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Indocin (Indomethacin)

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Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.


Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.


Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.


If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

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BA evoked a concentration-dependent EDR in aortas, and pretreatment with EC(50) (2.0 μM) concentration of BA markedly enhanced ACh-induced EDR of aortas exposed to pyrogallol-produced superoxide anion (E(max) rose from 23.91 ± 5.41% to 42.45 ± 9.99%), which was markedly reversed by both N(w) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and methylene blue, but not by indomethacin. Moreover, BA significantly inhibited the increase of ROS level, as well as the decrease of NO level, the endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity, and the SOD activity in aortas induced by pyrogallol-derived superoxide anion.

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Neutrophil migration into tissues is involved in the genesis of inflammatory pain. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that the effect of CXC chemokines on CXCR1/2 is important to induce neutrophil migration and inflammatory hypernociception.

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The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on constriction frequency, smooth muscle membrane potential (V(m)), and endothelial V(m) of guinea pig mesenteric lymphatics were examined in vitro. CGRP (1-100 nM) caused an endothelium-dependent decrease in the constriction frequency of perfused lymphatic vessels. The endothelium-dependent CGRP response was abolished by the CGRP-1 receptor antagonist CGRP-(8-37) (1 microM) and pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml). This action of CGRP was also blocked by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA; 10 microM), an action that was reversed by the addition of L-arginine (100 microM). cGMP, adenylate cyclase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and ATP-sensitive K+ (K+(ATP)) channels were all implicated in the endothelium-dependent CGRP response because it was abolished by methylene blue (20 microM), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 microM), dideoxyadenosine (10 microM), N-[2-(p-bromociannamylamino)-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide-dichloride (H89; 1 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM). CGRP (100 nM), unlike acetylcholine, did not alter endothelial intracellular Ca2+ concentration or V(m). CGRP (100 nM) hyperpolarized the smooth muscle V(m), an effect inhibited by L-NNA, H89, or glibenclamide. CGRP (500 nM) also caused a decrease in constriction frequency. However, this was no longer blocked by CGRP-(8-37). CGRP (500 nM) also caused smooth muscle hyperpolarization, an action that was now not blocked by L-NNA (100 microM). It was most likely mediated by the activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway and the opening of K+(ATP) channels because it was abolished by H89 or glibenclamide. We conclude that CGRP, at low to moderate concentrations (i.e., 1-100 nM), decreases lymphatic constriction frequency primarily by the stimulation of CGRP-1 receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins and the release of NO from the endothelium or enhancement of the actions of endogenous NO. At high concentrations (i.e., 500 nM), CGRP also directly activates the smooth muscle independent of NO. Both mechanisms of activation ultimately cause the PKA-mediated opening of K+(ATP) channels and resultant hyperpolarization.

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Randomized controlled trials comparing prophylactic ibuprofen use with placebo/no intervention/indomethacin were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2005), MEDLINE (1966-July 2005), CINAHL (1982-July 2005), EMBASE (1980-July 2005), reference lists of published trials and abstracts published in Pediatric Research (1990-July 2005). No language restrictions were applied.

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Atypical features of hemicrania continua (HC), including both visual aura and side shifting, have been reported previously. However, auras and variable unilaterality have never been reported together in HC. We report two patients with side-shifting HC with aura. These patients' symptoms are unilateral headaches, visual aura, autonomic features, throbbing pain, nausea and photo/phonophobia. One could speculate that the unilaterality and/or the autonomic symptom modules are indomethacin responsive. The patients can also be classified as chronic migraine with aura, with autonomic symptoms, responsive to indomethacin. Neither migraine subtype nor side-shifting HC with aura is included in the current International Headache Society (IHS) classification, so these patients are not classifiable. Side-shifting HC with aura implies the need to revisit the traditional IHS categorization of headaches into unique diagnostic groups. The modular headache theory may be a tool for the understanding of these rare and complex cases.

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Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are often used as markers of inflammation. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether MPO activity is as reliable as IL-6 as an indicator of inflammation.

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The flow properties of drug-polymer mixtures have a significant influence on their processability when using techniques such as hot melt extrusion (HME). Suitable extrusion temperature and screw speed to be used in laboratory scale HME were evaluated for mixtures containing 30% of paracetamol (PRC), ibuprofen (IBU), or indomethacin (IND), and 70% of polyethylene oxide, by using small amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. The initial evaluation of the drug:polyethylene oxide solubility was estimated by differential scanning calorimetry of the physical mixtures containing a wide range of weight fractions of the drug substances. Consecutively, the mixtures were extruded, and the maximum plasticizing weight fraction of each drug was determined by means of rheological measurements. IBU was found to have an efficient plasticizing functionality, decreasing the viscosity of the mixtures even above its apparent saturation solubility, whereas IND and PRC initially lowered the viscosity of the mixture slightly but increased it significantly with increasing drug load. The main reason for the enhanced plasticization effect seems to be the lower melting temperature of IBU, which is closer to the used HME temperature, compared to PRC and IND. This study highlights the importance of rheological investigation in understanding the drug-polymer interactions in melt processing.

