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Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group 1 (n=10) received 250mg of acetazolamide and 50mg of hydrochlorothiazide daily and group 2 (n=10) received 40mg of furosemide and 50mg of hydrochlorothiazide daily for 1 week in phase 1. In phase 2, both groups received 40mg of furosemide daily for 2 weeks.
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We observed a trend to increase creatinine clearance and a significant reduction in plasma active renin and plasma aldosterone after the discontinuation of diuretics. The subsequent introduction of octreotide reduced glomerular filtration rate, although it significantly decreased plasma active renin and plasma aldosterone. In contrast, the addition of octreotide to diuretic treatment significantly increased glomerular filtration rate, urine volume and sodium excretion. The magnitudes of the decreases in plasma-active renin and aldosterone produced by the combination of octreotide and diuretics were similar to those produced by octreotide alone or by the discontinuation of diuretics.
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This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study. Forty-seven patients with mild stable chronic heart failure received candoxatril 400 mg/day, frusemide 40 mg/day or placebo for up to six weeks. Cardiac indices were determined at rest and during exercise, and blood samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Assessments were performed at baseline (day 0) and after six weeks (day 42).
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Functional expression of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 in developing central neurons is crucial for the maturation of Cl(-)-dependent, GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory responses. In pyramidal neurons of the rodent hippocampus, GABAergic postsynaptic responses are typically depolarizing and often excitatory during the first postnatal week. Here, we show that a single neonatal seizure episode induced by kainate injection during postnatal days 5-7 results in a fast increase in the Cl(-) extrusion capacity of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons, with a consequent hyperpolarizing shift of the reversal potential of GABA(A)-mediated currents (E(GABA)). A significant increase in the surface expression of KCC2 as well as the alpha2 subunit of the Na-K-ATPase parallels the seizure-induced increase in the Cl(-) extrusion capacity. Exposing hippocampal slices to kainate resulted in a similar increase in the neuronal Cl(-) extrusion and in the surface expression of KCC2. Both effects were blocked by the kinase inhibitor K252a. Hence, in the neonatal hippocampus the overall KCC2 expression level is high enough to promote a rapid functional activation of K-Cl cotransport and a consequent negative shift in E(GABA) close to the adult level. The activity-dependent regulation of KCC2 function and its effect on GABAergic transmission may represent an intrinsic antiepileptogenic mechanism.
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To observe the effect of Gansui Banxia Tang plus-minus Gansui and Gancao anti-drug combination on hepatic and renal functions in malignant ascites rats to explore whether the efficacy or toxicity associated with the anti-drug combination.
In total, 111 patients (109 men and 2 women) received a 1-hour infusion of 5, 10, and 15 mg SLV320, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, placebo, or 40 mg furosemide. Mean age was 57.9 years, mean ejection fraction was 28.1%, 82 patients were of New York Heart Association class II, and 29 patients were of New York Heart Association class III. Hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, right atrial pressure, and cardiac output) were determined. Kidney function was assessed by cystatin C measurements and by analysis of urine output and urine electrolytes. In addition, pharmacokinetics of SLV320 and ex vivo inhibition of adenosine A1 receptor activity were performed. SLV320 was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were observed. Heart rate, blood pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, and cardiac output were not altered by any dose of SLV320. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was significantly (P=0.04) decreased by furosemide (-6.2+/-5.9 mm Hg). Systemic vascular resistance was significantly (P=0.04) increased in the furosemide group (+166.70+/-261.87 dynes . s(-1) . cm(-5)), whereas all SLV320 groups showed no significant alterations of systemic vascular resistance. Changes from baseline cystatin C plasma concentrations decreased after 10 mg SLV320 (-0.093+/-0.137 mg/L, P=0.046), whereas furosemide resulted in a significant (P=0.03) increase of cystatin C (+0.052+/-0.065 mg/L) versus baseline. All values represent mean changes+/-SD from baseline at 3 hours postdosing: SLV320 (10 and 15 mg) increased significantly sodium excretion and diuresis compared with placebo during the 0- to 6-hour collection period postdosing.
