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Motilium

Generic Motilium is a medicine that increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and bowel. Generic Motilium is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other drugs used to treat Parkinson's Disease.

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Description

Generic Motilium is a medicine that increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and bowel. Generic Motilium is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other drugs used to treat Parkinson's Disease.

Generic Motilium works by blocking the action of a chemical messenger in the brain which causes the feeling of nausea and vomiting, as well as increasing the movement or contractions of the stomach and intestines, allowing food to move more easily through the stomach.

Motilium is also known as Domperidone, Dombax, Vivadone, Motinorm, Costi.

Generic name of Generic Motilium is Domperidone.

Brand name of Generic Motilium is Motilium.

Dosage

The usual dose in adults is one tablet three to four times a day, best taken 15 to 30 minutes before meals or food, and if necessary at bedtime.

Sometimes your doctor may increase the dose to two tablets three to four times a day after you have taken Generic Motilium for 2 weeks.

You should not take more than a total of eight tablets in a single day.

Generic Motilium can be taken for up to 6 months.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Motilium suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Motilium and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Do not store in the bathroom, near the kitchen sink, or in other damp places. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Motilium are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are allergic to Generic Motilium components.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Motilium can harm your baby.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you have a tumour of the pituitary gland called prolactinoma; an increase in stomach or bowel contractions can harm you. For example, if you have had bleeding, a blockage or puncture in your gastrointestinal tract.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking another medicine containing the active ingredient such as ketoconazole, fluconazole or voriconazole which is used to treat fungal infections.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking an antibiotic containing the active ingredient erythromycin, clarithromycin or telithromycin.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking another medicine containing the active ingredient amiodarone, which is used to treat fast heart rate.

Do not stop taking Generic Motilium suddenly.

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Continuous administration of haloperidol, sulpiride, or cis-flupenthixol, but not of domperidone or apomorphine, to Wistar rats for up to 3 weeks caused an increase in spontaneous purposeless chewing movements. Treatment with physostigmine and pilocarpine, but not neostigmine, for up to 3 weeks increased chewing, whilst scopolamine decreased chewing. Metergoline and cyproheptadine, but not quipazine, increased chewing after only 1 and 7 days but not thereafter. Chewing was not altered following treatment with compounds acting on GABA or noradrenaline systems or by a range of non-neuroleptic agents inducing dystonia in man. The enhancement of chewing induced by neuroleptic and cholinomimetic drugs was reduced by acute treatment with scopolamine, and reverted to control levels following drug withdrawal. Neuroleptic-induced purposeless chewing in Wistar rats appears to be primarily influenced by cerebral dopamine and acetylcholine function and may resemble acute dystonia, rather than tardive dyskinesia.

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Solid dispersions were prepared by spray-drying with a polymer. The characterization of prepared solid dispersions was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimeter. In vitro dissolution behavior was carried out in gastric juice (pH 1.2) and these results were compared with pure domperidone (active pharmaceutical ingredient). The dissolution rate was improved due to the influence of polymers. Stability assays were conducted by the same pre-experiment. Storage conditions of the solid dispersions were as follows: 25°C relative humidity 25% and 65°C relative humidity 80%.

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The relation between radiation-induced vomiting and gastric emptying is unclear and the treatment of this condition is not established. We explored, therefore, (a) the effect of cobalt 60 irradiation on gastric emptying of solids and liquids and (b) the possibility of preventing radiation-induced vomiting with the dopamine antagonist, domperidone. Twenty dogs were studied on two separate days, blindly and in random order, after i.v. injection of either a placebo or 0.06 mg/kg domperidone. On a third day, they received 8 Gy (800 rads) whole body irradiation with cobalt 60 gamma-rays after either placebo (n = 10) or domperidone (n = 10). Before each study, each dog was fed chicken liver tagged in vivo with 99mTc-sulfur colloid (solid marker), and water containing 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (liquid marker). Dogs were placed in a Pavlov stand for the subsequent 3 h and radionuclide imaging was performed at 10-min intervals. Irradiation produced vomiting in 9 of 10 dogs given placebo but only in 1 of 10 dogs pretreated with domperidone (p less than 0.01). Gastric emptying of liquids and solids was significantly suppressed by irradiation (p less than 0.01) after both placebo and domperidone. These results demonstrate that radiation-induced vomiting is accompanied by suppression of gastric emptying. Furthermore, domperidone prevents vomiting produced by ionizing radiation but does not alter the accompanying delay of gastric emptying.

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Abstracts were reviewed by two review authors, and relevant RCTs on study participants (birth to 16 years) with GOR receiving a pharmacological treatment were selected. Subgroup analysis was considered for children up to 12 months of age, and for children 12 months to 16 years of age, and for those with neurological impairment.

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The relationship of gastric emptying of liquid to the extent of fundal gastritis and gastrointestinal symptoms was investigated in a total of 37 subjects comprising healthy controls with no gastrointestinal symptoms and patients with constant gastrointestinal symptoms for at least 1 year. Gastric emptying was measured by the acetaminophen absorption method, and the extent of fundal gastritis was determined by the endoscopic Congo-red test developed at this hospital. Gastric emptying was significantly slower in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms than in healthy subjects. It was also significantly slower in patients with than in those without severe fundal gastritis. Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly more frequent in patients with delayed gastric emptying. The acute effect of oral administration of domperidone on gastric emptying was examined. A single dose of domperidone (20 mg) significantly increased the rate of gastric emptying.