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Several types of diets containing DF at various percentages were given to animals twice daily during the experiment. IND was administered orally once daily after the morning meal for 3 days, and the area of mucosal lesions in the intestine was measured. Gastrointestinal motility was measured using a telemetry system in conscious cats implanted with force transducers.

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Arachidonic acid metabolism is modulated during differentiation induced by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in HL-60 cells. Antioxidants that affect arachidonic acid metabolism enhance this differentiation program. Ascorbate also enhances differentiation in 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced cells depending on the induction of cAMP. The aim of this work was to study if this cAMP rise depends on modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by ascorbate. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors, indomethacin and aspirin, increased cAMP levels and also enhanced 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced differentiation in HL-60 cells. Ascorbate did not affect the release of arachidonic acid-derived metabolites but decreased the levels of TXB(2) and PGE(2), suggesting the inhibition of cyclooxygenase. On the other hand, free arachidonic acid increased both cAMP levels and differentiation in the absence or presence of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Neither cyclooxygenase inhibitors nor ascorbate modified AA effect. Then, inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by ascorbate could accumulate free arachidonic acid or other metabolites that increase cAMP levels and enhance differentiation in 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced HL-60 cells.

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Wyburn-Mason syndrome is a rare phacomatosis characterized by unilateral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving the brain, retina, and (rarely) the skin. The diagnosis is concluded with dilated fundus examination and markedly dilated tortuous vascular loops with arteriovenous communications on fluorescent angiography. We present a 14-year-old male patient with Wyburn-Mason syndrome who developed serous macular neuroretinal detachment, cystoid macular edema (CME), and consequent visual deterioration in the left eye. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with Wyburn-Mason syndrome who developed serous retinal detachment and CME.

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Eight-week-old, female C57BL/6 mice.

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Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomized to elevated intracompartmental pressure (EICP) for either 45 or 90 minutes (30 mmHg). In the 45-minute cohort, indomethacin was withheld in Group 1 (CS45), given before induction of EICP in Group 2 (CS45Indo0), or given after 30 minutes of EICP/15 minutes before fasciotomy in Group 3 (CS45Indo30). In the 90-minute cohort, indomethacin was withheld in Group 4 (CS90) or given after 30 or 60 minutes of EICP in Groups 5 (CS90Indo30) and 6 (CS90Indo60). Intravital microscopy and fluorescent staining assessed capillary perfusion, cell damage, and inflammatory activation within extensor digitorum longus muscle. Apoptosis was assessed using spectrophotometric assessment of caspase levels. Groups 1 to 3 and 4 to 6 were compared using analysis of variance with P < 0.05 deemed significant.

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Potentiation by neuropeptide Y of serotonin (5-HT)-induced vasoconstriction was investigated in porcine coronary artery. 5-HT caused concentration-dependent contraction through 5-HT2A receptors. Neuropeptide Y (30 nM) significantly increased the 5HT-induced contraction by 16+/-5% in arteries with intact endothelium. Removal of the endothelium abolished the potentiation. A neuropeptide Y1 antagonist, BIBP3226, blocked this neuropeptide Y-induced potentiation. In vessels with intact endothelium, the potentiation by neuropeptide Y was inhibited by in the presence of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (30 microM), but not by the presence of ETA or ETB endothelin receptor antagonists or an NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (1 mM) at all. A thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase inhibitor, ozagrel, and prostanoid TP receptor antagonists, seratrodast and ONO-3708, also inhibited the neuropeptide Y-induced potentiation. In the endothelium-denuded arteries, a prostanoid TP receptor agonist, U-46619 (0.01-0.1 nM), potentiated 5-HT-induced contraction. These results indicate that neuropeptide Y potentiates the 5-HT-induced contraction, due to release of TXA2 from the endothelium via neuropeptide Y1 receptors, in porcine coronary artery.

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There was significantly less post-operative pain in the ketorolac group during the stay in the unit (88% with minor or less pain in Group K vs. 74% and 67% in Groups D and B, respectively, P < 0.05), significantly less need for rescue medication (P < 0.05) and significantly less nausea or vomiting (12% in Group K vs. 30% in the other groups pooled, P < 0.05). The ketorolac patients were significantly faster for ready discharge, median 165 min vs. 192 min and 203 min in Groups D and B, respectively (P < 0.01). There were no differences between the groups in perceived pain, nausea, vomiting or rescue analgesic consumption in the 4- to 72-h period.

