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BA evoked a concentration-dependent EDR in aortas, and pretreatment with EC(50) (2.0 μM) concentration of BA markedly enhanced ACh-induced EDR of aortas exposed to pyrogallol-produced superoxide anion (E(max) rose from 23.91 ± 5.41% to 42.45 ± 9.99%), which was markedly reversed by both N(w) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and methylene blue, but not by indomethacin. Moreover, BA significantly inhibited the increase of ROS level, as well as the decrease of NO level, the endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity, and the SOD activity in aortas induced by pyrogallol-derived superoxide anion.
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Neutrophil migration into tissues is involved in the genesis of inflammatory pain. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that the effect of CXC chemokines on CXCR1/2 is important to induce neutrophil migration and inflammatory hypernociception.
The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on constriction frequency, smooth muscle membrane potential (V(m)), and endothelial V(m) of guinea pig mesenteric lymphatics were examined in vitro. CGRP (1-100 nM) caused an endothelium-dependent decrease in the constriction frequency of perfused lymphatic vessels. The endothelium-dependent CGRP response was abolished by the CGRP-1 receptor antagonist CGRP-(8-37) (1 microM) and pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml). This action of CGRP was also blocked by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA; 10 microM), an action that was reversed by the addition of L-arginine (100 microM). cGMP, adenylate cyclase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and ATP-sensitive K+ (K+(ATP)) channels were all implicated in the endothelium-dependent CGRP response because it was abolished by methylene blue (20 microM), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 microM), dideoxyadenosine (10 microM), N-[2-(p-bromociannamylamino)-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide-dichloride (H89; 1 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM). CGRP (100 nM), unlike acetylcholine, did not alter endothelial intracellular Ca2+ concentration or V(m). CGRP (100 nM) hyperpolarized the smooth muscle V(m), an effect inhibited by L-NNA, H89, or glibenclamide. CGRP (500 nM) also caused a decrease in constriction frequency. However, this was no longer blocked by CGRP-(8-37). CGRP (500 nM) also caused smooth muscle hyperpolarization, an action that was now not blocked by L-NNA (100 microM). It was most likely mediated by the activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway and the opening of K+(ATP) channels because it was abolished by H89 or glibenclamide. We conclude that CGRP, at low to moderate concentrations (i.e., 1-100 nM), decreases lymphatic constriction frequency primarily by the stimulation of CGRP-1 receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins and the release of NO from the endothelium or enhancement of the actions of endogenous NO. At high concentrations (i.e., 500 nM), CGRP also directly activates the smooth muscle independent of NO. Both mechanisms of activation ultimately cause the PKA-mediated opening of K+(ATP) channels and resultant hyperpolarization.
Randomized controlled trials comparing prophylactic ibuprofen use with placebo/no intervention/indomethacin were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2005), MEDLINE (1966-July 2005), CINAHL (1982-July 2005), EMBASE (1980-July 2005), reference lists of published trials and abstracts published in Pediatric Research (1990-July 2005). No language restrictions were applied.
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Atypical features of hemicrania continua (HC), including both visual aura and side shifting, have been reported previously. However, auras and variable unilaterality have never been reported together in HC. We report two patients with side-shifting HC with aura. These patients' symptoms are unilateral headaches, visual aura, autonomic features, throbbing pain, nausea and photo/phonophobia. One could speculate that the unilaterality and/or the autonomic symptom modules are indomethacin responsive. The patients can also be classified as chronic migraine with aura, with autonomic symptoms, responsive to indomethacin. Neither migraine subtype nor side-shifting HC with aura is included in the current International Headache Society (IHS) classification, so these patients are not classifiable. Side-shifting HC with aura implies the need to revisit the traditional IHS categorization of headaches into unique diagnostic groups. The modular headache theory may be a tool for the understanding of these rare and complex cases.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are often used as markers of inflammation. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether MPO activity is as reliable as IL-6 as an indicator of inflammation.