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Forty-two patients (51%) had microadenomas (less than 10 mm), 37 (46%) had macroadenomas and in three no tumour was found at operation. Preoperatively, normal responses of both TSH (incremental rise less than 2.0 mU/l) and PRL (greater than 100% rise) to domperidone were observed in two patients only: both had an abnormal vascular supply to the pituitary rather than an adenoma. Serum PRL was normalized in the early post-operative period (less than 72 h; 'early cure') in 65 patients (79%). The highest early cure rate (96%, n = 26) was in patients with adenomas of 5-9 mm, lower rates being achieved for lesions of 10-19 mm (80%, n = 30), less than 5 mm (63%, n = 19) or greater than or equal to 20 mm (57%, n = 7). The early cure rate was strongly correlated with preoperative PRL, ranging from 100% in patients with PRL less than 1000 mU/l (n = 13) to zero in those with PRL greater than 10,000 mU/l. Dopamine agonist therapy of between 5 weeks and 4 years duration prior to surgery was associated with a significantly reduced early cure rate (60 vs 94%, P less than 0.02) in macroadenoma but not microadenoma patients. Recurrent hyperprolactinaemia during mean follow-up of 51.7 months occurred in eight patients (12%), in five cases within 2 months of surgery and in the others at 26, 48 and 50 months. Recurrence could not be predicted from any preoperative parameter, but a serum PRL greater than 150 mU/l 1-3 days following microadenomectomy was associated with early recurrence and probably indicates failed surgery. An abnormal response of TSH to domperidone was documented 2 months post-operatively in 11/60 patients with normal basal PRL, and preceded all three late recurrences. Of four patients with abnormal responses of both PRL and TSH at this time, two have relapsed to date.

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The zona incerta (ZI) is a site of dopamine nerve terminals and part of the incertohypothalamic tract (I-H). Previous findings indicate that dopamine in the ZI has a stimulatory control on the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and occurrence of ovulation. The effect of acute administration into anaesthetised rats of selective D1 and D2 dopamine agonists and antagonists injected into the ZI on plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and on the occurrence of ovulation has now been investigated. It was found that bilateral injections on the day of pro-oestrus of a selective D1 antagonist, Sch 23390, inhibited ovulation at 10 micrograms/side/rat. Unilateral injections of a selective D1 agonist, SKF 38393, at 10 micrograms/rat stimulated a significant rise in plasma LH concentration in ovariectomised oestrogen-primed rats, and this was partially reversed by systemic pre-treatment with Sch 23390. The selective D2 agonist, LY 171555, and D2 antagonists, sulpiride and domperidone, had no effect on plasma LH levels or ovulation. This indicates that D1 receptors (but not D2 receptors) in the ZI are involved in the control of gonadotrophin release and may have a physiological function in reproductive processes.

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Prokinetic drugs enhance the motility of the luminal organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Few drugs developed in this decade are likely to have a greater impact on the treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Bethanechol and metaclopramide have proven the potential utility of this class of drugs, whereas newer agents promise to have both a greater margin of safety and tolerability and a broader scope of utility. The efficacy of these agents is reviewed for the treatment of impaired motility from gastroesophageal reflux to severe chronic constipation.

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The prevalence of OH was 51.6%, almost equally divided into probably symptomatic and probably asymptomatic cases. Another 20.6% had possibly symptomatic OH. Importantly, only two patients with symptomatic OH had an OH diagnosis noted in their medical records. Five received domperidone, one received fludrocortison and none received midodrine.

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The response to domperidone (a dopamine blocking agent) of serum prolactin (PRL) levels was compared in 3 patients with amenorrhea-galactorrhea without evidence of a pituitary tumor, 23 patients with prolactinomas (10 cases with histologic confirmation), 7 patients with histologically verified large nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with normal or moderately elevated basal PRL levels, and 6 patients with histologically verified craniopharyngiomas (3 with normal basal PRL levels and 3 with elevated PRL levels). The response was compared with that of 10 patients with postpartum hyperprolactinemia and 14 normal women. Ten milligrams of intravenous domperidone induced a rapid rise in PRL that was maximal at 30 to 45 minutes in normal, postpartum, and amenorrhea-galactorrhea patients who had no sign of tumor. In contrast, domperidone failed to induce significant changes in PRL in cases of prolactinoma, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, and craniopharyngioma with or without elevated basal PRL levels. The results suggest that dopaminergic control on PRL secretion was impaired in all tumor cases. The mechanisms of this abnormal dopaminergic control, however, may be different. Whereas dopamine control in cases of prolactinoma is altered at the level of pituitary dopamine receptors, alternative explanations must be found for those tumors with normal basal PRL levels and lack of response to domperidone.

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Of the 85 FD patients, 2 females without nocturnal symptoms, who responded to placebo run-in treatment, were excluded from the study, 30 (36.1%) exhibited nocturnal dyspeptic symptoms with increased duodenogastric bile reflux time (intragastric bilirubin absorbance > 0.14) and mean gastric pH (confirming the existence of bile reflux) (P = 0.021, 0.023) at night were included in the study. Of these 30 patients, 21 (70%) had overt nocturnal duodenogastric bile reflux, which was significantly higher than that of those without nocturnal symptoms (P = 0.026). The 30 patients were allocated to domperidone group or placebo group (n = 15). The nocturnal duodenogastric bile reflux and gastric pH were significantly decreased after domperidone treatment (P = 0.015, 0.021). The severity score of nocturnal dyspeptic symptoms was also significantly decreased after domperidone treatment (P = 0.010, 0.015, 0.026), which was positively correlated with the reduced nocturnal bile reflux or gastric pH (r = 0.736, 0.784, 0.753 or r = 0.679, 0.715, 0.697, P = 0.039, 0.036, 0.037 or P = 0.043, 0.039, 0.040).

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Prolactin (PRL) release induced by TRH was examined on each day of the estrous cycle in female rats in which pituitary dopamine (DA) receptors were blocked pharmacologically. The objective was to determine if an interaction exists between hypothalamic inhibitory and releasing hormones with regard to prolactin (PRL) secretion. Domperidone (0.01 mg/rat i.v.) followed 5 minutes later by the administration of the DA agonist 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine maleate (CB-154, 0.5 mg/rat i.v.) were used to produce a transient (less than 1 hr) dopamine blockade. One hour later, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 1.0 microgram/rat i.v.) was given to stimulate PRL release. On the morning of proestrus, TRH released a significantly greater quantity of PRL into the plasma after DA antagonism compared to control animals which did not receive the dopamine antagonist. Dopamine antagonism also enhanced the effectiveness of TRH on the mornings of estrus and metestrus. The response on estrus was significantly greater than the response on proestrus. However by the morning of diestrus, TRH-"releasable" PRL was greatly diminished. Our results suggest that DA antagonism is able to shift differing quantities of PRL into a TRH "releasable" pool on several days of the estrous cycle and that the control of this mechanism is acute.

