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Glucotrol

Glucotrol is a medication consists in a class of drugs called sulfonylureas. Glucotrol is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Glucotrol may be used along with diet, exercise and insulin therapy. Glucotrol works by controlling blood sugar levels in your organism.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Glipizide.

Description

Glucotrol is a medication consists in a class of drugs called sulfonylureas.

Glucotrol is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Glucotrol may be used along with diet, exercise and insulin therapy.

Glucotrol is also known as Glipizide, Glytop SR.

Glucotrol works by controlling blood sugar levels in your organism.

Generic name of Glucotrol is Glipizide.

Brand names of Glucotrol are Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL.

Dosage

Take Glucotrol orally.

Do not chew, divide or crush the tablet. Swallow it whole.

Glucotrol is usually taken before breakfast if it is taken once a day, or before meals if it is taken several times each day.

Take each dose of Glucotrol with a full glass of water.

The dosage and the kind of tablets depend on the disease and its prescribed treatment.

While taking Glucotrol follow diet, medication and exercise routines closely.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Glucotrol suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Glucotrol and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Glucotrol overdosage: hunger, nausea, anxiety, cold sweats, weakness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, coma.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Glucotrol are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Glucotrol if you are allergic to Glucotrol components.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you have kidney disease, liver disease, thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, serious infection, illness, or injury.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you take aspirin or another salicylate such as magnesium/choline salicylate (Trilisate), salsalate (Disalcid, others), choline salicylate (Arthropan), magnesium salicylate (Magan) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin, others), ketoprofen (Orudis, Orudis KT, Oruvail), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam), etodolac (Lodine), indomethacin (Indocin), nabumetone (Relafen), oxaprozin (Daypro), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Aleve) and others; sulfa-based drug such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra), sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), or sulfasalazine (Azulfidine); monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate) or phenelzine (Nardil); beta-blocker such as propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), acebutolol (Sectral), metoprolol (Lopressor) and others; diuretic (water pill) such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, Hydrodiuril), chlorothiazide (Diuril) and others; steroid medicine such as prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone, others), methylprednisolone (Medrol, others), prednisolone (Prelone, Pediapred, others) and others; phenothiazine such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin, Permitil), prochlorperazine (Compazine), promethazine (Phenergan) and others; phenytoin (Dilantin); isoniazid (Nydrazid); prescription, over-the-counter, or herbal cough, cold, allergy or weight loss medications.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Glucotrol suddenly.

glucotrol generic name

Ridayarishta formulation alone and cocktail with amlodipine besilate, atenolol, atorvastatin, metformin, glipizide, glimepiride had negligible or insignificant effect on CYP450 inhibition. It may be concluded that consumption of Ridayarishta along with selective cardio protective, antihypertensive and anti-diabetic conventional medicine is safe with negligible or without any significant CYP450 (CYP1A2, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) inhibition mediated HDI.

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Father died of leukemia at age 65; mother has kidney stones; no diabetes or neuromuscular disease.

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In town A, prescribing of oral agents and insulin was predominantly made by one specialized diabetes clinician, while in town B it was spread among several different general practitioners and one specialist. Altogether 44 636 medical visits by 2348 patients were identified. In each town, about 40% of the patients were treated without anti-hyperglycaemic drugs, about 40% with oral agents and about 20% with insulin. However, there were pronounced between-town differences in dosage and glucose control. The mean prescribed daily dose of sulphonylurea monotherapy decreased gradually from approximately 0.7 to approximately 0.5 DDD in town B but remained approximately 0.8 DDD in town A. The proportion of patients on both sulphonylurea and metformin increased substantially in town A but not in town B. In these patients, the mean prescribed daily dose of sulphonylurea exceeded 1.0 DDD in both towns, although it decreased with time in town B. The mean prescribed daily dose of insulin increased from 1.05 to 1.2 DDD in town A but remained virtually unchanged at 0.95 DDD in town B. The mean fasting blood glucose was lower in town A than in town B both overall (7.7 vs. 8.8 mmol/l), in those treated without any anti-hyperglycaemic drugs (7.2 vs. 8.1 mmol/l), in those on sulphonylurea monotherapy (8.3 vs. 9.7 mmol/l) and in those treated with insulin (8.1 vs. 10.2 mmol/l).

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Danazol is a steroid analogue with anabolic and androgenic effects and is indicated for the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic diseases of the breast, and hereditary angioedema. Lovastatin has been prescribed to lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reducing cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in patients with hypercholesterolemia. As monotherapies, both danazol and lovastatin have been reported to induce myopathy and pancreatitis.

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DPP-4 inhibitors are effective at lowering HbA1c in T2DM patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. DPP-4 inhibitors also have a potential advantage in lowering the risk of adverse events. Regarding the low quality of the evidence according to GRADE, additional well-designed randomized trials that focus on the safety and efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors in various CKD stages are needed urgently.