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AMRA reports were analyzed for differences between subjects with and without complications attributed to dantrolene. Documentation of dantrolene dose and subject weight were inclusion criteria. Because some reported complications were likely due to factors other than dantrolene, a reduced set of cases was also defined. We used χ(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. Logistic regression was applied to describe factors associated with increased risk of complications.
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Results indicated that hepatic encephalopathy treatment alleviated clinical signs of the disease. Further investigation is necessary to identify precipitating factors for hepatic encephalopathy in dogs.
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Twelve patients, 10 men and two women, with an average age of 52 years (range, 40 to 66), participated in the study. After the basal hemodynamic evaluation, the patients received captopril in two daily doses. The dosage was adjusted at weekly intervals in order to obtain normalization of blood pressure without exceeding the maximum allowable dosage. Four patients also received furosemide (20 to 40 mg/day).
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Ultrasonographic resolution of nephrocalcinosis (NC) has been reported in children with furosemide-induced NC, but not in other entities. We report the cases of four children with metabolic bone disease, two with hypophosphatasia and two with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, in whom we observed resolution of renal calcifications. At the time of ultrasonographic resolution of NC, 3 of the patients were on anticalciuric diuretics, and all 4 had normal urinalysis, serum creatinine and electrolyte profiles, as well as estimated creatinine clearance. In 3 of the children, evidence of mild tubular dysfunction was found. It thus seems that in some children with bone and mineral disorders who develop NC, ultrasonographic resolution of the renal calcifications can be seen; however, mild tubular dysfunction may remain and require follow-up. Further studies are suggested to explore the possible role of anticalciuric diuretics in promoting the resolution of NC.
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Extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP) regulate many physiological and pathophysiological processes through activation of nucleotide (P2) receptors in the plasma membrane. Here we report that gene-targeted (knockout) mice that lack P2Y2 receptors have salt-resistant arterial hypertension in association with an inverse relationship between salt intake and heart rate, indicating intact baroreceptor function. Knockout mice have multiple alterations in their handling of salt and water: these include suppressed plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations, lower renal expression of the aldosterone-induced epithelial sodium channel alpha-ENaC, greater medullary expression of the Na-K-2Cl-cotransporter NKCC2, and greater furosemide-sensitive Na+ reabsorption in association with greater renal medullary expression of aquaporin-2 and vasopressin-dependent renal cAMP formation and water reabsorption despite similar vasopressin levels compared with wild type. Of note, smaller increases in plasma aldosterone were required to adapt renal Na+ excretion to restricted intake in knockout mice, suggesting a facilitation in renal Na+ retention. The results thus identify a previously unrecognized role for P2Y2 receptors in blood pressure regulation that is linked to an inhibitory influence on renal Na+ and water reabsorption. Based on these findings in knockout mice, we propose that a blunting in P2Y2 receptor expression or activity is a new mechanism for salt-resistant arterial hypertension.
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The effects of UF and furosemide therapies were similar on oxidative stress markers in patients with CRS. These methods safely decrease volume overload in a short-term period.
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Atomic resolution structures of cys-loop receptors, including one of a γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA receptor) subtype, allow amazing insights into the structural features and conformational changes that these pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) display. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of more than 30 cys-loop receptor structures of homologous proteins that revealed several allosteric binding sites not previously described in GABAA receptors. These novel binding sites were examined in GABAA receptor homology models and assessed as putative candidate sites for allosteric ligands. Four so far undescribed putative ligand binding sites were proposed for follow up studies based on their presence in the GABAA receptor homology models. A comprehensive analysis of conserved structural features in GABAA and glycine receptors (GlyRs), the glutamate gated ion channel, the bacterial homologs Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC) and Gloeobacter violaceus GLIC, and the serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor was performed. The conserved features were integrated into a master alignment that led to improved homology models. The large fragment of the intracellular domain that is present in the structure of the 5-HT3 receptor was utilized to generate GABAA receptor models with a corresponding intracellular domain fragment. Results of mutational and photoaffinity ligand studies in GABAA receptors were analyzed in the light of the model structures. This led to an assignment of candidate ligands to two proposed novel pockets, candidate binding sites for furosemide and neurosteroids in the trans-membrane domain were identified. The homology models can serve as hypotheses generators, and some previously controversial structural interpretations of biochemical data can be resolved in the light of the presented multi-template approach to comparative modeling. Crystal and cryo-EM microscopic structures of the closest homologs that were solved in different conformational states provided important insights into structural rearrangements of binding sites during conformational transitions. The impact of structural variation and conformational motion on the shape of the investigated binding sites was analyzed. Rules for best template and alignment choice were obtained and can generally be applied to modeling of cys-loop receptors. Overall, we provide an updated structure based view of ligand binding sites present in GABAA receptors.