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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of somatostatin on gastric acid secretion and gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula. Infusion of bethanechol stimulated dose-dependently acid secretion, whereas the frequency and strength of antral motility was maintained at a high level. Somatostatin inhibited dose-dependently the stimulated acid secretion, whereas the effect on antral motility was more complex, acting especially on the amplitude of the contractions. The effects of somatostatin were not altered by using alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic blocking drugs. The dose-response kinetics with four doses of bethanechol with and without somatostatin showed inhibition of a non-competitive type for gastric acid secretion and of a competitive type for antral motility with regard to amplitude.

motilium domperidone dosage

A retrospective audit of domperidone dispensing among women with singleton pregnancies who delivered at the WCH between January 2000 and July 2010 was undertaken. Women dispensed domperidone were identified using WCH pharmacy dispensing records. Maternal and infant clinical data were obtained from the WCH Perinatal Statistics Collection. An audit of paper-based medical records was undertaken for a random sample of 261 mother-child pairs to collect prescribing and additional clinical data.

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We investigated the contractile mechanisms of action of three putative gastroprokinetic agents (cisapride, metoclopramide, and domperidone) on the linear phase of gastroduodenal emptying of solid meals in six healthy conscious dogs. The spatial and temporal parameters of gastric, pyloric, and duodenal contractions during the entire period of gastroduodenal emptying, during the 60-min period of drug infusion (ti), and during the postdrug infusion period (tpi) were analyzed by a computer method. Cisapride accelerated the total gastroduodenal emptying time (tfull), metoclopramide had no significant effect, and domperidone delayed the tfull. None of the drugs had a significant effect on gastroduodenal emptying during ti. Both cisapride and metoclopramide enhanced the rate of gastroduodenal emptying during tpi. Cisapride enhanced pyloric and duodenal motor activity but had no significant effect on antropyloroduodenal coordination during tfull and ti. During tpi, cisapride significantly enhanced both the pyloric and duodenal motor activity and antropyloroduodenal coordination. Metoclopramide exhibited only a few significant effects on the frequency, amplitude, duration, and area under contractions in the antrum, pylorus, and duodenum, but it enhanced antropyloroduodenal coordination during tfull and tpi. Domperidone decreased the frequency of corporeal, pyloric, and duodenal contractions and deteriorated antropyloroduodenal coordination by decreasing the frequency of contractions propagating from the antrum or the pylorus to the duodenum. Cisapride and metoclopramide, but not domperidone, increased the mean distance of propagation of duodenal contractions during tfull, ti, and tpi. We conclude that cisapride is more effective in accelerating gastroduodenal emptying because it stimulates the largest number of parameters of gastropyloroduodenal contractions that enhance gastric emptying. Most enhancement of gastric emptying rate with both cisapride and metoclopramide occurs during tpi.

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Our laboratory has reported earlier that in leukocytes, phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is under control of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), which mediates chemotaxis. Investigating JAK3 in cancer cells led to an important discovery as exponentially growing MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, which are highly proliferative and metastatic, did not substantially use JAK3 to activate PLD2. However, in 2-h or 16-h starved cell cultures, JAK3 switches to a PLD2-enhancing role, consistent with the needs of those cells to enter a "survival state" that relies on an increase in PLD2 activity to withstand serum deprivation. Using a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, the flavonoid 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone (apigenin), as well as RNA silencing, we found that the invasive phenotype of MDA-MB-231 cells is mediated by PLD2 under direct regulation of both JAK3 and the tyrosine kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Furthermore, serum-deprived cells in culture show an upregulated EGFR/JAK3/PLD2-PA system and are especially sensitive to a combination of JAK3 and PLD2 enzymatic activity inhibitors (30nM apigenin and 300nM 5-fluoro-2-indolyl des-chlorohalopemide (FIPI), respectively). Thus, a multi-layered activation of cell invasion by two kinases (EGFR and JAK3) and a phospholipase (PLD2) provides regulatory flexibility and maximizes the aggressively invasive power of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This is especially important in the absence of growth factors in serum, coincidental with migration of these cells to new locations.

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The relative potency of prokinetics in patients with gastroparesis has not been systematically studied. This study, therefore, aimed to assess the available data and to compare the effects of different prokinetics on symptoms and gastric emptying rates in patients with gastroparesis.

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The effects of apomorphine on survival time of mice during lethal anoxic hypoxia were studied. Apomorphine induced hypothermia and an increase in survival time. Both these effects were mediated by cerebral dopamine receptors, however with different affinity for the neuroleptics haloperidol and sulpiride. These data suggest that apomorphine's antihypoxic effect is not only mediated by the classical effect of hypothermia but also by slowing of oxydative metabolism.

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Dopamine agents (saline in control groups) were coadministered with indomethacin by either single or repeated application. The ulcerogenic effect (erosions and/or ulcers) of repeated given indomethacin on gastric mucosa differed clearly from that on intestinal mucosa. The effect on intestinal mucosa was markedly greater than after a single dose. The effects of dopamine agents appeared to be more consistent. Domperidone and haloperidol, given as single or repeated doses, strongly aggravated both the gastric and intestinal lesions. Bromocriptine and amantadine had a protective effect. The adverse effects of both dopamine antagonists (increased after repeated administration) were strongly inhibited by the simultaneous administration of either bromocriptine or amantadine. The involvement of the dopamine system (central or peripheral) in the mechanisms that maintain gastric (probably related to cytoprotection also) and intestinal mucosa integrity is therefore suggested.