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Insulin action was assessed by measuring insulin-mediated glucose disposal (KI) in 13 non-ketotic diabetic patients both before treatment and after normalization of plasma glucose by diet (5 patients) or sulfonylurea (glipizide) therapy (8 patients). While the KI of the diet-treated group was unchanged by therapy, that of the glipizide-treated group was significantly increased. The data show that chronic glipizide therapy is associated with a potentiation of insulin action, which may account for the major anti-diabetic effect of this drug.

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An LC-MS/MS assay was developed using an Agilent HPLC with an AB Sciex 3200 LC-MS/MS operating in ESI positive mode. Linearity, LOD, precision, matrix effect, recovery, carry-over and stability of the final method were evaluated for method validation. Concordance with another clinically validated LC-MS/MS method was evaluated using remnant samples from patients prescribed a sulfonylurea.

glucotrol alcohol

Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and human microvascular endothelial cells from omental and subcutaneous fat obtained at laparotomy, we studied the effects of sulphonylureas and the biguanide metformin on endothelial cell proliferation, prostacyclin production, ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity, and von Willebrand factor release. Each drug produced a concentration-dependent proliferation of umbilical vein but not of microvascular endothelial cells. The stimulation of umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation by sulphonylureas, but not by metformin, was serum- and insulin-dependent. Sulphonylureas and metformin had no effect on the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells derived from the umbilical artery, or 3T3 cells, until concentrations greater than 100 fold those found in vivo were reached, when there was inhibition of proliferation. These agents had no effect on prostacyclin or von Willebrand factor production, or on ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity, until high concentrations were used, at levels which also inhibited proliferation. The results suggest that the sulphonylureas and metformin, may, at concentrations found in vivo, induce changes in the turnover of endothelial cells from large vessels, but not of microvascular endothelial cells.

glucotrol xl dose

To identify the incidence of and risk factors associated with hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients taking sulfonylureas.

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We measured the ability of insulin, metformin, glipizide, exendin-4 and sitagliptin, after acute or repeat dose administration, to lower free-feeding glucose levels in gk(wt/del) mice. Further, we measured the ability of novel GKAs, GKA23, GKA71 and AZD6370 to control glucose either alone or in combination with some standard agents.

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PubMed (2001-2014) was searched for primary and review articles on sitagliptin, simvastatin, or the combination product. Drug manufacturing data and product labeling were also used. Studies of simvastatin, sitagliptin, or the combination were screened and analyzed to include relevant and recent papers. Selected English language trials were limited to those with human subjects and included both safety and efficacy outcomes.

glucotrol xl dosage

The oral ethanol loading test (0.5 g/kg body mass given as 40% solution) was carried out in 5 groups, each of 10 out-patients with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes before and after 10 days of treatment with one of the following sulphonylurea derivatives: tolbutamide (CAS 64-77-7) 0.5 t.i.d., chlorpropamide (CAS 94-20-2) 0.5 once daily morning, glibornuride (CAS 26944-48-9) 0.025 t.i.d., glibenclamide (CAS 10238-21-8) 0.005 t.i.d. and glipizide (CAS 29094-61-9) 0.005 t.i.d. The response to alcohol (facial flush, heart rate, blood pressure) were compared, and blood concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, pyruvate, lactate, hydrocarbonates as well as blood pH, pO2 and pCO2 were determined in fasting state and during 6 hours after alcohol ingestion. In all patients the family history of diabetes and the presence and degree of vascular complications were registered. Evident flushing phenomenon was observed in 6 patients treated with chlorpropamide, in 3 treated with tolbutamide, in 2 treated with glibenclamide, in one receiving glibornuride and in none treated with glipizide. All drugs caused a greater rise of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels in relation to the control tests, but the difference reached statistical significance only in the group receiving chlorpropamide. Moreover, patients (pooled) with positive thermographic response had also significantly higher blood levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde during the second test. The ratio of acetaldehyde to ethanol concentration in blood (mumol:mmol) was not significantly changed in any group indicating parallel impairment of both steps of ethanol metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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To study the clinical benefit of increasing the dose of the sulfonylurea, glipizide, from 10 to 40 mg per day.

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Neither glyburide nor glipizide were detected in breast milk, and hypoglycemia was not observed in the three nursing infants. Both agents, at the doses tested, appear to be compatible with breast-feeding.

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The pancreatic B-cell GLUT2 transporter and glucose metabolism were examined in isolated rat islets subjected to treatments affecting insulin secretion. Diazoxide was used to inhibit, while glipizide or depolarization of the plasma membrane with a high extracellular K(+) concentration were used to stimulate insulin release in short-term experiments. Islet GLUT2 and insulin were determined by quantitative immunohistochemistry and GLUT2 was also determined by Western blot analysis. Islet net glucose uptake and glucose oxidation were measured using radioactively labelled glucose. Exposure of the islets to diazoxide was associated with a marked increase in the B-cell plasma membrane staining for GLUT2 and increased net glucose uptake. Glucose oxidation was not changed, which may reflect a lowered energy requirement. Conversely, islets subjected to a stimulated insulin secretion with glipizide or a high extracellular K(+) concentration showed a reduced staining of the GLUT2 transporter. The net glucose uptake and glucose oxidation were also reduced. In islets exposed to the high K(+) concentration no change in the molecular weight or phosphorylation of GLUT2 was observed but a lesser amount of the transporter was found by Western blot analysis. Thus, GLUT2 and glucose uptake in the pancreatic B-cell are modified by the secretory process, which suggests that changes in the glucose transporter have a functional role in normal B-cell physiology.