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Among the major mechanisms controlling the renal release of renin, renal nerves are known to exert a direct stimulating action on juxtaglomerular cells that is mediated by beta-adrenoceptors. Activation of the renal nerves also exerts an important permissive role in order to amplify and possibly accelerate responses to stimuli affecting the vascular and macula densa mechanisms. Reduction of renal perfusion pressure, intravenous infusion of furosemide, and captopril administration cause a greater increase in renin release from innervated kidneys than from denervated kidneys. A complex interaction between neural and non-neural mechanisms in the control of renin secretion is suggested. Efferent renal nerve activity controlling the renin secretion rate is mainly under the inhibitory influence of vagal afferent fibers originating from the cardiopulmonary region. Recent experiments have demonstrated that a similar reflex tonic inhibition of renin secretion is also exerted by renal afferent fibers.
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Transient hyperkalemia has been reported to occur in patients with acute glomerulonephritis, but the pathogenetic mechanism has not been investigated systematically. We studied the mechanism of hyperkalemia (5.7 to 6.7 mmol/liter) in four men with post-infectious glomerulonephritis. All four patients had clinical findings consistent with acute glomerulonephritis (edema, hypertension, proteinuria, hematuria, and an elevated ASO titer) and a renal biopsy performed in three of the patients confirmed the diagnosis. In comparison to normal subjects (N = 18), plasma aldosterone (5.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 22.8 +/- 2.6 ng/dl, P less than 0.005) and plasma renin activity (0.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 4.3 +/- 0.6 ng/ml/hr, P less than 0.005) were reduced. Hyperkalemia resolved within one to two weeks in two patients as the nephritis resolved and diuresis ensued, and aldosterone and renin levels obtained at follow-up visits were normal. Hyperkalemia persisted despite furosemide-induced diuresis in the other two patients, but resolved with fludrocortisone treatment. Thus, hyperkalemia in patients with acute glomerulonephritis is a manifestation, in part, of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. It is ameliorated by mineralocorticoid therapy and improves spontaneously with resolution of the glomerulonephritis.
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether loop diuretics attenuate bradykinin-induced increase in clearance of macromolecules in the oral mucosa in situ and, if so, to start to determine the mechanisms that mediated these responses. By using intravital microscopy, we found that bradykinin induced a significant concentration-dependent increase in fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (mol mass 70 kDa) leaky site formation in the hamster cheek pouch. These responses were significantly attenuated by topical application of two structurally distinct loop diuretics, furosemide and ethacrynic acid, onto the cheek pouch (P < 0.05). Hydrochlorothiazide, a nonloop diuretic, had no significant effects on bradykinin-induced responses. Furosemide had no significant effects on adenosine-induced leaky site formation. Application of bradykinin after furosemide, but not after hydrochlorothiazide, was associated with a significant concentration-dependent decrease in bradykinin-like immunoreactivity in the cheek pouch suffusate (P < 0.05). Prostaglandins and changes in vasomotor tone did not modulate the effects of furosemide on bradykinin-induced responses. These data indicate that loop diuretics attenuate bradykinin-induced increase in clearance of macromolecules in the oral mucosa in a specific fashion, probably by amplifying local bradykinin catabolism. We suggest that topical loop diuretics could be useful in the treatment of oral mucosa inflammation elicited by bradykinin.