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Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) can regulate aqueous humor production in the eye and has recently been suggested to play some functional roles in the retina. It has also been reported that ANP increases tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels and intracellular dopamine levels in PC12 cells. The effect of ANP on TH levels and the role of ANP in retinal excitotoxicity remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of ANP on TH expression and dopamine levels in rat retina after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Immunohistochemistry localized natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) in the ganglion cell layer (GCL), the inner nuclear layer (INL) and the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in the rat retina. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed a dramatic reduction in retinal TH levels 5 days after NMDA injection, while ANP, at a concentration of 10(-4) M, ameliorated this reduction in TH mRNA and TH protein levels. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that NMDA reduced dopamine levels in the retina, and that ANP attenuated this reduction. Moreover, morphological analysis showed that ANP ameliorated NMDA-induced neurotoxicity through NPRA. The ameliorative effect of ANP was inhibited by a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist. These results suggest that ANP may have a neuroprotective effect through possible involvement of dopamine induction.

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Forty-eight patients treated with domperidone participated in the study. DNA was successfully obtained from each patient. Age was associated with effectiveness of domperidone (p=0.0088). Genetic polymorphism in KCNH2 was associated with effectiveness of domperidone (p=0.041). The efficacious dose was associated with polymorphism in ABCB1 gene (p=0.0277). The side-effects of domperidone were significantly associated with the SNPs in the promoter region of ADRA1D gene.

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Domperidone is a commonly prescribed antiemetic drug but its side effects are rarely seen. Extrapyramidal side effects are a very rare complication of the drug occurring in 1/10,000 population. They usually occur in infants and very young children due to a poorly developed blood-brain barrier. We report a case of acute dystonia in a 13-year-old boy induced by domperidone. The boy was treated for viral fever and was started on domperidone 30 mg/day, sustained release form (0.7 mg/kg/day), for persistent vomiting along with other supportive treatment. On the fourth day of treatment, although the fever and vomiting subsided, the child developed oromandibular dystonia despite giving the drug in the recommended dose. Fortunately, drug-induced dystonias are a reversible condition and the child improved in 7-8 days after discontinuation of the drug. There was no recurrence at 1 month follow-up. Usually, dystonic reactions do not threaten life but are troublesome and life altering, so judicious use of the drug is advised.

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Cyclic AMP was measured in both striatal slices and in the incubation medium after exposure to dopamine and dopamine antagonist. Dopamine increased cyclic AMP in both tissue and medium. The effect of dopamine was enhanced by sulpiride and domperidone, and to a lesser extent by haloperidol, but alpha-fluphenthixol had only an inhibitory effect. The enhancement by sulpiride was stereoselective and totally suppressed by the D1 antagonist SCH 23390. Cyclic AMP in the medium provided the more sensitive measure of drug effect and increased linearly for up to 20 min., whereas the nucleotide in tissue remained stable or declined after 10 min. It is concluded that: the increase in dopamine-stimulated cyclic AMP efflux caused by D2 antagonists reflects increased intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation rather than an effect on the efflux mechanism; dopamine enhances cyclic AMP accumulation via a D1 receptor, and simultaneously inhibits it through a D2 receptor; and changes in D1 receptor-stimulated cyclic AMP formation in striatum may not be related to the clinical actions of neuroleptics. It remains possible that D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation stimulated by a different agonist system may underlie some of the therapeutic actions of dopamine agonists and antagonists.

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Apomorphine (3.5 and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) and morphine (1.3 and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) produced a dose-dependent decrease in gastrointestinal transit of charcoal dust in rats. The involvement of dopamine in such a constipatory effect was found to be mediated to a greater extent by DA2 than by DA1 receptors, using a specific DA1 antagonist (SCH 23390) and DA2 antagonists (alizapride, domperidone). The decrease in apomorphine (50 micrograms) and dopamine (100 and 200 micrograms)-induced gastrointestinal transit after intracisternal administration was antagonized by haloperidol. These results provide evidence for the involvement of dopamine receptors in the constipatory effects of apomorphine and morphine in rats.

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This case study presents a maternal-infant dyad, both of whom bring risk factors to the breastfeeding relationship. The mother had true glandular hypoplasia that was not detected in the antenatal period or during her hospital stay. In addition, the infant was a late preterm infant, bringing the risks of poor feeding behavior and ineffective removal of milk from the breast as well as limited body reserves. Through the use of breastfeeding technology, including test weights, use of a hospital grade double electric breast pump and use of a nipple shield, in addition to a pharmacologic intervention, in which Domperidone was administered, this mother was able to maximize her milk yield and the infant was able to receive human milk for 6 months. This case report highlights the need for a thorough assessment of the breasts as well as the breastfeeding process in all breastfeeding dyads.

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To retrospectively analyze the individual risk factors for radioactive iodine (RAI)-associated nausea and vomiting, and to examine the anti-emetic effect of ramosetron (5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist) in RAI therapy. Patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who underwent first-time RAI therapy at Nagasaki University Hospital between January 2009 and 2013 were included (N = 81). As a routine treatment, all patients were administered 30 mg of domperidone per day. Patients who underwent RAI therapy between April 2011 and January 2013 were also administered 0.1 mg of ramosetron per day in addition to domperidone. Nausea and vomiting were evaluated based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. RAI-associated nausea and vomiting of any grade were seen in 37.0 and 6.2 % of patients in total, respectively. Moderate to severe nausea (grade 2–3) was seen in 22.2 % of patients and associated with the dose of RAI per body weight (odds ratio = 1.046, p = 0.013), but not with the use of ramosetron, in multivariate logistic regression analysis. We have identified the dose of RAI per body weight to be an individual risk factor associated with moderate to severe RAI-associated nausea. This study failed to show that the combined use of ramosetron and domperidone reduced the frequency of RAI-associated nausea and vomiting.

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Domperidone has been widely used in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Studies on the effects of domperidone on corrected QT interval (QTc) in young children are limited. Our aim was to study the effect of domperidone on the repolarization abnormalities assessed by electrocardiogram (ECG) in young children.