glucotrol renal dosing

Acromegaly, a disease state with excess growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I, is associated with carbohydrate intolerance. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, is used in the treatment of acromegaly to lower GH levels. Despite effective lowering of GH levels, certain patients with acromegaly have persistent or even worsening carbohydrate intolerance and may require insulin therapy. Such a regimen would necessitate five or more injections per day. We describe a 51-year-old man who was diagnosed with a GH-producing pituitary adenoma in 1987. Despite transsphenoidal resection, frontal craniotomy, and radiation therapy, symptoms and increased levels of GH persisted. The patient was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in August 1989 and treated with glipizide. Because of persistently increased GH levels, he was treated with octreotide. His glycohemoglobin level increased to 21% despite use of maximal doses of glipizide. The patient refused insulin therapy because of his objection to numerous daily injections. Despite adjustments in diet and exercise, glycemic control remained poor. As a trial, we thus attempted combining octreotide and regular insulin in the same syringe and administering the medications in a single subcutaneous injection. No precipitate formation was evident, and he had no adverse effects. Glucose control improved, and the glycohemoglobin level was lower but still elevated. GH levels remained at less than 5 ng/mL. His symptoms of acromegaly were unchanged, but his overall attitude and energy level improved.

glucotrol xl tablets

Oral hypoglycemic agents have been in clinical use since 1956 in the United States. Two new second-generation sulfonylureas, glipizide and glyburide, have been marketed recently. This article reviews the pharmacology of the oral sulfonylureas, compares the drugs from a safety and efficacy standpoint, and provides updated information regarding their use in the management of type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

glucotrol medication

The lack of adequate glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially with existing second-line therapies, represents an unmet medical need. Of the newer therapies, the incretin-based medicines, such as saxagliptin, look promising to consolidate second-line pharmacotherapy.

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Sulfonylureas and glinides have similar mechanisms of action but differ in receptor affinity and binding sites and in absorption and elimination rates. This promotes differences in potency, rate of onset, and duration of action. While prominent in single-dose studies, these differences have less importance during long-term sulfonylurea treatment: at ordinary dosages, rapid- and short-acting (glipizide) and slow- and long-acting (glyburide) sulfonylureas maintained continuously effective plasma levels and similar 24-h glucose control. Moreover, there was no difference in patient outcome between the first-generation sulfonylurea chlorpropamide and the second-generation glyburide in the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study. However, the risk of long-lasting and hence dangerous hypoglycemia is higher with these two long-acting sulfonylureas. Conversely, this risk should be low with the short-acting glinides, but seemingly at the expense of less effective glucose control. The most important kinetics-effect relations are that hyperglycemia delays sulfonylurea absorption and that the sulfonylurea dose-response curve is bell shaped; continuous sulfonylurea exposure over a certain level (e.g., 10 mg glipizide) impairs rather than improves insulin and glucose responses to sulfonylurea (downregulation). Accordingly, a vicious circle may be established: unrelenting hyperglycemia may promote sulfonylurea dose increase, which increases hyperglycemia, promoting further dose increase and eventually therapeutic failure.

glucotrol xl dosing

The site of study as well as the diet order did not affect the results. Compared with the high-monounsaturated-fat diet, the high-carbohydrate diet increased fasting plasma triglyceride levels and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 24% (P < .0001) and 23% (P = .0001), respectively, and increased daylong plasma triglyceride, glucose, and insulin values by 10% (P = .03), 12% (P < .0001), and 9% (P = .02), respectively. Plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remained unchanged. The effects of both diets on plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels persisted for 14 weeks.

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Glipizide-SR significantly improved glycemic control at lower serum insulin levels, was well tolerated, and improved QoL. Metformin improved glycemic control and reduced insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Initial insulin therapy led to rapid reduction in hyperglycemia with reduced insulin resistance. Folic acid therapy significantly (P<.001) lowered elevated serum homocysteine levels in poorly controlled patients.

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Previous studies have described specific photoincorporation of radiolabeled sulfonylureas into a peptide with high molecular mass (140-175 kDa), which thus has been suggested to represent the sulfonylurea receptor. In the present study, a 125I-labeled 4-azidosalicyloyl analog of glibenclamide, 125I-N3-GA (N-[4-(2-(4-azido-2-hydroxy-5-125I- iodobenzamido)ethyl)benzenesulfonyl]-N'-cyclohexylurea), was used for photoaffinity labeling. This novel probe was specifically photoincorporated into a peptide with an apparent molecular mass of 160-175 kDa when samples from insulin-secreting HIT cells or cerebral cortex were boiled in a SDS-buffer prior to separation with SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, omitting the heating step revealed specific labeling of an additional peptide with an apparent molecular mass of 38 kDa. The amount of radioactivity specifically photoincorporated into this peptide was 3-4-fold higher than that incorporated into the 160-175-kDa peptide. Both peptides displayed similar dissociation constants for binding of the sulfonylureas IN3-GA (N-[4-(2-(4-azido-2-hydroxy- 5-iodobenzamido)ethyl)benzenesulfonyl]-N'-cyclohexylurea), glibenclamide, glipizide, and tolbutamide. Analysis of photoaffinity labeling of solubilized fractions indicated an almost exclusive specific linkage to the 38-kDa peptide. The data support the view that the sulfonylurea receptor in insulin-secreting cells and cerebral cortex consists of a peptide with an apparent molecular mass of 38 kDa, which seems to be tightly coupled to a 160-175-kDa peptide.

