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This study indicated that vardenafil dosages of 5, 10 and 20 mg were significantly superior to placebo for the treatment of ED, on the basis of the primary study endpoints of the EF domain score of the IIEF, diary-recorded success rates for penetration and maintenance of erection during the intercourse and the GAQ. Vardenafil was well tolerated. The incidence of adverse events was higher for vardenafil than for placebo.
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To assess, besides the usual measures of efficacy, the quality of erection, satisfaction with the sexual experience, symptoms of depression, and overall confidence.
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Erectile dysfunction is usually of vascular origin and is frequently encountered in men with cardiovascular disease. The introduction of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors has revolutionized the management of patients with erectile dysfunction. Currently available phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have distinct pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, thus permitting for tailoring sexual therapy according to patient characteristics and needs. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors possess vasorelaxing properties and exert systemic hemodynamic effects, which need to be taken into account when other cardiovascular drugs are co-administered. Special caution is needed with alpha-blockers, while the co-administration with nitrates is contra-indicated due to the risk of life-threatening hypotension. This review presents the advent of sexual therapy, describes the mechanism of action and the specific characteristics of commercially available phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, summarizes the efficacy and safety of these drugs with special emphasis on the cardiovascular system, and discusses the clinical criteria used for the selection of each drug for the individual patient.
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Vardenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor approved for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. It was found to be effective in a high percentage of patients and a broad spectrum of underlying conditions. It potentiates the increase in intracellular cGMP in the corpora cavernosa in response to sexual stimuli, resulting in enhanced and prolonged erections. The overall tolerability and safety profile is acceptable, with headache, flushing, rhinitis and dyspepsia being the major reported side effects. Importantly, tolerability and safety in cardiovascular patients seems to be good with no significant increase in cardiovascular events that could be directly attributed to the pharmacologic agent. Only mild blood-pressure lowering effects were observed in healthy individuals, as well as hypertensive patients on multiple antihypertensive agents. However, special caution is mandatory if vardenafil is administered in combination with alpha-blockers, as significant hypotension might occur. Importantly, any drug serving as a nitric oxide donor is contraindicated in combination with vardenafil.
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Vardenafil enhances dilatation of vascular smooth muscle and inhibits platelet aggregation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of vardenafil and pentoxifylline administration in an experimental model of ischemic colitis.
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In this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group 12-week study, 418 men aged 18 years and older with ED for more than 6 months consequent to SCI were randomized to vardenafil (n = 207) or placebo (n = 211) (10 mg for 4 weeks, then maintained or titrated to 5 or 20 mg at weeks 4 and 8). Efficacy assessments included the erectile function (EF) domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire and diary questions regarding penetration, maintenance of erection to completion of intercourse, and ejaculation.
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Portal venous flow increased in patients from 0.82 +/- 0.30 L/min (mean +/- s.d.) by 26% (CI: 16-37%, P = 0.0004) and in healthy subjects from 0.75 +/- 0.20 L/min (mean +/- s.d.) by 19% (CI: 9-28%; P = 0.0010). Celiac and hepatic artery resistivity indices rose significantly. Systemic blood pressure decreased slightly in patients. The wedged hepatic venous pressure gradient decreased in four of five patients with liver cirrhosis. Vardenafil plasma levels were higher in patients (14 +/- 10 microg/L) than in healthy subjects (9 +/- 6 microg/L; n.s.).
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Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated intensive staining for transforming growth factor beta1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin in the control neointima. Vardenafil significantly reduced the stenosis grade (24.64% +/- 7.46% vs 54.12% +/- 10.30% in the control group, P < .05) and expression of transforming growth factor beta1, as well as alpha-smooth muscle actin, in the neointima. The immunohistochemical score for cyclic guanosine monophosphate was higher in the treated neointima (4.80 +/- 0.76 vs 2.84 +/- 0.40 in the control group, P < .05), and increased plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels were found by means of enzyme immunoassay as well (84.65 +/- 12.77 pmol/mL vs 43.50 +/- 3.30 pmol/mL in the control group, P < .05).
Initiating ED therapy with sildenafil was associated with the lowest rate of PDE5 inhibitor switching, which might reflect treatment satisfaction and patient preference.
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This paper reviewed the safety and tolerability of vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), including the general, cardiovascular and ocular safety. Results from clinical trials and practice experience demonstrated that vadenafil had good safety and tolerability, whether for general ED population or for difficult-to-treat ED patients, whether as short-term treatment or as long-term therapy.
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The use of synthetic phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: sildenafil citrate (Viagra(®)), tadalafil (Cialis(®)) and vardenafil hydrochloride (Levitra(®)) has increased dramatically over the past 2 years. These substances are prescription drugs and must be used under medical supervision. However, they can easily be obtained over the internet from illegal sites, being a potential for a threat to public health. The development of an electrospray ionisation (ESI) ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) procedure for the simultaneous identification and quantification of three PDE5 inhibitors in blood samples was desired. Samples were prepared using Oasis(®) HLB solid-phase cartridges (3 cc, 60 mg) and chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity UPLC(®) HSS T3 (100 × 2.1 mm i.d., 1.8 μm particles) column with a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a 0.5 mL/min flow rate. Quantification was achieved by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two transitions per compound: m/z 475.1 > 58 e m/z 475.1 > 311.1 for sildenafil; m/z 389.9 > 267.9 e m/z 389.9 > 134.8 for tadalafil and m/z 489 > 71.9 e m/z 489 > 150.9 for vardenafil. Zolpidem-d6 (m/z 314.5 > 235.3) was used as the internal standard. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 5-1000 ng/mL, with a coefficient of determination better than 0.997. The lower limits of detection and quantification for these substances were ≤ 3 ng/mL and ≤ 8 ng/mL, respectively. The method showed a satisfactory sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recovery and selectivity. A rapid, selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method using solid-phase extraction was developed for the simultaneous determination and quantification of sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil in blood samples.