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motilium 40 mg 2015-07-30

Compared with the control group,the body weight reduced, blood glucose and gastric residual rates increased, and the mean optical density of positive ICCs and SCF significantly decreased in the model group (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group,symptoms such as polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria buy motilium online were relieved, spirits improved, the body weight and mean optical densities of positive ICCs and SCF significantly increased (P < 0.05), and gastric residual rates significantly decreased in the BXD group and the WM group (P < 0.05). The blood glucose significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the BXD group. The mean optical density of positive ICCs was higher in the BXD group than in the WM group (P < 0.05).

motilium medicine dosage 2017-06-10

Prokinetic drugs are buy motilium online widely used for treatment of non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD).

motilium 50 mg 2015-05-25

Migraine attacks are characterized as unilateral and pulsating headache with autonomic features. In about 15 % of Migraine patients the attacks are accompanied by, mostly visual, transient focal neurologic disturbances, the migraine aura. Migraine attacks of mild or moderate intensity should initially be treated with buy motilium online non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). A combination with prokinetic and antiemetic drugs like metoclopramide or domperidone has proved to relieve nausea and increase efficacy of the analgesic drugs. In case of severe attacks or lack of treatment efficacy the migraine attacks should be treated with 5-HT (1B/1D) receptor agonists (triptans). Patients that suffer under very frequent and/or very severe migraine attacks should receive a prophylactic treatment. Prophylactic drugs of first choice are Betablockers (Propranolol and Metoprolol), Topiramate and Flunarizine. Prophylactic treatment should be administered over a period of at least 6 - 12 months.

motilium tab 2015-10-03

Both H. pylori eradication and prokinetic therapy resulted in symptom improvement in two-thirds of buy motilium online dyspeptic patients at 1 year. More patients tended to achieve complete symptom relief with H. pylori eradication.

motilium syrup dosage 2017-01-10

Various types of choice reaction time paradigms demonstrated deficits in the preparation and execution of movements in parkinsonian subjects. These studies showed controversial results, since they included parkinsonian individuals being: (i) previously untreated; (ii) off; or (iii) on anti-parkinsonian medication. Moreover, these trials do not take into consideration the acute effects of levodopa administration. Objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term dopaminergic substitution therapy within a standardized levodopa challenge test in combination with a repeatedly performed choice reaction time task in parkinsonian individuals. Parkinsonian participants consisted of previously untreated, so-called "de-novo" patients and of individuals, who were chronically substituted with dopaminergic drugs, but were taken off medication for at least 12 h. All participants took 250 mg levodopa/benserazide after assessment of baseline data. Then we repeatedly measured choice reaction- and movement time within the next 90 min. No significant change of the assessed task data appeared in the "de-novo" group, but reaction- and movement time significantly shortened in previously treated subjects. Sedative effects of levodopa and/or dopaminergic overstimulation hypothetically explain the results of the previously untreated patients, whereas long-term dopaminergic substitution therapy hypothetically causes tolerance to these phenomena in treated parkinsonian individuals. Future studies on parkinsonian subjects should discuss their results buy motilium online on the basic pathophysiology or basal ganglia dysfunction in the light of a putative impact of long-term anti-parkinsonian drug therapy.

dyspepsia medicine motilium 2017-09-16

The gastrointestinal motor and myoelectric responses associated with vomiting induced by apomorphine (APO) and activated by cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) were compared as well as the mechanisms of initiation of these responses. Twelve dogs were surgically implanted with strain-gauge force transducers or bipolar electrodes for chronic recording of contractile or electrical activity. The responses to CCK-8 were determined in the fasted state and compared with the gastrointestinal motor and myoelectric correlates of vomiting activated by APO. After recording control responses, the effects of the following agents on these responses were determined: atropine, domperidone, and proglumide. In addition, the effects of supradiaphragmatic vagotomy buy motilium online or splanchnicectomy were determined. We found that CCK-8 activated contractile and myoelectric responses in the absence of vomiting, which were similar in most respects to those found in association with vomiting. These responses included 1) the retrograde giant contraction (RGC) and 2) the post-RGC phasic contractions. These RGCs were similar with respect to their activation in an all-or-none fashion, magnitude, duration, and position in the small intestine. The myoelectric correlates of these motor responses were similar qualitatively and quantitatively. The responses activated by APO and CCK-8 differed with respect to their coordination at different levels of the gastrointestinal tract. Whether activated by CCK-8 or APO, atropine blocked the RGC but not the post-RGC contractions. Domperidone blocked all responses to APO but not to CCK-8, and splanchnicectomy did not affect responses to either agent. Vagotomy blocked all gastrointestinal responses to APO but not to CCK-8. These results indicated that CCK-8 activates the gastrointestinal motor and myoelectric correlates of vomiting by a peripheral mechanism that does not include dopamine receptors.

motilium recommended dosage 2016-02-04

The binding of [3H]spiperone, a neuroleptic/dopamine receptor ligand, to membranes of the ventral tegmental area of the rat was studied in vitro and found to be rapid, saturable, reversible, and of high affinity. Specific binding was displaced by the dopaminergic agonists dopamine, apomorphine, and 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxytetralin, and stereospecifically by the neuroleptic drugs butaclamol and flupenthixol. Bromocryptine and other ergots displaced the binding, as did the D-2 antagonists domperidone, molindone, metoclopramide, and sulpiride. Noradrenergic, histaminergic, and serotonergic components of the binding were not detected in displacement studies with various agonists and antagonists. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that [3H]spiperone labels dopamine receptors in the ventral tegmental area that are buy motilium online not linked to adenylate cyclase and are therefore likely to be of the D-2 type.

motilium 1 mg 2015-12-30

Most of the trials included in this review were of poor quality and were heterogeneous in terms of interventions, controls, and outcomes measured. buy motilium online With the exception of one outcome in common between two trials, data were not combined. Therefore, it is still inconclusive whether acupuncture is more effective than sham acupuncture or other interventions for treating IBS.

