An open-label, parallel-group, randomized, multicenter trial was conducted to compare efficacy and safety of repaglinide versus nateglinide, when used in a combination regimen with metformin for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Intensive management of Type 2 DM with a new metformin-glibenclamide combination tablet improved glycaemic control and facilitated the attainment of glycaemic targets at lower doses of metformin or glibenclamide compared with the respective monotherapies, without compromising tolerability.
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Effective treatment often requires therapy directed at both abnormalities. Patients on monotherapy might benefit from a combination agent such as glyburide/metformin, which increases insulin secretion and reduces insulin resistance.
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The inverse correlation between the complexity of a drug regimen and medication adherence is well established. Fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapies are hypothesized to enhance compliance by decreasing the number of required pills.
The level of HbA1c that seemed to trigger glucose-lowering action was 9.0% or higher, not 8.0% as recommended by the ADA. A substantial hyperglycemic peak preceded change in therapy even in this relatively tightly controlled population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Earlier therapeutic changes, but not more frequent testing, would prevent the glycemic excursions we observed. Low mean HbA1c levels in populations do not necessarily indicate that loss of glycemic control is being rapidly addressed for most patients. More research is needed to estimate the impact of these peaks on current well-being and future complications.
This study was designed to examine the survival in type 2 diabetics with proven coronary artery disease (CAD) receiving a combined glyburide/metformin antihyperglycemic treatment over a long-term follow-up period.
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Compared to 2-pill therapy, a FDC resulted in important increases in patient adherence. Economic analyses are warranted to determine whether the clinical benefits attributable to the adherence gains are worth the incremental cost of a FDC.
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A retrospective cohort study design of patients with type 2 diabetes treated at 3 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and 1 Department of Defense Medical Center was utilized. One hundred percent of patients receiving glyburide-metformin tablets were screened for inclusion. Patients with at least 6 months of prior SU+Met combination therapy and a baseline A1C measured within 35 days prior to or 3 days after switch to glyburide-metformin tablets were included. At least one documented follow-up A1C at >or=90 days after the switch to glyburide-metformin was required for inclusion. Glycemic control, complications, lipid parameters, concomitant medications, and weight were analyzed prior to and following the switch to glyburide-metformin.
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Seventy-two patient records were included after the disqualification criteria excluded 488 prospective patients. The mean age of the 72 patients was 62 years; average body mass index was 32.9 kg/m2, average baseline A1C was 8.3%, and the average time since diagnosis was 7.6 years. The mean reduction in A1C was 0.6% (P=0.002) at a mean follow-up of 196 days after the switch to glyburide-metformin tablets. Improvement in glycemic control was predominantly seen in patients with a baseline A1C >or=8% in whom a 1.3% mean reduction in A1C (P=0.0002) was achieved despite a lower mean final dose of glyburide.
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A sulfonylurea--usually glyburide--plus metformin constitute the most widely used oral antihyperglycemic combination in clinical practice. Both medications present undesirable cardiovascular effects. The issue whether the adverse effects of each of these pharmacologic agents may be additive and detrimental to the prognosis for coronary patients has not yet been specifically addressed.
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Treatment with glibenclamide/metformin resulted in a significantly smaller mean PPGE than was attained by treatment with glibenclamide plus metformin, according to measurements taken after the day 14 afternoon standardised meal (89.5 vs 117.4 mg/dl, p = 0.011). The mean glibenclamide peak concentration (C(max)) was significantly greater (approximately 16%) after glibenclamide/metformin treatment on both days 1 and 14. Glibenclamide/metformin treatment was associated with a 2-fold greater area under the concentration-time curve to 3 hours for glibenclamide (AUC(3)) [p < 0.001], although the AUC over the administration interval was equivalent for both formulations.
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The results have shown that the experimental responses match the statistical generated model and that the investigation is reproducible.
