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The PDA closure rate and the doses of drug (mean (SD)) were similar in both groups: 53/60 (88.3%) and 1.9 (1.5) mg/kg in infants given ibuprofen, and 52/59 (88.1%) and 1.9 (1.7) mg/kg in infants given indometacin. No significant difference was found in the numbers of infants requiring surgical ligation, and the levels of post-treatment serum creatinine and urea nitrogen between the two groups. Although not significantly different, more infants (9/59 (15.3%)) treated with indometacin tended to develop oliguria (<1 ml/kg/h) than those treated with ibuprofen (4/60 (6.7%)). There were no significant differences in side effects or complications between the two groups.
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A simple and green strategy is reported for the preparation, drug loading, and release properties of a drug delivery system consisting of calcium phosphate (CP) nanocarriers dual-loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hydrophobic drug ibuprofen (IBU). The sequential loading of BSA and IBU in calcium phosphate nanocarriers and in vitro simultaneous release of BSA and IBU are realized and investigated. In this method, BSA, which is used as a model protein drug, is encapsulated in situ in calcium phosphate nanocarriers. Subsequently, the typical hydrophobic drug IBU is loaded in the BSA/CP drug delivery system, forming the IBU/BSA/CP dual drug delivery system. The experiments reveal that the preloaded BSA not only reduces the cytotoxicity of calcium phosphate nanocarriers but also significantly improves the IBU drug loading capacity in calcium phosphate nanocarriers and greatly extends the duration of drug release. Thus, the as-prepared IBU/BSA/CP dual drug delivery system is promising for drug delivery applications.
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Uterine rings from pregnant (day 20-21) Sprague-Dawley rats were used for isometric tension recording in organ chamber experiments (Krebs solution, 5% carbon dioxide in air, 37 degrees C, pH approximately 7.4). Responses to the PAR-2 activating peptide SLIGRL (serine-leucine-isoleucine-glycine-arginine-leucine), and to the inactive reverse peptide LRGILS (leucine-arginine-glycine-isoleucine-leucine-serine) were determined after pretreatments with compound 48/80, cromolyn, S[+]-chlorpheniramine maleate, cimetidine, combinations of histamine (H) receptor antagonists with cromolyn or ibuprofen and compared with vehicle.
Music has served as an auxiliary analgesic in perioperative settings. This study evaluates the impact of intraoperative music added to routine pain control measures during first trimester surgical abortion.
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Anaphylaxis is a severe and life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction. Ketorolac is a popular drug used for patient-controlled analgesia. Although anaphylactic reaction to ketorolac has not been frequently reported, it can develop by way of several mechanisms. A 41-year-old male patient was scheduled for laparoscopic correction of a perforated gastric ulcer. Emergency surgery was performed under general anesthesia with no complications. Near the end of anesthesia administration, ketorolac in a loading dose was administered intravenously in order to launch patient-controlled analgesia. Following injection, urticaria-like skin lesions, including rashes and wheels appeared systemically; tachycardia and breathing difficulty with oxygen desaturation also developed. Through additional inquiry into the patient's drug history, past experience with ibuprofen allergy was identified. Antihistamine, steroid, and aminophylline were administered, and continuous positive airway pressure by full facial mask was applied to relieve bronchospastic symptoms. The patient recovered without further complications.
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Muscle mass and strength decreased after 2weeks of immobilization (P<0.001), but returned to baseline levels after 2weeks of retraining combined with whey protein supplementation (P<0.001). Furthermore, muscle mass and strength reached beyond baseline levels after 6weeks of retraining (p<0.05), and NSAID did not significantly affect this (p>0.05). No group-differences, but differences over time, were observed for muscle gene expression of proteolytic and anabolic factors. Plasma inflammatory markers were unaffected by the study intervention and NSAID treatment.
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While S-ibuprofen shows a similar bioavailability for AUC0t, AUC0∞, and Cmax, R-ibuprofen shows suprabioavailability for the lysinate formulation. The rate of absorption of the ibuprofen lysinate suspension is quicker and less variable than that of the ibuprofen base reference suspension and it exhibits a shorter tmax, which is of particular interest for achieving a rapid and homogeneous analgesic and antipyretic effect.
In comparing aspirin, nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, variation in platelet inhibitory effects exists that may be associated with differential risks of cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events. Among the randomized, controlled trials with the COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib, one study demonstrated a significant difference between rofecoxib and its NSAID comparator (naproxen) in the risk of CV thrombotic events. A combined analysis of individual patient data was undertaken to determine whether there was an excess of CV thrombotic events in patients treated with rofecoxib compared with those treated with placebo or nonselective NSAIDs.
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The pregnancy failure rate was 2.0 per 100 women at 24 months. There were no serious complications, and side effects were transient.