motilium order 2015-11-27

Altretamine 260 mg/m2 was given in divided doses daily for 14 days per month. Response was evaluated according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria in 45 of 66 eligible patients. Response was assessed according to precise CA125 criteria buy motilium online in 51 patients based on either a confirmed > or = 50% or > or = 75% decrease in CA125 levels.

buy motilium instants 2015-08-11

Literature was sought using PubMed (1966-June 2012) and EMBASE (1973-June 2012). Search terms included breastfeeding, breast milk, lactation, buy motilium online galactogogue, metoclopramide, oxytocin, fenugreek, milk thistle, silymarin, growth hormone, thyroid releasing hormone, medroxyprogesterone, domperidone, goat's rue, beer, Asparagus racemosus, shatavari, Medicago sativa, alfalfa, Onicus benedictus, blessed thistle, Galega officinalis, brewer's yeast, and herbals.

motilium review 2015-04-16

In order to test whether prolactin response to challenge with TRH and domperidone, dopamine receptor antagonist, is diagnostic for idiopathic hypothalamic hypogonadism (IHH) we studied 8 normal controls, 9 subjects with delayed sexual development and 6 patients with IHH. TRH test (200 micrograms buy motilium online i.v. bolus) and domperidone (10 mg i.v. bolus) were given on two different days. Prolactin (RIA-Biodata) was determined in blood samples during the test. The basal value of prolactin in subjects with delayed puberty and healthy controls did not differ from basal values of prolactin in patients with IHH. The peak elevation of prolactin after TRH in subjects with delayed puberty and healthy controls did not differ from that in patients with IHH. After successful treatment of one patient with IHH (Kallmann's syndrome) with pulsatile s.c. LHRH we did not find any change in the response of prolactin to TRH challenge after 1, 3 and 6 months of treatment, while prolactin response to domperidone increased. Prolactin responses to TRH and domperidone are not differential for the early diagnosis of IHH. Successful treatment of a patient with IHH did not change the response of prolactin to TRH, but increased prolactin response to domperidone possibly due to altered steroid milieu.

motilium syrup children 2017-12-24

In the Bennett's wallaby prolactin is thought to maintain lactational and seasonal quiescence and is essential for early lactation. However, plasma prolactin concentrations determined in daily or weekly samples at these times are unchanged. In the present study, female Bennett's wallabies were blood sampled at 2-hr intervals over a 24-hr period during seasonal quiescence on either natural or artificial photoperiods to determine whether a diurnal rise of prolactin occurs at this time. Prolactin concentrations did not exhibit a diurnal change. Further experiments were aimed at determining whether there was an increase in the prolactin response to a dopamine antagonist or TRH during the transition to seasonal quiescence. Nonlactating and lactating female Bennett's wallabies were treated with saline, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg of the dopamine antagonist domperidone and 100 micrograms TRH in October, December, February, and April. In both groups there was a significant elevation in plasma prolactin concentration in response to domperidone with an increasing response at each successive month. In early (October and December) and peak (April) lactation the prolactin response was greater in lactating animals. There was no significant prolactin response to TRH in lactating animals. In nonlactating wallabies, the prolactin response to TRH was increased in February. At peak lactation (April), the response to 1 mg domperidone was blocked when the dose was administered 2 hr after temporary removal of pouch young (RPY). With either larger doses (20 mg) or a 1-mg dose injected 8 hr after RPY, a significant prolactin response was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 buy motilium online WORDS)

motilium v dose 2017-10-12

It has been suggested that menstrual irregularities in hyperprolactinemia are secondary to an increase in hypothalamic dopaminergic activity via a short loop positive feedback of prolactin (PRL). We have studied this question in a relatively new syndrome characterized by hyperprolactinemia without derangements of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function due to macroprolactinemia (abnormal high amounts of big-big PRL). Central dopaminergic activity was investigated by the administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone to normal women ( Reglan 4 Mg n = 7) and women with anovulatory (n = 6) and ovulatory hyperprolactinemia (n = 2). The effects of domperidone were evaluated in all subjects by the measurements of radioimmunoassayable circulating serum PRL and TSH levels. All subjects had a significant increase in serum PRL levels after 90 min of domperidone administration. Anovulatory hyperprolactinemic subjects showed the highest response to domperidone in terms of TSH, whereas normal women and women with ovulatory hyperprolactinemia had similar increments in TSH serum levels after the administration of the dopamine antagonist. These results support the observation that an increase of hypothalamic dopaminergic activity in hyperprolactinemia may account in part for the presence of menstrual irregularities. The presence of a similar pituitary responsiveness in terms of TSH to domperidone in normal and ovulatory hyperprolactinemic women suggests a similar hypothalamic dopaminergic activity in both group of subjects. These findings might offer an explanation for the coexistence of normal ovulatory cycles in spite of hyperprolactinemia.

motilium and alcohol 2015-03-17

The mean maximum plasma nicotinamide concentration was 793 nmol/ml without domperidone and 776 nmol/ml with domperidone. The median time at which the maximum concentration occurred was not significantly different for 60 mg/kg nicotinamide without or with domperidone (0.46 versus 0.54 h). The side effects were drastically reduced if nicotinamide was accompanied by domperidone. The percentage of patients that stopped nicotinamide intake was reduced from 32% without domperidone to 14% with domperidone. No correlation was found between Amoxil Drug Class the plasma peak concentrations of nicotinamide and the severity of side effects.

motilium tablets 10mg 2015-02-21

Yawning was induced in rats by the (+) enantiomer of 3PPP, while (-)-3PPP was inactive. Yawning was present 24, but not 1, 6 and 12 h after reserpine treatment. The (+)-3PPP-induced yawning was antagonized by haloperidol and sulpiride but not by domperidone. Reserpine-induced yawning was Anafranil User Review antagonized by sulpiride and by alpha-methyltyrosine suggesting that this behavior may be induced by endogenously released dopamine. Reserpine-pretreatment potentiated (+)-3PPP-induced yawning. The results argue against the view that yawning is the behavioural correlate of autoreceptor-mediated inhibition of DA transmission, and suggest that this behaviour is due to the stimulation of a special population of central postsynaptic DA receptors.