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Oral anti-diabetic combinations that address insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction (e.g. metformin and glibenclamide) represent a rational therapeutic option for patients uncontrolled on monotherapy. A 52-week, open-label extension to a double-blind study evaluated metformin-glibenclamide combination tablets (Glucovance) in 477 patients with hyperglycaemia despite sulphonylurea therapy. Reductions in HbA1C were maintained, with a mean reduction of -1.7% after 52 weeks, compared with the baseline value for the double-blind trial. Eighty-five patients receiving 4 x 500 mg/2.5 mg tablets daily displayed a marked improvement in HbA1c following up-titration to a regimen of 2 x 500 mg/2.5 mg + 3 x 500 mg/5 mg tablets. Lipid profiles improved significantly. The combination tablets were well tolerated: 11.1% of patients reported hypoglycaemic symptoms (all either mild or moderate severity). No patient withdrew or required pharmacologic intervention for hypoglycaemia. Metformin-glibenclamide combination tablets are an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic option for intensifying oral anti-diabetic therapy.
Final HbA(1c) values were lower for repaglinide/metformin treatment than for nateglinide/metformin (7.1 vs. 7.5%). Repaglinide/metformin therapy showed significantly greater mean reductions of HbA(1c) (-1.28 vs. -0.67%; P < 0.001) and of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (-39 vs. -21 mg/dl; P = 0.002). Self-monitoring of blood glucose profiles were significantly lower for repaglinide/metformin before breakfast, before lunch, and at 2:00 A.M. Changes in the area under the curve of postprandial glucose, insulin, or glucagon peaks after a test meal were not significantly different for the two treatment groups during this study. Median final doses were 5.0 mg/day for repaglinide and 360 mg/day for nateglinide. Safety assessments were comparable for the two regimens.
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An 18-year-old Spanish Mustang mare was referred for evaluation of progressive weight loss and persistent hyperglycemia. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included marked hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Serum cortisol concentration was appropriately decreased following administration of dexamethasone, indicating that the horse did not have pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Serum insulin and plasma C-peptide concentrations were low, suggesting that hyperglycemia was a result of decreased secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta cells. In addition, glucose concentration did not return to the baseline concentration until 5 hours after i.v. administration of a glucose bolus, suggesting that insulin secretion, insulin effect, or both were reduced. However, i.v. administration of insulin caused only a slight decrease in the plasma glucose concentration, giving the impression that the action of insulin was impaired. Within 5 hours after administration of a combination of glyburide and metformin, which is used to treat diabetes mellitus in humans, the glucose concentration was within reference limits. The horse was euthanized, and a postmortem examination was done. Immunohistochemical staining of sections of the pancreas revealed attenuation of the pancreatic islet beta-cell population, with beta cells that remained generally limited to the periphery of the islets. These findings indicate that, albeit rare, pancreatic beta-cell failure may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus in horses.
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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major public health concern because of rising rates and offspring consequences; yet, expert panels are in complete disagreement on how to diagnose and optimally treat GDM. This review underscores why there remains no diagnostic standard, no agreement on whether excess dietary carbohydrate or fat should be reduced, and whether oral hypoglycemic therapy is safe given the unknown offspring effects on hepatic, pancreatic, or fat development.
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To determine the effect of plasma glucose lowering on coronary circulatory function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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The objective of the study is to compare adherence of a FDC [Glucovance, a FDC of metformin and glyburide] to a 2-pill regimen.
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The present investigation was based on the latest quality by design principles, using the design of experiments technique. The aim was to attain an immediate release formulation of metformin hydrochloride and glibenclamide and to optimize the delivery of these two different antidiabetic agents within a single-tablet combination.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the consequence of both insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. In the progression from normal glucose tolerance to diabetes, postprandial glucose (PPG) levels often rise before fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels increase above 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L). Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown that impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased risk for macrovascular disease and that isolated postchallenge hyperglycemia is an independent factor for increased mortality. Reducing the risk for microvascular complications by improving glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels is well documented. Emerging data now support the relationship between glycemic control and macrovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies documenting postprandial hyperglycemia and the risk for increased mortality suggest that lowering PPG levels might be beneficial. Optimizing both FPG and PPG is important in achieving normal/near-normal glucose levels. Many patients with type 2 diabetes have difficulty attaining the recommended HbA(1c) goal despite normal/near-normal FPG levels; thus, pharmacologic treatment targeting PPG levels may prove beneficial.