glucotrol drug classifications

Despite the number of medications for type 2 diabetes, many people with the condition do not achieve good glycaemic control. Some existing glucose-lowering agents have adverse effects such as weight gain or hypoglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes tends to be a progressive disease, and most patients require treatment with combinations of glucose-lowering agents. The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) receptor inhibitors are a new class of glucose-lowering agents.

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Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE and Current Content databases (both 1966 to 1 October 2016) using the search terms insulin, metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride, acarbose, miglitol, albiglutide, exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, pramlintide, meglitinide, alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, colesevalam, bromocriptine, mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), and stroke. Trials were included if they were randomized clinical trials evaluating adult patients (≥18 years) with type 2 diabetes; had a period of intervention and follow-up of ≥12 months; and assessed CV outcomes (CV death, fatal/non-fatal MI or HF) as endpoints. Twenty-three randomized trials were included. Antidiabetic agents: Of agents approved prior to 2008, metformin has not been associated with measurable harm in patients with diabetes in terms of mortality and CV events (and has a trend of benefit). Controversial results existed with the use of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) for CV outcomes. Among agents approved after 2008, liraglutide and empagliflozin have been shown to be superior to placebo in improving CV outcomes.

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buy glucotrol online 2017-12-17

Forty-one patients with chemical diabetes had three oral glucose tolerance tests and underwent muscle biopsy three times over a period of three years. Twenty-three received glipizide and 18 placebo. Those taking placebo had an increase in the mean muscle capillary basement membrane width (p = 0.01), but those taking glipizide showed a decrease (p = 0.01) to values no different from those of nondiabetic subjects. Determinations of enzyme activities involved in the synthesis and degradation of glycoproteins revealed a three-year decrease (not significant) in muscle buy glucotrol online glucosyltransferase activity in the glipizide-treated patients, but a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.01) comparing the adjusted means of the two treatment groups. N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity was significantly increased in muscle from baseline values (p less than 0.01), with adjusted means also significantly different (p less than 0.01). The data suggest that changes in basement membrane and enzyme activities are correlated, and the latter may be a predictor to follow the development, progression, or regression of diabetic vasculopathy.

glucotrol xl tablets 2017-08-17

The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al buy glucotrol online (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23-di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p=0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p≤0.007, and p=0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay.

glucotrol drug classifications 2015-08-01

Sodium was measured in rat pancreatic islet exposed to tolbutamide, glipizide, diazoxide or sulfisomidine. When added to a medium with physiologically balanced cations these sulphonamides induced a significant rise of the islet content of sodium. The insulin-releasing compounds, tolbutamide and glipizide, buy glucotrol online had effects opposite to those of the hyperglycemic diazoxide in counteracting the increase of sodium obtained with removal of K+. The tolbutamide-induced increase in sodium was reversed to a decrease when Ca2+ was omitted from the incubation medium. The increase of sodium, which was also seen with non-hypoglycemic sulphonamides, is itself not sufficient for initiating insulin release. However, it may well represent an important mechanism contributing to the secretory response initiated by Ca2+ entry into the sulfonylurea-depolarized beta-cell.

glucotrol gel 2016-01-17

Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to buy glucotrol online analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015.

glucotrol dosage administration 2015-09-01

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the literature comparing the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG). Randomized control trials (RCTs) including adults with type 2 DM and severe RI were analyzed. Safety was evaluated based on the percentage of patients who developed hypoglycemia and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) as well as the incidence of peripheral edema, urinary tract infection, diarrhea, and death. buy glucotrol online

glucotrol overdose 2015-08-01

In this case, the hypoglycemia was attributed to hyperinsulinemia buy glucotrol online . Possible mechanisms include impaired insulin degradation and shunting of portal blood into the systemic circulation.

generic glucotrol xl 2015-07-07

Elementary osmotic pumps (EOP) are well known for delivering moderately soluble drugs at a zero order rate. A push-pull osmotic system was developed and commercialized for poorly water-soluble drugs [Procardia XL (Nifedipine), Glucotrl XL (Glipizide)]. However, the technology is complex comprising of bilayer compression and the suspension of drug formed in the core has more viscosity and has buy glucotrol online to withstand the osmotic pressure within the tablet, for which the membrane must be thicker than that of EOP. The aim of the present study was to develop a solid dispersion based EOP system for a poorly water-soluble drug, nifedipine and deliver it in a zero order fashion over an extended period of time. Solid dispersions were prepared by hot melt technique using Poloxamer-188 at various ratios of drug and polymer (1:1, 1:5 and 1:10, on weight basis) and investigated for solubility study. Formation of complex and decrease in crystallinity was confirmed from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray crystallography (XRD) study. Core tablets using solid dispersions were prepared and coated with cellulose acetate and PEG-400. An orifice was drilled manually to create passage for drug release. The system was optimized for amount of osmogent, membrane weight gain, amount of plasticiser and diameter of the orifice, to achieve desired release profile. The osmotic system was found to deliver nifedipine at a zero order rate for 20 h. The drug release from the developed formulation was independent of pH and agitational intensity.