motilium 10mg dose 2017-05-06

Inducing lactation in the absence of pregnancy (nonpuerperal lactation) is not always successful and, in many cases, only partial breastfeeding is achieved. Different protocols have been described, but scientific evidence and research are lacking in this area. The authors describe the case of a woman with a history of a miscarriage, for whom the lactation induction process was so effective that she became a milk donor even before she received her adopted child. She had not previously used hormone treatment. She was given domperidone as a galactogogue for 1 month. The pumping protocol began with a double electric breast pump combined with manual pumping 6 months before her child Cymbalta Capsule 19mm was delivered, and 3 months later, she was accepted as a donor by our milk bank. This highlights the importance of regular stimulation as a milk production mechanism. This is the first case of human milk donation in an adoptive mother described in the literature.

motilium overdose 2015-02-17

This work is concerned with the simultaneous determination of domperidone maleate (DOM) and cinnarizine (CINN) in a binary mixture form, without previous separation, by two different techniques. The first method is the application of derivative spectrophotometry where the linearity range and percentage recoveries for DOM and CINN were 2.5-30 micro g mL(-1), 5-25 micro g mL(-1) Levitra Max Dose and 100.06+/-1.157, 99.93+/-1.377, respectively. The second method depends on the application of partial least squares (PLS) and principle component regression (PCR) models. A training set consisting of 10 mixtures containing 5-20 micro g mL(-1) for each component was used for the construction of the PCR and PLS models. These models were used after their validation for the prediction of the concentration of DOM and CINN in their mixtures. The proposed procedures were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and in commercial tablet preparations. The validity of the proposed methods was assessed by applying the standard addition technique where the percentage recovery of the added standard was found to be 99.98+/-0.297 and 99.84+/-0.700 for DOM and CINN, respectively, using the derivative spectrophotometric method and 100.29+/-0.398 and 100.11+/-0.363 for DOM and CINN, respectively, using the PLS and PCR methods. The proposed procedures are rapid, simple, require no preliminary separation steps and can be used for routine analysis of both drugs in quality control laboratories.

motilium tablets indications 2015-10-02

A menstrual migraine occurs in approximately 7-10 % of women suffering from migraine. The migraine occurs from 2 days before until 3 days after the end of the menstrual period. The choice of treatment depends on the duration of the attack, which ranges from 3 to 7 days. An attack of up to 3 days duration should be treated with acetylsalicylic acid, ergotamine tartrate or naproxen, each Reglan Tab in combination with an antiemetic (domperidone, metoclopramide). If there is no response, sumatriptan can be administered orally (25-100 mg) or subcutaneously (6 mg). In the attacks continue for more than 3 days, short-term prophylaxis with naproxen or the application of an estrogen-containing patch is indicated. Neither ovulation inhibitors nor traditional migraine prophylaxis has an influence on menstrual migraine. Patients should keep a headache diary. Short-term prophylaxis with ergotamine tartrate or tamoxifen is obsolete.

motilium lactation dosage 2016-09-06

An open, randomized, 2-period crossover study with a washout period of 7 d was conducted in 10 healthy Chinese, male patients. In each study period, the patients were administered a single oral dose of 10 mg domperidone as free base or maleate salt on Imitrex Tablet Ingredients d 1, 20 mg omeprazole twice daily on d 2 and 3, and once on d 4. A single dose of 10 mg domperidone as free base or maleate salt was taken at 4 h after administration of omeprazole on d 4. Plasma samples were collected on d 1 and 4 after the administration of domperidone, and the plasma concentrations of domperidone were determined by a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.

motilium dosage instructions 2017-02-27

In all, 30 out of a total of 38 departments participated; and among those, 93% offered some form of breastfeeding education. 50% used either metoclopramide or syntocinon to promote Singulair Coupon Online lactation. None used domperidone. 73% had a local clinical guideline. 77% offered sessions with a lactation consultant.

motilium m dosage 2016-11-19

Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease, manifesting mainly as dysphagia, disorders of gastric emptying and constipation. The most likely Aldactone Drug Uses causes of these disorders are cerebral degeneration and degeneration of the myenteric plexus. Although the effect of antiparkinsonian medication is largely overestimated, it certainly has an influence and should be adapted accordingly in patients with GI motility disorders. In particular, anticholinergic drugs should be avoided, and anamnesis, clinical examination and, if necessary, diagnostic tests performed. Domperidone, a peripheral dopamine antagonist, is the drug of choice for motility disorders of the upper GI tract, although cisapride is an alternative. In the lower GI tract, conservative therapeutic options should be used in the first instance. The administration of cisapride leads to a marked temporary improvement in symptoms in lower GI disorders, while rare forms of anism (involuntary dystonic contraction of the anal sphincter) may be treated with botulinum toxin.

motilium alternative medicine 2015-05-09

Limited information from Retrovir Syrup spontaneous reports and results of two case-control studies raised concern about the cardiotoxicity of oral domperidone therapy. This case-control study nested in a retrospective cohort evaluated the combined risk of serious ventricular arrhythmia (SVA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in users of domperidone compared with users of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), or non-users of these medications.

motilium medication 2017-03-19

Fewer than half of the patients with breakthrough CINV were treated with rescue antiemetics, suggesting that CINV was mild in the remaining patients. However, CINV was sufficiently Uroxatral User Reviews severe to prevent eating in other patients, indicating the need for new drugs with different mechanisms to control CINV.

