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Ridayarishta formulation alone and cocktail with amlodipine besilate, atenolol, atorvastatin, metformin, glipizide, glimepiride had negligible or insignificant effect on CYP450 inhibition. It may be concluded that consumption of Ridayarishta along with selective cardio protective, antihypertensive and anti-diabetic conventional medicine is safe with negligible or without any significant CYP450 (CYP1A2, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) inhibition mediated HDI.
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Father died of leukemia at age 65; mother has kidney stones; no diabetes or neuromuscular disease.
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In town A, prescribing of oral agents and insulin was predominantly made by one specialized diabetes clinician, while in town B it was spread among several different general practitioners and one specialist. Altogether 44 636 medical visits by 2348 patients were identified. In each town, about 40% of the patients were treated without anti-hyperglycaemic drugs, about 40% with oral agents and about 20% with insulin. However, there were pronounced between-town differences in dosage and glucose control. The mean prescribed daily dose of sulphonylurea monotherapy decreased gradually from approximately 0.7 to approximately 0.5 DDD in town B but remained approximately 0.8 DDD in town A. The proportion of patients on both sulphonylurea and metformin increased substantially in town A but not in town B. In these patients, the mean prescribed daily dose of sulphonylurea exceeded 1.0 DDD in both towns, although it decreased with time in town B. The mean prescribed daily dose of insulin increased from 1.05 to 1.2 DDD in town A but remained virtually unchanged at 0.95 DDD in town B. The mean fasting blood glucose was lower in town A than in town B both overall (7.7 vs. 8.8 mmol/l), in those treated without any anti-hyperglycaemic drugs (7.2 vs. 8.1 mmol/l), in those on sulphonylurea monotherapy (8.3 vs. 9.7 mmol/l) and in those treated with insulin (8.1 vs. 10.2 mmol/l).
Danazol is a steroid analogue with anabolic and androgenic effects and is indicated for the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic diseases of the breast, and hereditary angioedema. Lovastatin has been prescribed to lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reducing cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in patients with hypercholesterolemia. As monotherapies, both danazol and lovastatin have been reported to induce myopathy and pancreatitis.
DPP-4 inhibitors are effective at lowering HbA1c in T2DM patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. DPP-4 inhibitors also have a potential advantage in lowering the risk of adverse events. Regarding the low quality of the evidence according to GRADE, additional well-designed randomized trials that focus on the safety and efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors in various CKD stages are needed urgently.
Insulin action was assessed by measuring insulin-mediated glucose disposal (KI) in 13 non-ketotic diabetic patients both before treatment and after normalization of plasma glucose by diet (5 patients) or sulfonylurea (glipizide) therapy (8 patients). While the KI of the diet-treated group was unchanged by therapy, that of the glipizide-treated group was significantly increased. The data show that chronic glipizide therapy is associated with a potentiation of insulin action, which may account for the major anti-diabetic effect of this drug.
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An LC-MS/MS assay was developed using an Agilent HPLC with an AB Sciex 3200 LC-MS/MS operating in ESI positive mode. Linearity, LOD, precision, matrix effect, recovery, carry-over and stability of the final method were evaluated for method validation. Concordance with another clinically validated LC-MS/MS method was evaluated using remnant samples from patients prescribed a sulfonylurea.
Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and human microvascular endothelial cells from omental and subcutaneous fat obtained at laparotomy, we studied the effects of sulphonylureas and the biguanide metformin on endothelial cell proliferation, prostacyclin production, ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity, and von Willebrand factor release. Each drug produced a concentration-dependent proliferation of umbilical vein but not of microvascular endothelial cells. The stimulation of umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation by sulphonylureas, but not by metformin, was serum- and insulin-dependent. Sulphonylureas and metformin had no effect on the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells derived from the umbilical artery, or 3T3 cells, until concentrations greater than 100 fold those found in vivo were reached, when there was inhibition of proliferation. These agents had no effect on prostacyclin or von Willebrand factor production, or on ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity, until high concentrations were used, at levels which also inhibited proliferation. The results suggest that the sulphonylureas and metformin, may, at concentrations found in vivo, induce changes in the turnover of endothelial cells from large vessels, but not of microvascular endothelial cells.