glucotrol maximum dosage 2017-09-28

In study I, rifampin decreased the area under the plasma concentration--time curve [AUC(0-infinity)] of glyburide by 39% (P <.001) and the peak plasma concentration by 22% (P =.01). The elimination half-life of glyburide was shortened from 2.0 to 1.7 hours (P <.05) by rifampin. The blood glucose decremental AUC(0-7) (net area below baseline) and the maximum decrease in the blood glucose concentration were decreased by 44% (P =.05) and 36% (P <.001), respectively, by rifampin. In study II, rifampin decreased the AUC(0-infinity) of glipizide by 22% (P <.05) and shortened its half-life buy glucotrol online from 3.0 to 1.9 hours (P =.01). No statistically significant differences in the blood glucose concentrations were found between the phases; however, 4 subjects had moderate hypoglycemia during the placebo phase but only 1 subject had moderate hypoglycemia during the rifampin phase.

glucotrol diabetic pills 2017-12-24

Initiating treatment of type 2 diabetes with glibenclamide or glipizide is associated with buy glucotrol online increased risk of CAD in comparison to gliclazide or glimepiride. If confirmed, this may be important because most Indian patients receive the cheaper older sulphonylureas, and present guidelines do not distinguish between individual agents.

glucotrol alcohol 2017-01-02

To develop controlled release buy glucotrol online osmotic pump tablets (COPT) of glipizide (GZ) solid dispersion (SD).

glucotrol drug 2017-09-14

Six sulphonylureas (tolbutamide, tolazamide, chlorpropamide, glibornuride, glipizide and gliquidone) and 2 biguanides (metformin and buformin) were tested for possible effects on buy glucotrol online insulin binding to H 35 rat hepatoma cells in culture. Insulin binding was measured after 24 and 72 hr of culturing cells in medium containing the drugs. Buformin and gliquidone were tested in concentrations from 10(-8)-5 X 10(-5) M, the other drugs in concentrations from 10(-7)-5 X 10(-4) M. All 24-hr experiments were repeated in cells down-regulated with 10 micrograms/ml insulin. None of the oral hypoglycemic agents tested had any significant influence on insulin binding to H 35 hepatoma cells, either in the presence or absence of insulin. We suggest that the insulin receptor status, at least in this type of liver cell, is not influenced by sulphonylureas or biguanides.

glucotrol xl medication 2015-03-20

In the present study, a simple, rapid and reliable ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to determine simultaneously epalrestat (EPA) and puerarin (PUE) in rat plasma for evaluation of the pharmacokinetic buy glucotrol online interaction of these two drugs. Both the analytes and glipizide (internal standard, IS) were extracted using a protein precipitation method. The separation was performed on a C18 reversed phase column using acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate in water as the mobile phase with a gradient elution program. The analytes, including IS, were quantified with multiple reaction monitoring under negative ionization mode. The optimized mass transition ion pairs (m/z) were 318.1 → 274.0 for EPA, 415.1 → 266.9 for PUE and 444.2 → 166.9 for IS. The linear calibration curves for EPA and PUE were obtained in the concentration ranges of 10-4167 and 20-8333 ng/mL, respectively (r > 0.99). The current method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic interaction study in rats following administration of EPA and PUE alone or co-administration (EPA 15 mg/kg, oral; PUE 30 mg/kg, intravenous). The results showed that the combination of EPA and PUE could increase t1/2 of EPA and reduce Tmax of EPA. These changes indicated that EPA and PUE might cause drug-drug interactions when co-administrated.