motilium m tablet 2016-10-05

Apomorphine (0.05 mg/kg intravenously) was given to conscious dogs, and gastrin levels were measured in peripheral venous blood with a radioimmunoassay. Apomorphine induced an increase of gastrin levels which peaked at 5 min. The peripheral dopamine D-2/DA2 receptor antagonist domperidone (0.2 mg/kg), but not halopemide (0.1-1 mg/kg) nor the D-1/DA1 receptor antagonist SCH 23,390 (0.1 mg/kg), blocked the gastrin response to apomorphine. Both domperidone and halopemide, but not SCH 23,390, blocked the apomorphine-induced vomiting. These results suggest Dosage Augmentin 875 that apomorphine increases gastrin levels by an action at D-2/DA2 receptors, which are situated outside the blood brain barrier and differ from the receptor inducing the vomiting.

motilium generic 2015-08-21

Dopaminergic receptors have been involved in the cardiovascular and renin-angiotensin systems (RAS). We have recently reported that bromocriptine is an effective antihypertensive drug by stimulating DA(2) dopaminergic receptors. However, the nature of the dopaminergic receptors in RAS has not been established. Ten outpatients with essential hypertension were treated at the Vargas Hospital with bromocriptine (BR) (11.25 mg day(minus sign1)), a DA(2) dopaminergic agonist, for a 2-week period, after which an oral dose of 30 mg day(minus sign1) of domperidone (DO), a peripheric DA(2) dopaminergic antagonist, was added for 2 additional weeks. The active period was preceeded by a 2-week placebo period. Bromocriptine decreased blood pressure (BP) significantly by 19/9 mm Hg (systolic/diastolic BP). Bromocriptine did not cause heart rate (HR) changes. Bromocriptine decreased plasma aldosterone (ALD) without altering plasma renin activity (PRA). Domperidone partially blocked bromocriptine-induced antihypertensive submaximal treadmill effects and reversed ALD decrease. Exercise response was not significantly altered by BR + DO. We conclude the following: (1) BR is an effective antihypertensive agent; (2) BR seems to be acting at both the central and peripheric nervous systems, and (3) the nature of the dopaminergic receptor involved in renin secretion does not seem to be DA(2).

motilium online pharmacy 2015-03-15

Dopamine (DA) acts on two receptor subtypes, DA1 and DA2. The purpose of this study was to determine which subtype is involved in the increments in renal blood flow (RBF) and electrolyte excretion produced by DA. Mongrel dogs were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Phenoxybenzamine (10 mg X kg-1 ia) and propranolol (5 mg X kg-1 iv) were administered to exclude effects mediated by alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors. DA was infused into the renal artery before and after administration of either the selective DA1 antagonist SCH 23390 or the selective DA2 antagonist domperidone. With DA alone, RBF increased by 52 +/- 7%, Na+ excretion increased by 35 +/- 8%, and K+ excretion increased by 35 +/- 5%. Infusion of SCH 23390 (0.5 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) completely blocked DA-induced increase in RBF and electrolyte excretion. Intravenous infusion of domperidone (1 microgram X kg-1 X min-1) did not attenuate the responses to DA. Neither SCH 23390 nor domperidone affected base-line RBF or electrolyte excretion, suggesting that in these experiments endogenous DA was not active. In conclusion, these data indicate that the effects of DA to increase RBF and electrolyte excretion are the result of action on DA1 receptors.

motilium tablets dosage 2016-01-28

In total, 1844 subjects were assigned to an experimental arm, and 1591 subjects were assigned to a placebo arm. Publication bias was ruled out by funnel plot and statistical testing (P = 0.975). In the overall analysis, the summary statistic was 0.295 (95% confidence interval: 0.208-0.382, P < 0.001), indicating that the interventional drug has 30% excess probability of producing a response compared with placebo. The most significant source of heterogeneity was the year of publication (P < 0.001).

motilium drug interactions 2016-07-02

"For use in weight reduction for obese adults with a body mass index greater than 35."The GES device that is licensed by Health Canada for treatment of GP, produces high-frequency GES. Most clinical studies examining GES for GP have used high-frequency (4 times the intrinsic slow wave frequency, i.e., 12 cycles per minute), low energy, short duration pulses. This type of stimulation does not alter gastric muscular contraction and has no effect on slow wave dysrhythmias. The mechanism of action is unclear but it is hypothesized that high-frequency GES may act on sensory fibers directed to the CNS. The GES device licensed by Health Canada for treatment of morbid obesity produces low-frequency GES, which is close to or just above the normal/native gastric slow wave cycle (approximately 3 cycles/min.). This pacing uses low-frequency, high-energy, long-duration pulses to induce propagated slow waves that replace the spontaneous ones. Low-frequency pacing does not invoke muscular contractions. Most studies examining the use of GES for the treatment of morbid obesity use low-frequency GES. Under normal circumstances, the gastric slow wave propagates distally and determines the frequency and propagation direction of gastric peristalsis. Low-frequency GES aims to produce abnormal gastric slow waves that can induce gastric dysrhythmia, disrupt regular propagation of slow waves, cause hypomotility of the stomach, delay gastric emptying, reduce food intake, prolong satiety, and produce weight loss. In the United States, the Enterra Therapy System is a Humanitarian Use Device (HUD), meaning it is a medical device designated by the FDA for use in the treatment of medical conditions that affect fewer than 4,000 individuals per year. The Enterra Therapy System is indicated for "the treatment of chronic, drug- refractory nausea and vomiting secondary to GP of diabetes or idiopathic etiology" (not postsurgical etiologies). GES for morbid obesity has not been approved by the FDA and is for investigational use only in the United States. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

motilium cost 2015-05-01

After intramuscular injection of reserpine for 14 days, the rat model of SDS was established. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, group A treated by SJZ, group B treated by Liuwei Dihuang decoction (LWDH), group C naturally recovered, group D SDS rat model, consecutively treated for 14 days, and compared with group E, the normal control. Using radioisotopic technique to monitor 30 min gastric liquid emptying rate, and using the implanted bipolar silver electrode to observe the antral and duodenal myoelectrical slow wave, and the plasma and hypothalamus levels of motilium (MOT), cholecystokinin (CCK) and somatostatin (SS) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) 14 days later respectively.