The flow properties of drug-polymer mixtures have a significant influence on their processability when using techniques such as hot melt extrusion (HME). Suitable extrusion temperature and screw speed to be used in laboratory scale HME were evaluated for mixtures containing 30% of paracetamol (PRC), ibuprofen (IBU), or indomethacin (IND), and 70% of polyethylene oxide, by using small amplitude oscillatory shear rheology. The initial evaluation of the drug:polyethylene oxide solubility was estimated by differential scanning calorimetry of the physical mixtures containing a wide range of weight fractions of the drug substances. Consecutively, the mixtures were extruded, and the maximum plasticizing weight fraction of each drug was determined by means of rheological measurements. IBU was found to have an efficient plasticizing functionality, decreasing the viscosity of the mixtures even above its apparent saturation solubility, whereas IND and PRC initially lowered the viscosity of the mixture slightly but increased it significantly with increasing drug load. The main reason for the enhanced plasticization effect seems to be the lower melting temperature of IBU, which is closer to the used HME temperature, compared to PRC and IND. This study highlights the importance of rheological investigation in understanding the drug-polymer interactions in melt processing.
Several types of diets containing DF at various percentages were given to animals twice daily during the experiment. IND was administered orally once daily after the morning meal for 3 days, and the area of mucosal lesions in the intestine was measured. Gastrointestinal motility was measured using a telemetry system in conscious cats implanted with force transducers.
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Arachidonic acid metabolism is modulated during differentiation induced by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in HL-60 cells. Antioxidants that affect arachidonic acid metabolism enhance this differentiation program. Ascorbate also enhances differentiation in 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced cells depending on the induction of cAMP. The aim of this work was to study if this cAMP rise depends on modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by ascorbate. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors, indomethacin and aspirin, increased cAMP levels and also enhanced 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced differentiation in HL-60 cells. Ascorbate did not affect the release of arachidonic acid-derived metabolites but decreased the levels of TXB(2) and PGE(2), suggesting the inhibition of cyclooxygenase. On the other hand, free arachidonic acid increased both cAMP levels and differentiation in the absence or presence of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Neither cyclooxygenase inhibitors nor ascorbate modified AA effect. Then, inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by ascorbate could accumulate free arachidonic acid or other metabolites that increase cAMP levels and enhance differentiation in 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)-induced HL-60 cells.
Wyburn-Mason syndrome is a rare phacomatosis characterized by unilateral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) involving the brain, retina, and (rarely) the skin. The diagnosis is concluded with dilated fundus examination and markedly dilated tortuous vascular loops with arteriovenous communications on fluorescent angiography. We present a 14-year-old male patient with Wyburn-Mason syndrome who developed serous macular neuroretinal detachment, cystoid macular edema (CME), and consequent visual deterioration in the left eye. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with Wyburn-Mason syndrome who developed serous retinal detachment and CME.
Eight-week-old, female C57BL/6 mice.
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Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomized to elevated intracompartmental pressure (EICP) for either 45 or 90 minutes (30 mmHg). In the 45-minute cohort, indomethacin was withheld in Group 1 (CS45), given before induction of EICP in Group 2 (CS45Indo0), or given after 30 minutes of EICP/15 minutes before fasciotomy in Group 3 (CS45Indo30). In the 90-minute cohort, indomethacin was withheld in Group 4 (CS90) or given after 30 or 60 minutes of EICP in Groups 5 (CS90Indo30) and 6 (CS90Indo60). Intravital microscopy and fluorescent staining assessed capillary perfusion, cell damage, and inflammatory activation within extensor digitorum longus muscle. Apoptosis was assessed using spectrophotometric assessment of caspase levels. Groups 1 to 3 and 4 to 6 were compared using analysis of variance with P < 0.05 deemed significant.