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Most of the drugs prescribed to treat acute gouty attacks were used before the introduction of modern clinical trials. Thus, there are few well-designed studies available to evaluate these drugs. Nevertheless, worldwide clinical experience supports the use of most nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine and corticosteroids in the treatment of acute gout. Colchicine has been widely used but toxicity, especially gastrointestinal adverse effects, are a major concern. Therapeutic regimens involving hourly or 2-hourly administration were based on the short initial half-life of colchicine in plasma. Other therapy schedules, such as early 8-hourly administration, may be equally effective and have fewer adverse effects. Unfortunately, comparative studies to investigate this have not been performed. Colchicine should not be prescribed to patients with either severe renal insufficiency or combined hepatic-renal insufficiency. Doses should be halved in patients with moderate renal function impairment. NSAIDs are the most widely prescribed drugs in the treatment of acute gout. Few comparative data are available, but any of the most potent NSAIDs are probably useful in the control of pain and inflammatory signs of acute gouty arthritis. Pharmacokinetic properties should be taken into account when selecting an NSAID for the treatment of gout, as rapid absorption and a short half-life may help to avoid accumulation in patients with subclinical renal function impairment. Comorbidities should always be kept in mind when prescribing NSAIDs. Patients with previous or recent gastrointestinal bleeding, those receiving anticoagulant therapy or with haemorrhage diathesis, and those with renal insufficiency are at risk of developing severe adverse effects from NSAID administration. Corticosteroids are probably a reasonable choice for patients in whom colchicine and NSAIDs may be hazardous or for those with a history of previous intolerance to these drugs. Few trials using prednisone, prednisolone or triamcinolone acetonide are available, and dosages are prescribed following empirical data. Corticotropin has also been used to treat acute gout. Although it has been proven to be as effective as other corticosteroids or indomethacin, the need for multiple doses, parenteral administration and the high cost are major limitations for its use. Currently, the choice of a drug for the treatment of acute gout will depend on the balance between its efficacy and the potential adverse effects in a particular patient.

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The objective of this study was to improve systemic delivery of the highly analgesic ketorolac trometamol (ketorolac tromethamine) via the transdermal route, through cost-effective topical formulations, to avoid most of the problems associated with ketorolac trometamol therapy.

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A total of 503 live births were included. ROP was identified in 190 (37.8%) and met criteria for treatment in 59 (11.7%).ROP was diagnosed as stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 in 61 (12.1%), 36 (7.2%), 81 (16.1%), 11 (2.2%), and 1 (0.2%) infant, respectively. Lower birth weight and younger gestational age were risk factors for greater severity of ROP (p < 0.001). Of the 167 with extremely low birth weight (<1000 g), 118 (70.7%) had ROP and 49 (29.3%) required treatment. On univariate analysis, low birth weight, younger gestational age, and risk factors such as respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, patent ductus arteriosus, surfactant usage, indomethacin usage, sepsis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, blood transfusion, and necrotizing enterocolitis were associated with ROP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only lower birth weight was a significant and independent risk factor for ROP. Myopia (76%)and anisometropia (28%)were common in advanced ROP.

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The research team induced edemas in Wistar rats with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol (TPA), formaldehyde, carrageenan, and histamine to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the three organic extracts of seeds from B crassifolia. The team also used the cotton-pellet granuloma method to induce edemas in Wistar rats and study the inhibitory effect of the three extracts from B crassifolia. Finally, the team examined the participation of the nitric oxide (NO) system in the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane extract of nance seeds (NS), diclorofenac, and L-NAME as well as the effects of L-arginine and D-arginine on the antiinflammatory actions of the compounds.

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity are commonly used in various inflammatory diseases. In this study, to examine the immunomodulatory effects of well known NSAIDs at clinically available doses, macrophage- and T cell-mediated immune responses such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release and nitric oxide (NO) production, cell-cell adhesion, phagocytic uptake and lymphocyte proliferation were investigated. NSAIDs tested significantly enhanced TNF-alpha release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells at certain concentrations (fenoprofen, indomethacin, piroxicam, aceclofenac, diclofenac and sulindac) or in a dose-dependent manner (aspirin and phenylbutazone). Of NSAIDs, phenylbutazone and aspirin most potently attenuated NO production, although sulindac was the only compound with cytoprotective activity against LPS-induced cytotoxicity. Most NSAIDs used displayed weak or no modulatory effects on phagocytic uptake and CD29- or CD43-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, however, phenylbutazone itself triggered cell-cell clustering under normal culture conditions and enhanced the phagocytic activity. Aspirin and phenylbutazone also dose-dependently attenuated CD4+ T cell proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A (Con A) and CD8+ CTLL-2 cell proliferation induced by interleukin (IL)-2. Sulindac only blocked CTLL-2 cell proliferation. These results suggest that NSAIDs may differentially exert immunomodulatory effects on activated macrophages and lymphocytes, and some of the effects may enforce NSAID's therapeutic effect against inflammatory symptoms.

