ultrasonic and CT examinations.
Because PTH improves microarchitecture, macroarchitecture and mass of bone, it might produce better long-term protection against fracture, when given first and followed by antiresorptive therapy, compared with antiresorptive agents alone. Results of studies on combination therapy must distinguish previously untreated vs. previously treated individuals. PTH should be considered in women with persistent osteoporosis on established bisphosphonates or raloxifene, in which adding PTH might produce better results than switching to PTH. There are still many unanswered questions concerning PTH therapy, one of the most important being the optimal regimen.
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Modification of PEGylated chitosan prolonged the retention time of the nanoparticles in the circulatory system and improved the bioavailability of cyclosporin A.
Tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients were included in this prospective study between February 2009 and June 2010. The subjects were assessed by gynecologic examination and transvaginal gray-scale and Doppler sonography. The patients whose endometrial thicknesses were more than 6 mm underwent endocervical/endometrial curettage for histopathological examination.
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This study was aimed to investigate the reversible effect of tetrandrine, toremifene and their combination on multidrug resistance of K562/A02 cell line. The IC(50) (the concentration causing 50% inhibition of cell growth) of adriamycin (ADR) were assayed by MTT method, the expression of MDR1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR, the concentration of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and intracellular ADR were detected by flow cytometry. The results showed that the IC(50) of ADR on K562/A02 and K562 cells were 57.43 and 1.16 mg/L, respectively. The IC(50) of ADR on K562/A02 cells after treatment with tetrandrine, toremifene and both combination were 14.12, 20.74 and 9.14 mg/L respectively, but both drugs did not influence the IC(50) of ADR on K562 cells. Pretreating K562/A02 cells with toremifene (2.5 micromol/L), tetrandrine (1 micromol/L) or both for 72 hours partially restored the sensitivity of K562/A02 cells to ADR. Tetrandrine and toremifene (alone or combination) elevated the ADR concentration in K562/A02, down regulated the expressions of P-gp and MDR1 mRNA. It is concluded that multidrug resistance of K562/A02 cells can be partially reversed by tetrandrine or toremifene, the combination of both drugs shows a higher synergistic reversal effect.
In total, 235 patients underwent GosTam and 171 patients underwent ChemTam. There were significantly more patients younger than 40 years in the GosTam group (32% GosTam vs. 22% ChemTam, p = 0.031). Mean tumor size was significantly smaller (1.19 cm vs. 1.48 cm, p < 0.001), Ki-67 significantly lower (p = 0.049), and nuclear grade was low in a significant number of patients in the GosTam group (2% vs. 13%, p < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 51.3 months, there was no mortality in either group. There was no significant difference in 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) between the two groups even after univariate analysis considering age, tumor size, nuclear grade, and P53% (GosTam = 98.9% vs. ChemTam = 95.7%, HR = 0.404, 95% CI = [0.073, 2.222], p = 0.248).
Women using hormonal therapy for breast cancer are often encountered in clinical practice of breast surgeons, oncologists and gynecologists. Some of them during the course of therapy develop abnormal uterine bleeding or have ultrasound abnormalities detected. In Poland, most of them are still diagnosed using blind curettage, which does not bring a definitive diagnosis or requires repeating the diagnostic procedure. This produces unnecessary fear of malignancy in patients and increases economic costs (double curettage, unnecessary hysterectomy and its social consequences). Therefore, we studied the usefulness of hysteroscopy with targeted biopsies for further management of women treated with tamoxifen. Our goal is to provide evidence that women before entering, during and after tamoxifen treatment have hysteroscopy for endometrial assessment.