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Potentiation by neuropeptide Y of serotonin (5-HT)-induced vasoconstriction was investigated in porcine coronary artery. 5-HT caused concentration-dependent contraction through 5-HT2A receptors. Neuropeptide Y (30 nM) significantly increased the 5HT-induced contraction by 16+/-5% in arteries with intact endothelium. Removal of the endothelium abolished the potentiation. A neuropeptide Y1 antagonist, BIBP3226, blocked this neuropeptide Y-induced potentiation. In vessels with intact endothelium, the potentiation by neuropeptide Y was inhibited by in the presence of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (30 microM), but not by the presence of ETA or ETB endothelin receptor antagonists or an NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) (1 mM) at all. A thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase inhibitor, ozagrel, and prostanoid TP receptor antagonists, seratrodast and ONO-3708, also inhibited the neuropeptide Y-induced potentiation. In the endothelium-denuded arteries, a prostanoid TP receptor agonist, U-46619 (0.01-0.1 nM), potentiated 5-HT-induced contraction. These results indicate that neuropeptide Y potentiates the 5-HT-induced contraction, due to release of TXA2 from the endothelium via neuropeptide Y1 receptors, in porcine coronary artery.
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There was significantly less post-operative pain in the ketorolac group during the stay in the unit (88% with minor or less pain in Group K vs. 74% and 67% in Groups D and B, respectively, P < 0.05), significantly less need for rescue medication (P < 0.05) and significantly less nausea or vomiting (12% in Group K vs. 30% in the other groups pooled, P < 0.05). The ketorolac patients were significantly faster for ready discharge, median 165 min vs. 192 min and 203 min in Groups D and B, respectively (P < 0.01). There were no differences between the groups in perceived pain, nausea, vomiting or rescue analgesic consumption in the 4- to 72-h period.
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Most of the drugs prescribed to treat acute gouty attacks were used before the introduction of modern clinical trials. Thus, there are few well-designed studies available to evaluate these drugs. Nevertheless, worldwide clinical experience supports the use of most nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine and corticosteroids in the treatment of acute gout. Colchicine has been widely used but toxicity, especially gastrointestinal adverse effects, are a major concern. Therapeutic regimens involving hourly or 2-hourly administration were based on the short initial half-life of colchicine in plasma. Other therapy schedules, such as early 8-hourly administration, may be equally effective and have fewer adverse effects. Unfortunately, comparative studies to investigate this have not been performed. Colchicine should not be prescribed to patients with either severe renal insufficiency or combined hepatic-renal insufficiency. Doses should be halved in patients with moderate renal function impairment. NSAIDs are the most widely prescribed drugs in the treatment of acute gout. Few comparative data are available, but any of the most potent NSAIDs are probably useful in the control of pain and inflammatory signs of acute gouty arthritis. Pharmacokinetic properties should be taken into account when selecting an NSAID for the treatment of gout, as rapid absorption and a short half-life may help to avoid accumulation in patients with subclinical renal function impairment. Comorbidities should always be kept in mind when prescribing NSAIDs. Patients with previous or recent gastrointestinal bleeding, those receiving anticoagulant therapy or with haemorrhage diathesis, and those with renal insufficiency are at risk of developing severe adverse effects from NSAID administration. Corticosteroids are probably a reasonable choice for patients in whom colchicine and NSAIDs may be hazardous or for those with a history of previous intolerance to these drugs. Few trials using prednisone, prednisolone or triamcinolone acetonide are available, and dosages are prescribed following empirical data. Corticotropin has also been used to treat acute gout. Although it has been proven to be as effective as other corticosteroids or indomethacin, the need for multiple doses, parenteral administration and the high cost are major limitations for its use. Currently, the choice of a drug for the treatment of acute gout will depend on the balance between its efficacy and the potential adverse effects in a particular patient.
The objective of this study was to improve systemic delivery of the highly analgesic ketorolac trometamol (ketorolac tromethamine) via the transdermal route, through cost-effective topical formulations, to avoid most of the problems associated with ketorolac trometamol therapy.