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Roots of Onosma species are used for the treatment of various disorders such as bronchitis, tonsillitis, hemorrhoids as well as alleviating pains in folk medicine in Turkey.

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In situ dielectric spectroscopy has been used to characterize vapor-deposited glasses of methyl-m-toluate (MMT), an organic glass former with low fragility (m = 60). Deposition near 0.84T(g) produces glasses of very high kinetic stability; these materials are comparable in stability to the most stable glasses produced from more fragile glass formers. Highly stable glasses of MMT, when annealed above T(g), transform into the supercooled liquid by a heterogeneous mechanism. A constant velocity propagating front is initiated at the free surface and controls the transformation of thin films. The transition to a bulk-dominated transformation process occurs at 5 μm, the largest length scale reported for any glass. Contrary to recent conclusions, we find that physical vapor deposition can form highly stable organic glasses across the entire range of liquid fragilities.

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All randomised studies comparing an oral corticosteroid (not exceeding an equivalent of 15 mg prednisolone daily) with placebo or a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug were eligible if they reported clinical outcomes within one month after start of therapy. For adverse effects, long-term trials and matched cohort studies were also selected.

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To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the ethanolic extract of rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia (DQ) and its phytochemical profile.

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indocin medication dosage 2015-01-09

We used the standard search strategy for the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG). This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) ( The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to December 2010), and EMBASE (1980 to December 2010). Additional searches included conference proceedings, references in articles and buy indocin online unpublished data.

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Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into five groups. Distilled water (control group), famotidine (40 mg/kg), and montelukast (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were given orally (gavage). Thirty buy indocin online minutes later, indomethacin (25 mg/kg) was administered to all the groups. Six hours later, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation. The ulcer indexes for each stomach and the ulcer inhibition rates for each group were calculated, and the stomachs were later evaluated histopathologically (polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration).

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Caplets were prepared by hot-melt extrusion (HME) and injection moulding (IM). Each of the three model drugs were tested on two drug loadings in various dissolution media. The physical state of the drug, microstructure and hydration behaviour were investigated to build up buy indocin online understanding for the release behaviour from a zein based matrix for drug delivery.

indocin pill 2016-10-06

Here, the effect of CD14(+) monocytes on human umbilical cord matrix stem cell (hUC-MSC)-mediated immunosuppression was studied in vitro. hUC-MSCs exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion capacities of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation. Transwell co-culture system revealed that the suppressive effect was primarily mediated by soluble factors. Addition of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin or NS-398) almost completely abrogated the immunosuppression activity of hUC-MSCs, identifying prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as an important soluble mediator. CD14(+) monocytes were found to be able to enhance significantly the immunosuppressive effect of hUC-MSCs in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta, either exogenously added or produced by CD14(+) monocytes in culture, could trigger expression of high levels of PGE(2) by hUC-MSCs, whereas inclusion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) in the culture down-regulated not only PGE(2) expression, but also reversed the promotional effect of CD14(+) monocytes and partially restored CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion. Our data demonstrate an important role buy indocin online of monocytes in the hUC-MSC-induced immunomodulation, which may have important implications in future efforts to explore the clinical potentials of hUC-MSCs.

indocin renal dosing 2016-09-11

The findings indicated that nanomolar doses of Jaburetox triggered cation-dependent, in vitro aggregation of buy indocin online hemocytes of fifth-instar nymphs and adults. The use of specific eicosanoid synthesis inhibitors revealed that the cellular immune response required cyclooxygenase products since indomethacin prevented the Jaburetox-dependent aggregation whereas baicalein and esculetin (inhibitors of the lipoxygenases pathway) did not. Cultured hemocytes incubated with Jaburetox for 24 h showed cytoskeleton disorganization, chromatin condensation and were positive for activated caspase 3, an apoptosis marker, although their phagocytic activity remained unchanged. Finally, in vivo treatments by injection of Jaburetox induced both a cellular response, as observed by hemocyte aggregation, and a humoral response, as seen by the increase of spontaneous phenoloxidase activity, a key enzyme involved in melanization and defense. On the other hand, the humoral response elicited by Jaburetox injections did not lead to an increment of antibacterial or lysozyme activities. Jaburetox injections also impaired the clearance of the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus from the hemolymph leading to increased mortality, indicating a possible immunosuppression induced by treatment with the peptide.