glucotrol 50 mg 2015-06-29

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glipizide were evaluated in 20 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The group buy glucotrol online consisted of 12 obese subjects (seven women, five men; mean +/- SD age, 53.5 +/- 8.5 years; total body weight (TBW), 95.5 +/- 17.2 kg; percentage > IBW (ideal body weight), 57.8 +/- 31.7%); and eight nonobese subjects (two women, six men; age, 57.8 +/- 11.7 years; TBW, 80.8 +/- 9.9 kg; percentage > IBW, 15.6 +/- 10.3%). After a 2-week antidiabetic drug-free period, patients were started on glipizide therapy for 12 weeks. Glipizide dosages were titrated to achieve specified therapeutic goals or a maximum daily dose of 40 mg. Glipizide pharmacokinetics were assessed by serum concentrations obtained during a 24-h pharmacokinetic evaluation performed after the first 5-mg dose (SD) and after 12 weeks of chronic therapy (CD). Glipizide pharmacodynamics were evaluated with serum glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses to Sustacal tolerance test done at baseline, after SD, and after CD. No statistically significant differences in the SD pharmacokinetic parameters (Tmax = 3.1 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.8 +/- 1.6 h; Cmax = 332.5 +/- 92.5 vs. 420.8 +/- 142 g/L; area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUCI) = 2,598.3 +/- 1,148 vs. 3,138.9 +/- 1,847 g/h/L; oral clearance/bioavailability (CL/F), 2.3 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.0 +/- 1.0 L/h; volume of distribution/bioavailability (V/F), 19.5 +/- 4.4 vs. 17.2 +/- 4.3 L; t1/2 = 5.0 +/- 2.3 vs. 5.2 +/- 2.0 h) were observed between the obese and nonobese groups, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters assessed under CD conditions were also closely matched in the two groups. No differences in glucose responses to Sustacal challenge at baseline, SD, and CD (AUC0-->4.glucose:baseline, 52.3 +/- 18.0 vs. 44.9 +/- 9.8; SD, 50.4 +/- 20.9 vs. 36.1 +/- 11.0; CD, 37.8 +/- 10.7 vs. 36.6 +/- 8.5 mM/h) were noted between the obese and nonobese groups, respectively. However, glucose concentrations increased more and decreased to a smaller extent after SD in the obese as compared to nonobese subjects. Mean fasting serum insulin and C-peptide concentrations were not statistically different between the two groups. However, obese subjects exhibited higher fasting insulin (114.0 +/- 69 vs. 68.8 +/- 52 pM) at week 12 evaluation and C-peptide concentrations (0.83 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.2 nM) after SD as compared to the nonobese group. A smaller percentage increase in C peptide in response to Sustacal challenge was observed in the obese compared to the nonobese subjects (baseline, 60 +/- 25 vs. 117 +/- 117; SD, 119 +/- 39 vs. 193 +/- 149; and CD, 97 +/- 56 vs. 163 +/- 67%). In summary, the influence of obesity on glipizide pharmacokinetics appeared to be of little clinical significance. The observed differences in pharmacodynamics require further evaluation.

glucotrol tab 2017-11-18

The purpose of this study was to develop a new monolithic matrix system to completely deliver glipizide, a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class II drug in a zero order manner over an extended buy glucotrol online time period. Two approaches were examined using drug in formulations that contain swellable hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) or erodible polyethylene oxide (PEO). The matrices were prepared by dry blending selected ratios of polymers and ingredients using direct compression technique. Dissolution was assessed using modified USP apparatus II. Glucotrol XL push-pull osmotic pump (PPOP) was used as the reference. The interrelationship between matrix hydration, erosion and textural properties were determined and analyzed under the dissolution test conditions. Linear and reproducible release similar to that of Glucotrol XL was achieved for optimized matrices (f2>50) independent of hydrodynamic conditions. The kinetics of drug delivery was directly related to the synchronization of swelling, erosion and fractional release. HPMC matrices showed a significantly greater degree of hydration and swelling and stronger texture property relative to PEO matrices. Results indicate that in the case of low dose/low soluble drug, total drug release in a zero order manner heavily depends on the synchronization of erosion and swelling fronts during the entire dissolution study.

glucotrol medicine 2016-03-11

The purpose of this study was to increase the solubility of glipizide (gli) by solid dispersions SDs technique with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in aqueous media. The gli-PVP solid dispersion systems was prepared by physical mixing or spray drying method, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elementary osmotic pumps (EOPs) were prepared with gli-PVP complex and the effect of the PVP percentages on the enhancing of gli dissolution rate was studied. The influences of various parameters e.g., drug- PVP ratio, level of solubility modifier, coating weight gain and diameter of drug releasing orifice on drug release profiles were also investigated. The solubility and dissolution rates Mysoline Alcohol Interactions of gli were significantly increased by solid dispersion using spray dried method as well as their physical mixture. The obtained results indicated that gli-PVP solid dispersion system has suitable solubility behavior in EOP tablets.

glucotrol xl dosage 2016-12-03

Transdermal absorption of glipizide was low and inconsistent, but analysis of our results indicated that it did affect plasma glucose concentrations. Transdermal administration of glipizide is not equivalent to oral administration. Formulation, absorption, and stability studies are required before clinical analysis can be performed. Transdermal administration of glipizide cannot be recommended Glucotrol 5 Mg for clinical use at this time.

glucotrol online 2017-05-17

The aim of this paper was to Daily Valtrex Review report the case of type 2 diabetes and significant insulin resistance that improved dramatically after removal of a pheochromocytoma in a liver transplant recipient , and to provide a review of the relevant literature. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic results and management of the patient. In addition, we performed a PubMed search for related English language articles, to provide an overview of the pertinent literature. A 53 year old woman with a history of an orthotopic liver transplantation and insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes was admitted to the hospital with fever, diaphoresis, tachycardia and hypertension. A pheochromocytoma was diagnosed and removed. The patient subsequently developed hypoglycemia and required no further insulin therapy. Pheochromocytomas have been described to lead to hyperglycemia and diabetes, due to the suppression of insulin release and increased insulin resistance. Furthermore, a review of the literature revealed only 3 other reported cases of pheochromocytomas in organ transplant recipients. None of these pheochromocytomas were believed to have occurred de novo after transplantation. This is the first report of a pheochromocytoma in a liver transplant recipient and possibly the first case of a de novo pheochromocytoma in any organ transplant recipient. Moreover, this case showcases pheochromocytomas as a rare cause of diabetes mellitus.