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A total of 503 live births were included. ROP was identified in 190 (37.8%) and met criteria for treatment in 59 (11.7%).ROP was diagnosed as stage 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 in 61 (12.1%), 36 (7.2%), 81 (16.1%), 11 (2.2%), and 1 (0.2%) infant, respectively. Lower birth weight and younger gestational age were risk factors for greater severity of ROP (p < 0.001). Of the 167 with extremely low birth weight (<1000 g), 118 (70.7%) had ROP and 49 (29.3%) required treatment. On univariate analysis, low birth weight, younger gestational age, and risk factors such as respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, patent ductus arteriosus, surfactant usage, indomethacin usage, sepsis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, blood transfusion, and necrotizing enterocolitis were associated with ROP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only lower birth weight was a significant and independent risk factor for ROP. Myopia (76%)and anisometropia (28%)were common in advanced ROP.
The research team induced edemas in Wistar rats with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol (TPA), formaldehyde, carrageenan, and histamine to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the three organic extracts of seeds from B crassifolia. The team also used the cotton-pellet granuloma method to induce edemas in Wistar rats and study the inhibitory effect of the three extracts from B crassifolia. Finally, the team examined the participation of the nitric oxide (NO) system in the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane extract of nance seeds (NS), diclorofenac, and L-NAME as well as the effects of L-arginine and D-arginine on the antiinflammatory actions of the compounds.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity are commonly used in various inflammatory diseases. In this study, to examine the immunomodulatory effects of well known NSAIDs at clinically available doses, macrophage- and T cell-mediated immune responses such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha release and nitric oxide (NO) production, cell-cell adhesion, phagocytic uptake and lymphocyte proliferation were investigated. NSAIDs tested significantly enhanced TNF-alpha release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells at certain concentrations (fenoprofen, indomethacin, piroxicam, aceclofenac, diclofenac and sulindac) or in a dose-dependent manner (aspirin and phenylbutazone). Of NSAIDs, phenylbutazone and aspirin most potently attenuated NO production, although sulindac was the only compound with cytoprotective activity against LPS-induced cytotoxicity. Most NSAIDs used displayed weak or no modulatory effects on phagocytic uptake and CD29- or CD43-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, however, phenylbutazone itself triggered cell-cell clustering under normal culture conditions and enhanced the phagocytic activity. Aspirin and phenylbutazone also dose-dependently attenuated CD4+ T cell proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A (Con A) and CD8+ CTLL-2 cell proliferation induced by interleukin (IL)-2. Sulindac only blocked CTLL-2 cell proliferation. These results suggest that NSAIDs may differentially exert immunomodulatory effects on activated macrophages and lymphocytes, and some of the effects may enforce NSAID's therapeutic effect against inflammatory symptoms.
Roots of Onosma species are used for the treatment of various disorders such as bronchitis, tonsillitis, hemorrhoids as well as alleviating pains in folk medicine in Turkey.
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In situ dielectric spectroscopy has been used to characterize vapor-deposited glasses of methyl-m-toluate (MMT), an organic glass former with low fragility (m = 60). Deposition near 0.84T(g) produces glasses of very high kinetic stability; these materials are comparable in stability to the most stable glasses produced from more fragile glass formers. Highly stable glasses of MMT, when annealed above T(g), transform into the supercooled liquid by a heterogeneous mechanism. A constant velocity propagating front is initiated at the free surface and controls the transformation of thin films. The transition to a bulk-dominated transformation process occurs at 5 μm, the largest length scale reported for any glass. Contrary to recent conclusions, we find that physical vapor deposition can form highly stable organic glasses across the entire range of liquid fragilities.
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All randomised studies comparing an oral corticosteroid (not exceeding an equivalent of 15 mg prednisolone daily) with placebo or a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug were eligible if they reported clinical outcomes within one month after start of therapy. For adverse effects, long-term trials and matched cohort studies were also selected.
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To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the ethanolic extract of rhizome of Drynaria quercifolia (DQ) and its phytochemical profile.