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Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing nitric oxide (NO.) bioavailability. It is unclear whether reduced expression or function of the enzyme that produces NO., endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), also contributes. It is also unclear whether resistance vessels that utilize both NO.and non-NO.vasodilatory mechanisms, undergo alteration of non-NO.mechanisms in this condition. We tested these hypotheses in male C57BL/6 mice with chronic HHcy induced by 6-wk high methionine/low-B vitamin feeding (Hcy: 89.2 +/- 49.0 microM) compared with age-matched controls (Hcy: 6.6 +/- 1.9 microM), using first-order mesenteric arteries. Dilation to buy indocin online ACh (10(-9)-10(-4) M) was measured in isolated, cannulated, and pressurized (75 mmHg) arteries with and without N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (10(-4) M) and/or indomethacin (10(-5) M) to test endothelium-dependent dilation and non-NO.-dependent dilation, respectively. The time course of dilation to ACh (10(-4) M) was examined to compare the initial transient dilation due to non-NO., non-prostacyclin mechanism and the sustained dilation due to NO.. These experiments indicated that endothelium-dependent dilation was attenuated (P < 0.05) in HHcy arteries due to downregulation of only NO.-dependent dilation. Western blot analysis indicated significantly less (P < 0.05) basal eNOS and phospho-S1179-eNOS/eNOS in mesenteric arteries from HHcy mice but no difference in phospho-T495-eNOS/eNOS. S1179 eNOS phosphorylation was also significantly less in these arteries when stimulated with ACh ex vivo or in situ. Real-time PCR indicated no difference in eNOS mRNA levels. In conclusion, chronic diet-induced HHcy in mice impairs eNOS protein expression and phosphorylation at S1179, coincident with impaired NO.-dependent dilation, which implicates dysfunction in eNOS post-transcriptional regulation in the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and microvascular disease that is common with HHcy.

indocin 50mg capsules 2016-02-16

The carboxylic acid group of the anti-inflammatory (AI) drugs aspirin and indomethacin was covalently linked to the 1-(2-carboxypyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate ion via a one-carbon methylene spacer to obtain two new hybrid prodrugs. The aspirin prodrug ( 23) was a 2.2-fold more buy indocin online potent AI agent than aspirin, whereas the indomethacin prodrug ( 26) was about 1.6-fold less potent than indomethacin. Prodrugs 23 and 26 slowly released nitric oxide (NO) upon dissolution in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 (1.1 mol of NO/mol of compound after 43 h), but the rate and the extent of NO release were higher (1.9 mol of NO/mol of compound in 3 min or less) when the compounds were incubated in the presence of porcine liver esterase. In vivo ulcer index (UI) studies showed that the aspirin prodrug 23 (UI = 0.7) and indomethacin prodrug 26 (UI = 0) were substantially less ulcerogenic than the parent drugs aspirin (UI = 51) and indomethacin (UI = 64).

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Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome secondary to acute or chronic liver failure. However, its pathophysiology remains obscure. Recently, we found that the inhibition of cyclooxygenase by indomethacin aggravated HE in rats with thioacetamide-induced acute hepatic failure, suggesting buy indocin online a pivotal role of cyclooxygenase in HE. This study was aimed at surveying the roles of cyclooxygenase isoforms responsible for prostaglandins synthesis, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) and COX2, in cirrhotic rats with HE.

indocin gout medicine 2015-12-22

Sinus bradycardia after IV administration of ondansetron was observed in a 36-year buy indocin online -old pregnant patient status post cerclage. On rechallenge, the patient went into asystole. This case report adds to the available literature regarding ondansetron-induced cardiac arrhythmias and the possibility of asystole upon rechallenge.

indocin 50mg medication 2015-11-25

Nine consecutive patients were diagnosed as EG of the skull and confirmed pathologically between 1996 and 2005. In the present study, multi- and single-system Langerhans' cell histiocytosis without skull involvement were excluded. Patients with EG of the skull were divided into two groups: (1) those with only a single bone lesion and those with (2) multiple bone lesions. Surgical removal was performed between 2 and 10 years of buy indocin online age (mean, 4.2 years).