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Rat bladder PDE5 immunopositivity was detected in the muscular wall and in the endothelial and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. In SHR bladder, a significant increase of hypoxic cells, VEGF, and ETB expression was observed when compared with their normotensive counterpart Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Vardenafil treatment dramatically decreased hypoxyprobe staining, as well as VEGF and ETB expression in SHR bladder up to WKY level. Accordingly, in SHR bladder, vardenafil administration significantly blunted relaxation induced by the selective ETB agonist IRL-1620. In hBCs, experimental hypoxia significantly induced gene expression of hypoxia markers (carbonic anhydrase IX and VEGF), which was not changed by simultaneous treatment with vardenafil. Conversely, the hypoxia-related induction of smooth muscle-specific genes (alphaSMA, SM22alpha, and desmin) was significantly reduced by vardenafil.
This descriptive analysis suggests that erection sufficient for penetration and intercourse completion was achieved within 0.25 hour and lasted for >6 hours after dosing with vardenafil 10 mg in these men with mostly moderate to severe ED and a history of nonresponse to sildenafil and who chose to make attempts during those intervals. The drug was generally well tolerated.
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MEDLINE and PubMed were searched from January 1, 2000, to October 31, 2012, using the MeSH terms phosphodiesterase inhibitor, lower urinary tract symptoms, benign prostatic hyperplasia, sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil. Additional articles were obtained from references identified in the original search.
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PDE5 inhibitors can help temporary ED patients to achieve penile erection and ejaculation during ART treatment.
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This is only the 5th case of interferon-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension and the first documented case where pulmonary arterial hypertension was not reversible after termination of interferon alpha2 therapy. If interferon alpha2 treated patients develop respiratory symptoms, pulmonary arterial hypertension should be considered in the differential diagnosis. For these patients phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, e.g. sildenafil or vardenafil, could be an effective therapeutic approach.
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The IIEF-EFD score was markedly improved after 12 weeks of vardenafil administration. Plasma levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin isotypes 4 and 6 and β-tropomyosin were decreased, whereas apolipoprotein AI isoype 5 was increased 12 weeks after vardenafil administration. Only β-tropomyosin plasma levels were inversely correlated with IIEF-EFD score. Tropomyosin has been added to cultured BAECs and after 24 hours reduced the protein expression level of sGC-β1 subunit and decreased the cGMP content. Tropomyosin did not modify PDE5 expression and nitric oxide release in BAECs as compared with control BAECs. Vardenafil (10 μg/mL) did not modify sGC-β1 subunit expression in tropomyosin + vardenafil-incubated BAECs; however, vardenafil significantly reversed the reduction of cGMP content induced by tropomyosin.
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Primary efficacy variable was the between-group difference in change in International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain (IIEF-EF) score from baseline to end of washout. Secondary variables included change from baseline in proportion of positive respondents to Sexual Encounter Profile questions and in satisfaction with treatment as assessed with the Treatment Satisfaction Scale (TSS).
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Twenty consecutive adult patients with suspected SOD were scheduled to undergo ERCP and SO manometry by standard methods. A second recording was performed in the same position 20 minutes after administration of 10 mg vardenafil dissolved in 10 mL saline solution into the duodenum through a conventional catheter. SO pressures and motor function were compared in all patients with suspected SOD before and after administration of vardenafil.
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To determine whether early onset of activity with vardenafil is also achievable in ED patients with DM.
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Vardenafil significantly improved ejaculation and self-confidence in men with erectile dysfunction due to SCI.
This was a spontaneous, open-label, randomized, multicenter, crossover study where the patients were randomized to receive sildenafil 50 mg, sildenafil 100 mg, tadalafil 20 mg, or vardenafil 20 mg.
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Evaluation of the effect of tadalafil and vardenafil on secretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8, a surrogate marker of prostate inflammation) by human myofibroblast prostatic cells (hBPH) exposed to different inflammatory stimuli. We preliminary evaluate histological features of prostatic inflammatory infiltrates in BPH patients enrolled in a randomized, double bind, placebo controlled study aimed at investigating the efficacy of vardenafil (10 mg/day, for 12 weeks) on BPH/LUTS.
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This was a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dose, multicenter study of unselected men with ED of diverse origins and severity. Unlike previous studies, prostatectomy-induced ED and previous unresponsiveness to sildenafil were not exclusion criteria. After 4 weeks of treatment with 10 mg of vardenafil, the dose could be continued or titrated to 5 mg or 20 mg, depending on efficacy and tolerability. After 8 weeks, another dose change was possible. Efficacy was assessed with International Index of Erectile Function erectile function (IIEF-EF) domain scores, diary questions of the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP), and a global assessment question (GAQ) about erection improvement during the previous 4 weeks.
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Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and elevated myocardial cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels can induce potent cardioprotection-like effects against ischaemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of vardenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor on myocardial and endothelial functions during reperfusion in a canine model of cardioplegic arrest and extracorporal circulation.