The irrigation or agricultural land with wastewater is increasingly practiced in many parts of the world as a consequence of growing populations and urbanization. The risks emerging from pharmaceuticals that are contained in wastewater for soils and groundwater have hardly been investigated. We studied leaching and effects of naproxen, ibuprofen, bezafibrate, diclofenac, gemfibrocil, clarithromycin, trimethoprim, clindamycin, erythromycin, and metoprolol in a soil column experiment simulating an irrigation event with 8.6 cm of wastewater containing 20 microg L(-1) or 2000 microg L(-1) of each compound or of erythromycin alone. The leached fraction of applied pharmaceuticals ranged from 0.1 +/- 0.1% (clarithromycin, 2000 microg L(-1)) to 130 +/- 41% (naproxen, 20 microg L(-1)) and tended to increase with decreasing K(d) or K(oc). Naproxen transport was similar to that of the tracer chloride. Ibuprofen was also hardly retarded (R = 1.20 +/- 0.18), but showed a higher degradation rate of 0.02 +/- 0.004 h(-1) (2000 microg L(-1)) than naproxen. The transport of a pulse of 2000 microg L(-1) of bezafibrate could be described with a retardation factor of 1.5 and a degradation rate of 0.033 h(-1). The application of erythromycin alone or of a cocktail of all pharmaceuticals significantly increased soil CO2 emissions by 50% 1 d after the application. There is a considerable risk that pharmaceuticals are leached to groundwater during wastewater irrigation.
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A chemometric approach has been used to optimize the Agilent multimode ion source. Initial factorial experimental design studies indicated that there was a significant degree of curvature in the experimental region, so further central composite design experiments were performed. Optimum conditions were found using statistical optimization tools, and these results were then validated. As a result, recommendations have been made for the value of each operational parameter in order to optimize response.
The Chemoprevention Branch is testing dozens of candidate chemopreventive compounds in the following rodent model carcinogenesis systems: mouse skin papillomas, DMBA/TPA induced, rat mammary adenocarcinoma, DMBA and MNU induced, hamster tracheal squamous cell carcinoma, MNU induced, and lung adenocarcinoma, DEN induced, rat and mouse colon adenocarcinoma, AOM and MAM acetate induced, respectively, and mouse bladder carcinoma, hydroxy BBN induced. Significant chemopreventive (i.e., anticancer) effects have been produced with 4-hydroxy-phenylretinamide, difluoromethylornithine, piroxicam, oltipraz (a dithiolthione), calcium glucarate, N-acetylcysteine, beta-carotene, ibuprofen, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and a 16-fluoro DHEA analog, 8354, tamoxifen, glycyrrhetinic acid, molybdate, selenite, curcumin, and fumaric acid.
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Appropriate student education and improved information transfer between professionals and students are the key elements to ensure judicious, quality and knowledge based use of drugs among students.
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Sixty-three patients completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in patient age, body weight and stone size, the mean (SD) of which was 6.52 (1.8) mm in group 1 vs. 6.47 (1.79) mm in group 2 (P = 0.9). The mean (SD) time to stone expulsion in group 1 was 7.7 (1.9) days, vs. 18 (1.73) days in group 2 (P < 0.001). The analgesic requirement (mean number of ketorolac injections) in group 1 was significantly less than in group 2, at 0.55 (0.8) vs. 1.8 (1.6) (P < 0.001). The stone-free rate was 87% in group 1 and 63% in group 2 (P = 0.025).
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A total of eleven studies (eight case-control studies and three cohort studies), involving 370,000 participants and 10,673 HNC cases contributed to this meta-analysis. The results of these studies suggested that neither use of overall NSAIDs (OR=0.95; 95% CI, 0.81-1.11), aspirin (OR=0.93; 95% CI, 0.79-1.10), nor nonsteroidal NSAIDs (OR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.76-1.10) were associated with HNC risk. Similar nonsteroidal results were observed when stratified by HNC sites, study design, sample size, and varied adjustment factors. However, we found significant protective effect of ibuprofen (OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-0.99) and long-term aspirin use (≧5years) (OR=0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.85) on HNC risk, with low heterogeneity and publication bias.
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Children aged 2-6 years, admitted for extraction of deciduous posterior teeth under general anaesthetic, were randomized to groups that were or were not given local infiltration anaesthesia during the procedure. The children were premedicated with paracetamol and ibuprofen, and had absorbable haemostatic packs inserted during the operation. Staff blinded to treatment allocation made observations in the recovery period of pain and any interventions for bleeding.
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nonspecific cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1/COX-2) inhibitors and are associated with gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity attributable to COX-1 inhibition. Rofecoxib, a COX-2 specific inhibitor, was developed to provide similar efficacy and less GI toxicity than NSAIDs.
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We present a patient with migraine and transitory abnormal signals in the ADC map of an occipital region during persistent visual aura. The clinical-radiological relationship is congruent. Some similar cases have showed these MRI signals during the aura, suggesting cytotoxic edema, without ischemic lesions in the MRI controls. Theses ADC images probably appear in complex auras.
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Ketorolac is a new, parenteral, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory agent. The authors compare the effectiveness of a single intravenous dose of ketorolac with a single oral dose of either acetaminophen or ibuprofen in controlling postoperative pain in patients with strabismus.
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We observed similar effectiveness and safety profiles for indomethacin and ibuprofen in the medical management of PDA in premature infants.
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To assess the clinical utility and safety of laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy in children by analyzing 6 consecutive cases performed by a single surgeon.
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Irreversible pulpitis, which is characterised by acute and intense pain, is one of the most frequent reasons that patients attend for emergency dental care. Apart from removal of the tooth, the customary way of relieving the pain of irreversible pulpitis is by drilling into the tooth, removing the inflamed pulp (nerve) and cleaning the root canal. However, a significant number of dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics to stop the pain of irreversible pulpitis.