indocin gout dosage 2015-03-10

We have shown recently that development from neonatal to adult life affects cerebrovascular tone of mouse cerebral arteries through endothelium-derived vasodilatory mechanisms. The current study tested the hypothesis that development from fetal to adult life affects cerebral artery vascular smooth muscle (VSM) [Ca(2+)](i) sensitivity and tone through a mechanism partially dependent upon endothelium-dependent signalling. In pressurized resistance sized cerebral arteries ( approximately 150 microm) from preterm (95 +/- 2 days gestation (95 d)) and near-term (140 +/- 2 days gestation (140 d)) fetuses, and non-pregnant adults, we measured vascular diameter ( buy indocin online microm) and [Ca(2+)](i) (nm) as a function of intravascular pressure. We repeated these studies in the presence of inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS; with l-NAME), cyclo-oxygenase (COX; with indomethacin) and endothelium removal (E-). Cerebrovasculature tone (E+) was greater in arteries from 95 d fetuses and adults compared to 140 d sheep. Ca(2+) sensitivity was similar in 95 d fetuses and adults, but much lower in 140 d fetuses. Removal of endothelium resulted in a reduction in lumen diameter as a function of pressure (greater tone) in all treatment groups. [Ca(2+)](i) sensitivity differences among groups were magnified after E-. NOS inhibition decreased diameter as a function of pressure in each age group, with a significant increase in [Ca(2+)](i) to pressure ratio only in the 140 d fetuses. Indomethacin increased tone and increased [Ca(2+)](i) in the 140 d fetuses, but not the other age groups. Development from near-term to adulthood uncovered an interaction between NOS- and COX-sensitive substances that functioned to modulate artery diameter but not [Ca(2+)](i). This study suggests that development is associated with significant alterations in cerebral vascular smooth muscle (VSM), endothelium, NOS and COX responses to intravascular pressure. We speculate that these changes have important implications in the regulation of cerebral blood flow in the developing organism.

indocin generic name 2015-09-24

Myofibroblastic tumors are inflammatory tumors that arise in viscera and soft tissue; their etiopathology is poorly understood. They are capable of infiltration of adjacent organs, local recurrence after surgical resection, and even of distant metastasis. These characteristics result in persistent debate as to the nature of these lesions - whether they are inflammatory or neoplastic, benign or malignant lesions? Diagnosis is almost always made based on histopathological findings. Traditional management is complete surgical excision, but this may be difficult or impossible when the lesion develops in proximity to vital structures. We report the case of a 59-year-old man who was treated in our institution for mesenteric myofibroblastic tumor. Complete resection was not possible due to local infiltration of the mesentery. Recurrence was noted 3 months after surgery; treatment with steroidal and then non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications ( buy indocin online NSAIDs) resulted in clinical and radiologic regression of the tumor.

indocin pain medication 2016-11-04

Self-administered intranasal ROX-828 was well tolerated. While the primary endpoint was not met, the results provide preliminary evidence buy indocin online that ROX-828 improves migraine pain.

indocin sr alcohol 2017-02-21

To systematically buy indocin online identify, appraise, and evaluate the effectiveness of symptomatic pharmacological treatment of bronchorrhea in malignant disease in palliative care.

indocin 25mg capsules 2016-11-21

The main aim of tocolysis is to improve the health of newborns. Given the modest impact in terms of perinatal health of tocolysis we must emphasize the use of tocolytics which, equally effective, have fewer maternal side effects than beta-agonists and are devoid of potential complications for mother and the newborn. Inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis and calcium antagonists of oxytocin seem to meet these criteria. The recent papers for the use of NSAIDs provide no fundamentally new scientific data. This therapy is potentially associated with severe neonatal complications and superiority to calcium channel blockers or antagonists of oxytocin in terms of prolongation of pregnancy is not established. It Zanaflex 2 Mg seems reasonable to reserve them for special situations by their severity, precocity of the age of gestation or by the ineffectiveness of other treatments. In practice, it is recommended not to use NSAIDs first line, beyond 32 weeks and treatment should be of short duration (less than 48 to 72 hours). Ideally, delivery should not occur within 48 hours after stopping treatment.

indocin purchase 2017-06-27

The phytochemical study of Pittocaulon filare afforded three oplopanes (1-3), a eudesmane (6), and three oplopane glucosides (7-9), one of them reported as its acetyl derivative (7a), together with several known compounds. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical reactions. The anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1-5 was determined using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema model, and the effect of compounds 1-4 on the recruitment of neutrophils was evaluated using the myeloperoxidase test. Compounds 1 and 2 were the more active anti-inflammatory agents, with lower ID50 values (0.17 and 0.18 μmol/ear, respectively) than indomethacin (0.24 μmol/ear), but they had a lesser effect on the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration than both indomethacin and compound 3, indicating that the tested compounds do not have the same ability Vermox Order Online to inhibit edema and to prevent cell infiltration.