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High blood pressure requiring intravenous therapy is currently managed with a variety of agents in Europe, with those most commonly used being nitroglycerine, urapidil and clonidine. Patients with acute hypertension have substantial concomitant morbidity and mortality, and intravenous antihypertensive treatment is associated with hypotension in almost 10% of cases.
Two reviewers checked the quality of the studies and independently extracted data.
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The pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is reduced in chronic heart failure and remains decreased after heart transplantation. This decrease in DLCO may depend on a permanent alteration after transplantation of one or the other of its components: diffusion of the alveolar capillary membrane or the pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc). Therefore, we measured DLCO, the membrane conductance, and Vc before and after heart transplantation. At the time of hemodynamic measurements, the Roughton and Forster method of measuring DLCO at varying alveolar oxygen concentrations was used to determine the membrane conductance, Vc, DLCO/alveolar volume (VA), the membrane conductance/VA and thetaVc/VA (theta = carbon monoxide conductance of blood, VA = alveolar volume) in 21 patients with class III to IV heart failure before and after transplantation, and in 21 healthy controls. Transplantation normalized pulmonary capillary pressure and increased cardiac index. DLCO was decreased before transplantation (7.11 vs 10.0 mmol/min/kPa in controls), but DLCO/VA was normal (1.67+/-0.44 vs 1.71+/-0.26 mmol/min/kPa/L in controls). DLCO/VA remained unchanged after transplantation, because the decrease in Vc (82+/-30 vs 65+/-18 ml before and after transplantation) and thetaVc/VA was not compensated by the changes in membrane conductance (11+/-4 vs 12+/-5 mmol/min/kPa before and after transplantation, respectively) and membrane conductance/VA. We conclude that the decrease in DLCO in patients with chronic heart failure is due to a restrictive ventilatory pattern because their DLCO/VA remains normal; the decrease in the membrane conductance is compensated by the increase in Vc. After transplantation, the decrease in Vc due to normalization of pulmonary hemodynamics is not completely compensated for by an increase in membrane conductance. Because the membrane conductances, measured before and after transplantation, are negatively correlated with duration of heart failure, its abnormal pulmonary hemodynamics may have irreversibly altered the alveolar capillary membrane.
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A role for a deficit in transport actions of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in hypertension is supported by the following: (1) diminished renal 20-HETE in Dahl-S rats; (2) altered salt- and furosemide-induced 20-HETE responses in salt-sensitive hypertensive subjects; and (3) increased population risk for hypertension in C allele carriers of the T8590C polymorphism of CYP4A11, which encodes an enzyme with reduced catalytic activity. We determined T8590C genotypes in 32 hypertensive subjects, 25 of whom were phenotyped for salt sensitivity of blood pressure and insulin sensitivity. Urine 20-HETE was lowest in insulin-resistant, salt-sensitive subjects (F=5.56; P<0.02). Genotypes were 13 TT, 2 CC, and 17 CT. C allele frequency was 32.8% (blacks: 38.9%; whites: 25.0%). C carriers (CC+CT) and TT subjects were similarly distributed among salt- and insulin-sensitivity phenotypes. C carriers had higher diastolic blood pressures and aldosterone:renin and waist:hip ratios but lower furosemide-induced fractional excretions of Na and K than TT. The T8590C genotype did not relate to sodium balance or pressure natriuresis. However, C carriers, compared with TT, had diminished 20-HETE responses to salt loading after adjustment for serum insulin concentration and resetting of the negative relationship between serum insulin and urine 20-HETE to a 1-microg/h lower level of 20-HETE. The effect of C was insulin independent and equipotent to 18 microU/mL of insulin (Delta20-HETE= 2.84-0.054xinsulin-0.98xC; r(2)=0.53; F=11.1; P<0.001). Hence, genetic (T8590C) and environmental (insulin) factors impair 20-HETE responses to salt in human hypertension. We propose that genotype analyses with sufficient homozygous CC will establish definitive relationships among 20-HETE, salt sensitivity of blood pressure, and insulin resistance.
Elderly patients (n = 462) hospitalized because of a hip fracture between 1977 and 1983 and an equal number of age- and sex-matched population-based control patients.