glucotrol drug classification 2017-09-27

A simple, precise and accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of metformin with gliclazide and glipizide present in multicomponent dosage forms. The method was carried out on Inertsil C(18) column. A mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-water containing camphor sulphonic acid (adjusted to pH 7 using 0.1 N sodium hydroxide; 75 mM) at a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1) was used for the separation. Detection was carried out at Diovan 60 Mg 225 nm. Tolbutamide was used as internal standard. Validation of the developed HPLC method was carried out.

glipizide glucotrol dosage 2015-07-18

The oral antidiabetics glibenclamide and glipizide, and the diuretics bendroflumethiazide and furosemide, all sulphonamide derived drugs, were investigated Propecia Generic Finasteride in vitro for phototoxic properties. Irradiation with broad-band UV induced phototoxic inhibition of colony forming ability in cell cultures. During irradiation, the substances lost one absorption maximum in the UVA region, demonstrated by UV spectroscopy. These findings correlate well with the UV applied, the action spectrum being in the UVA region. Photoproducts detected during and after irradiation showed a decomposition of the substances due to ionization and fragmentation. Incubation of these preirradiated drugs with the cell cultures revealed no phototoxic effects.

glucotrol 10mg tab 2015-03-31

Glibenclamide, glipizide and glibornuride showed dual effects in guinea-pig isolated trachea. The drugs antagonized the relaxant response to the K+ channel opener cromakalim (order of effectiveness: glibenclamide > glipizide > glibornuride) and at concentrations of 1-1000 microM produced airway smooth muscle relaxation (order of potency: glibenclamide > glipizide = glibornuride). Gliclazide, tolbutamide and chlorpropamide did not antagonize cromakalim nor did the two latter drugs produce tracheal relaxation. The sulphonylureas and cromakalim were compared as airway relaxants against a panel of different spasmogens. The order of tissue responsiveness for the sulphonylureas was: spontaneous tone = LTD4 > PGF2 alpha = histamine = 30 mM K+ > carbachol and for cromakalim: spontaneous Medicine Zyrtec tone = LTD4 = PGF2 alpha = histamine > carbachol > 30 mM K+. Glibenclamide, but not cromakalim, relaxed contractions induced by 124 mM K+. Phentolamine and Ba2+, which are reported blockers of ATP-regulated K+ channels, failed to influence sulphonylurea-induced airway smooth muscle relaxation. Glibenclamide reversed tracheal relaxation produced by cromakalim, whereas cromakalim failed to reverse relaxation induced by glibenclamide. The mechanism for the additional property of sulphonylureas to relax airway smooth muscle is unclear, but the results do not support a role for involvement of cromakalim-sensitive K+ channels.

cost of glucotrol 2016-12-03

A 59-year-old Asian woman (height, 155 cm; weight, 54 kg; and body mass index, 22.5 kg/m2) presented to the outpatient neurology clinic with acute progressive quadriparesis and generalized myalgia (without focal sensory loss, numbness, dizziness, diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, or sphincter incontinence), lasting for 5 days. She was admitted to the National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan. The patient's medical history revealed multiple comorbidities (eg, end-stage renal disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus) for which she was receiving concomitant medication. Her medication history revealed that at the time the patient presented, she was also receiving calcium bicarbonate 1500 mg/d, labetalol 100 mg/d, and glipizide 10 mg/d in the treatment of her other comorbid illnesses. The patient was also receiving alprazolam 0.5 mg/d for insomnia. Her medical records also revealed that lovastatin 40 mg/d (a particularly high dose and not recommended) had been administered for 7 weeks, and danazol 600 mg/d was added ( approximately 15 days later) to treat thrombocytopenia due to hypoplastic bone marrow. Laboratory findings revealed elevated creatine kinase (68,193 U/L), elevated pancreatic enzymes (amylase/lipase, 361/2788 U/L), and elevated liver enzymes (aspartate/alanine aminotransferase, 1496/1493 U/L), consistent with rhabdomyolysis and pancreatitis. After discontinuation of both drugs, the symptoms improved 5 days after admission and completely disappeared 1 month after admission. In addition, laboratory abnormalities completely normalized approximately 2 months after admission. Danazol was resumed to treat persistent thrombocytopenia, while lovastatin was replaced with ezetimibe 10 mg QD to treat high cholesterol (dyslipidemia).