indocin sr dosage 2017-11-11

Tamoxifen (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), indomethacin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and prednisolon (5 mg/kg) produced anti-inflammatory effects in intact rats, however, they could not in adrenalectomized rats. 20 mg/kg tamoxifen produced low anti-inflammatory effect. Tamoxifen and Avodart Brand Name indomethacin decreased COX-2 levels in intact rats, but not in adrenalectomised rats. Tamoxifen produced anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing adrenalin levels, as indomethacin does. 20 mg/kg tamoxifen decreased corticosterone levels.

indocin sr medication 2016-11-15

We studied the transplacental ductal constrictive effects of a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor (SC560), six selective COX-2 inhibitors including rofecoxib, and a non-selective COX inhibitor (indomethacin). Each drug was administered to the pregnant Detrol Drug Generic rats, and fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) was studied with a whole-body freezing method. The inner diameter ratio of the DA to the main pulmonary artery (DA/PA) was 1.02+/-0.03 (mean+/-S.E.M.) in controls. Every drug constricted the DA dose-dependently. In preterm rats on the 19th day of gestation, 10mg/kg of SC560, rofecoxib and indomethacin caused ductal constriction, with DA/PA reduced to 0.76+/-0.02, 0.80+/-0.03 and 0.75+/-0.02, respectively. In near-term on the 21st day, 10mg/kg of them caused ductal constriction, with DA/PA to 0.74+/-0.04, 0.26+/-0.02 and 0.33+/-0.05. In conclusion, both COX-1 and COX-2 selective inhibitors constrict fetal DA. They are not better alternatives for the fetus than non-selective COX inhibitors for tocolysis.

indocin 1 mg 2017-12-24

No significant difference was found between proliferation of fibroblasts treated under hypoxia or normoxia. Cells incubated with indomethacin proliferated in a slightly enhanced manner compared with non-treated cells. Celecoxib inhibited fibroblast proliferation Avodart Dutasteride Capsules (P < .001) but did not influence cell survival. Metabolic activity of cells treated with celecoxib was significantly reduced (P < .003), unlike cells treated with indomethacin or rofecoxib.

indocin capsule 2015-01-17

To assess the efficacy and safety of ONS in chronic, medically intractable Glucophage And Alcohol SUNCT and SUNA patients.

indocin and alcohol 2017-10-09

This paper details the case of a 26-year-old woman with depletion syndrome and the effectiveness of her treatment with indomethacin. Villous adenomas are benign neoplasms with a high incidence of becoming malignant. A small percentage of villous adenomas are known to cause depletion syndrome, also referred to as the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome, a condition characterised by secretory diarrhoea, dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalaemia, hypochloraemia, metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Prostaglandin- Cialis Cost 20mg E2 mediates the hypersecretion mechanism observed in depletion syndrome, and can be inhibited by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. This case study measured the effectiveness of prostaglandin inhibition on a patient with oral and parenteral electrolyte replacement refractory depletion syndrome. Fluid loss and prostaglandin levels were measured before and after pharmacological treatment. This case demonstrates a 49% decrease in rectal effluent and a marked commensurate decrease in daily replenishment requirements within 48 hours of indomethacin treatment initiation, resulting in subsequent electrolyte stabilisation.

indocin 40 mg 2016-06-26

Human bone marrow cells were obtained from 3 different donors (A=26 yrs/m; B=25 yrs/f, C=35 yrs/m) via 75 Mg Neurontin vacuum aspiration of the iliac crest followed by density gradient centrifugation and flow cytometry with defined antigens (CD105+/73+/45-/14-). The cells were seeded and incubated as follows: without additives (Group 0; donor A/B/C), with 10(-7) M iloprost only (Group 0+ilo; A/B), with indomethacin only in concentrations of 10(-6) M (Group 1, A), 10(-5) M (Group 2, B), 10(-4) M (Group 3, A/B), and together with 10(-7) M iloprost (Groups 4-6, A/B/C). On Day 10 and 28, UV/Vis spectrometric and immunocytochemical assays (4 samples per group and donor) were performed to investigate cell proliferation (cell count measurement) and differentiation towards the osteoblastic lineage (CD34-, CD45-, CD105+, type 1 collagen (Col1), osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runx2, Twist, specific ALP-activity).

indocin max dosage 2016-11-11

Ketorolac loaded rigid and elastic vesicles were prepared by sonication and the physicochemical properties of the drug loaded-vesicle formulations were examined. Rigid and elastic vesicles were prepared from the double chain surfactant sucrose-ester laurate (L-595) and the single chain surfactant octaoxyethylene-laurate ester (PEG-8-L). Sulfosuccinate (TR-70) was used as a negative charge inducer. Evaluation of the prepared vesicle was performed by dynamic light scattering, extrusion and by (1)H NMR (T(2) relaxation studies). The vesicles mean size varied between 90 and 150 nm. The elasticity of the vesicles was enhanced with increasing PEG-8-L/L-595 ratio, while an increase in loading of ketorolac resulted in a reduction in vesicle elasticity. (1)H NMR measurements showed that the molecular mobility of ketorolac was restricted, which indicates that ketorolac molecules were entrapped within the vesicle bilayers. The T(2) values of the aromatic protons of ketorolac increased gradually at higher PEG-8-L levels, indicating that ketorolac mobility increased in the vesicle bilayer. The chemical stability of ketorolac was dramatically improved in the vesicle formulation compared to a buffer solution. The strong interactions of ketorolac with the bilayers Lopressor Dosage of the vesicles might be the explanation for this increased stability of ketorolac.

indocin dosage chart 2015-03-10

Neither substance P (58.8 +/- 5.0 versus 66.2 +/- 7.2 nmol/L) nor A23187 (86.6 +/- 9.0 versus 82.4 +/- 9.2 nmol/L in control) induced NO release was altered by hyperkalemic exposure (p > 0.05). In contrast, EDHF-mediated relaxation was decreased from 84.2% +/- 3.8% to Tricor 6 Mg 42.3% +/- 6.0% (p < 0.001) that was partially restored by nicorandil (50.7% +/- 5.5%, p < 0.05).

indocin 20 mg 2016-07-10

Osteoarthritis is a propagated debilitating condition affecting patients' quality of life. Intra-articular injection approach was investigated as a localized treatment strategy providing: site-specific delivery, decreased side effects and, increased patient compliance. A 3(2) full factorial experimental design was employed to prepare the indomethacin-loaded self-assembling nanosystems (SANS). The surfactant (Poloxamer 407/Tetronic 90R4) ratio and the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) concentration significantly affected encapsulation efficiency and drug release (p<0.05). The optimized formula was subjected to modification by addition of different proteoglycans, as a compensatory treatment, to improve its pharmacological properties. The modified SANS, containing glucosamine (150mg), was selected for in-vivo studies as it had a sustained drug release profile and a small particle size (173.90nm). The effect of the optimized SANS, with or without PLGA, was compared with the modified formula containing glucosamine and, with the drug suspension on the arthritic knee joints of rats. It was found that the formulation containing PLGA and glucosamine showed significantly higher reduction in both, knee diameter and TNF-α levels, compared to other groups. Furthermore, all SANS showed histological improvement in the cellularity of the synovial membranes and joints. Our results indicate that SANS Diovan Drug Classification containing PLGA and glucosamine is capable of treating arthritic joints.

indocin mg 2016-04-19

The recent studies in nanotechnology resulted in the development of novel formulations with improved bioavailability. This is especially important for oral administered drugs as the most convenient formulations. The current review deals with the processes occurring at the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract and their influence on the drug form. The increase of bioavailability of the drug may be achieved through designing novel formulations according to the specific drug properties. They include capsules that release pharmaceutical agents at various parts of the GI tract, floating systems that prolong the presence of the drug in the GI tract, dispersed forms with surface-active soluble polymers, micelles that carry poor-soluble drugs inside their non-polar core, agents that facilitate tight junction opening, such as caprate and chitosan, and lipid-based formulations. The own data show the stimulating influence of phospholipid nanoparticles on peroral absorption of drug indomethacin in rats and on passage of transport marker and drugs through Caco-2 cell monolayer in vitro. The review summarizes current understanding of factors that influence the bioavailability of the oral drug forms, currently used models for pharmacokinetic studies, and various approaches to developing novel pharmaceutical forms that increase the bioavailability of the drugs.

indocin drug class 2017-11-17

Compared to the untreated CIN group, improved renal function, reduced tubular injury, decreased levels of oxidative stress and apoptosis were observed in CIN rats receiving Sulodexide injection. In addition, we also found that ATIII activity was significantly higher in Sulodexide-administered group than that in vehicle-injected CIN rats. For in vitro studies, HK2 cells were exposed to Ioversol and the cyto-protective effects of Sulodexide were also determined. Sulodexide pretreatment protected HK2 cells against the cytotoxicity of Ioversol via inhibiting caspase-3 activity. Preincubation with Sulodexide could also attenuate H2O2-induced increases in ROS, apoptosis and caspase-3 levels.