glucotrol mg 2015-12-06

The effects of aging on the pharmacokinetics of glipizide were studied. Ten healthy young men (24.9 +/- 1.9 years of age) and 10 healthy older men (74.4 +/- 7.9 years of age) each ingested a single 5-mg tablet of glipizide after an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained immediately before drug ingestion and at 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes and at 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours after drug ingestion. Serum samples were assayed for glipizide content by a modified high-pressure liquid chromatographic method. Clearance, volume of distribution at steady state, and half-life were estimated from the serum concentration-time curve data. Area under the concentration-time curve and area under the moments curve were calculated using the trapezoidal rule. The mean values for young and older subjects for time to peak concentration (2.1 versus 2.5 hours), peak concentrations (465 versus 399 micrograms/mL), elimination half-life (4.2 versus 4.0 hours), clearance (38.8 versus 38.1 mL/min), and distribution volume at steady state (12.5 versus 14.3 L) were not significant. However, two older individuals had a markedly prolonged time to peak concentration (six to eight hours). For 8 of the 20 subjects a more prolonged terminal half-life may have existed. Further study is required to determine whether significant pharmacokinetic differences between young and elderly subjects appear with multiple dosing of glipizide.

glucotrol generic names 2016-09-25

In an attempt to examine the influence of sulfonylurea on the secretion, disposition and effect of insulin, 9 diabetic patients were studied during three one-month medications with (a) chlorpropamide (t1/2 greater than 24 h) once daily, (b) glipizide (t1/2 2-4 h) once daily, and (c) glipizide in divided dosage. The food intake of each patient was identical during each examination period. Blood concentrations of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, and drugs were determined before and after breakfast and lunch on the 4th day of each examination period. As expected, once-daily administration of glipizide led to higher after-breakfast concentrations of the drug than when the dose was divided. However, the C-peptide changes following breakfast were similar both during these two treatments and also during chlorpropamide, indicating that the amounts of insulin released from the pancreas were equivalent. In spite of this, glipizide once daily yielded 60-70% more insulin in systemic blood following breakfast than did the two other treatments. Reasonably, this signifies that the hepatic extraction of insulin was reduced during once-daily glipizide, allowing more insulin to reach systemic circulation. In addition, this was found to promote a more effective utilization of glucose following breakfast. Following lunch, the C-peptide release, the plasma insulin increase and the blood glucose reduction were greater when glipizide was given in divided dosage than when once-daily glipizide or chlorpropamide was employed. This occurred even though the after-lunch concentration of glipizide in systemic blood was lower rather than higher during divided than during once-daily administration. This supports the notion that the effect of orally administered sulfonylurea is determined not only by its concentration in systemic blood but also by its gastroenterohepatic appearance. Glipizide may offer greater therapeutic flexibility than chlorpropamide, but further studies are required to define the optimum choice and use of sulfonylureas.

glucotrol diabetes medicine 2016-10-08

A retrospective cohort study design of patients with type 2 diabetes treated at 3 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and 1 Department of Defense Medical Center was utilized. One hundred percent of patients receiving glyburide-metformin tablets were screened for inclusion. Patients with at least 6 months of prior SU+Met combination therapy and a baseline A1C measured within 35 days prior to or 3 days after switch to glyburide-metformin tablets were included. At least one documented follow-up A1C at >or=90 days after the switch to glyburide-metformin was required for inclusion. Glycemic control, complications, lipid parameters, concomitant medications, and weight were analyzed prior to and following the switch to glyburide-metformin.

glucotrol 20 mg 2016-12-31

(1) The total effective rates of improving insulin peripheral resistance and reducing blood sugar in SHJT group were 79.2% and 80.1%, which was equivalent to levels in the control group, but SHJT recipe was more effective in relieving symptoms of Qi deficiency and signs of blood stasis. (2) In SHJT group, the insulin peripheral sensitivity and insulin sensitivity index were significantly increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01), meanwhile the fasting blood sugar and blood sugar area were reduced (P < 0.05), but the change of insulin release to glucose was blunted. (3) The lowering of blood sugar in SHJT group was significantly negative correlated with the changing of degree of insulin peripheral sensitivity and index of insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05), but not with that of insulin area.

glucotrol name brand 2017-04-02

Patients with early onset diabetes because of defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) may respond better to sulfonylureas than insulin treatment. Such patients include those with monogenic disorders, who can be differentiated from autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) by genetic testing. Genetic testing is expensive and unknown defects in GSIS would not be diagnosed.

glucotrol generic 2017-10-18

Hypoglycemic sulfonylureas, such as tolbutamide, gliclazide and glipizide, provoked the translocation of Ca from an aqueous medium into or across an organic immiscible phase. The amount of Ca translocated into the organic phase was proportional to the square of the drug concentration, and appeared saturable at high Ca concentration. Non-hypoglycemic sulfonylureas and diazoxide had little or no effect upon Ca translocation. The ionophoretic capacity of the hypoglycemic sulfonylureas was antagonized by suloctidil. Tolbutamide and gliclazide also provoked Na translocation into the organic phase, the amount of Na translocated being proportional to the drug concentration. Gliclazide-mediated Ca translocation was inhibited in a dose-related fashion by increasing concentrations of Na+ or H+. It is proposed that the ionophoretic capacity of hypoglycemic sulfonylureas may participate in their insulinotropic action.