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To identify the incidence of and risk factors associated with hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients taking sulfonylureas.
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We measured the ability of insulin, metformin, glipizide, exendin-4 and sitagliptin, after acute or repeat dose administration, to lower free-feeding glucose levels in gk(wt/del) mice. Further, we measured the ability of novel GKAs, GKA23, GKA71 and AZD6370 to control glucose either alone or in combination with some standard agents.
PubMed (2001-2014) was searched for primary and review articles on sitagliptin, simvastatin, or the combination product. Drug manufacturing data and product labeling were also used. Studies of simvastatin, sitagliptin, or the combination were screened and analyzed to include relevant and recent papers. Selected English language trials were limited to those with human subjects and included both safety and efficacy outcomes.
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The oral ethanol loading test (0.5 g/kg body mass given as 40% solution) was carried out in 5 groups, each of 10 out-patients with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes before and after 10 days of treatment with one of the following sulphonylurea derivatives: tolbutamide (CAS 64-77-7) 0.5 t.i.d., chlorpropamide (CAS 94-20-2) 0.5 once daily morning, glibornuride (CAS 26944-48-9) 0.025 t.i.d., glibenclamide (CAS 10238-21-8) 0.005 t.i.d. and glipizide (CAS 29094-61-9) 0.005 t.i.d. The response to alcohol (facial flush, heart rate, blood pressure) were compared, and blood concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, pyruvate, lactate, hydrocarbonates as well as blood pH, pO2 and pCO2 were determined in fasting state and during 6 hours after alcohol ingestion. In all patients the family history of diabetes and the presence and degree of vascular complications were registered. Evident flushing phenomenon was observed in 6 patients treated with chlorpropamide, in 3 treated with tolbutamide, in 2 treated with glibenclamide, in one receiving glibornuride and in none treated with glipizide. All drugs caused a greater rise of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels in relation to the control tests, but the difference reached statistical significance only in the group receiving chlorpropamide. Moreover, patients (pooled) with positive thermographic response had also significantly higher blood levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde during the second test. The ratio of acetaldehyde to ethanol concentration in blood (mumol:mmol) was not significantly changed in any group indicating parallel impairment of both steps of ethanol metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To study the clinical benefit of increasing the dose of the sulfonylurea, glipizide, from 10 to 40 mg per day.
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Neither glyburide nor glipizide were detected in breast milk, and hypoglycemia was not observed in the three nursing infants. Both agents, at the doses tested, appear to be compatible with breast-feeding.
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The pancreatic B-cell GLUT2 transporter and glucose metabolism were examined in isolated rat islets subjected to treatments affecting insulin secretion. Diazoxide was used to inhibit, while glipizide or depolarization of the plasma membrane with a high extracellular K(+) concentration were used to stimulate insulin release in short-term experiments. Islet GLUT2 and insulin were determined by quantitative immunohistochemistry and GLUT2 was also determined by Western blot analysis. Islet net glucose uptake and glucose oxidation were measured using radioactively labelled glucose. Exposure of the islets to diazoxide was associated with a marked increase in the B-cell plasma membrane staining for GLUT2 and increased net glucose uptake. Glucose oxidation was not changed, which may reflect a lowered energy requirement. Conversely, islets subjected to a stimulated insulin secretion with glipizide or a high extracellular K(+) concentration showed a reduced staining of the GLUT2 transporter. The net glucose uptake and glucose oxidation were also reduced. In islets exposed to the high K(+) concentration no change in the molecular weight or phosphorylation of GLUT2 was observed but a lesser amount of the transporter was found by Western blot analysis. Thus, GLUT2 and glucose uptake in the pancreatic B-cell are modified by the secretory process, which suggests that changes in the glucose transporter have a functional role in normal B-cell physiology.
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Acromegaly, a disease state with excess growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I, is associated with carbohydrate intolerance. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, is used in the treatment of acromegaly to lower GH levels. Despite effective lowering of GH levels, certain patients with acromegaly have persistent or even worsening carbohydrate intolerance and may require insulin therapy. Such a regimen would necessitate five or more injections per day. We describe a 51-year-old man who was diagnosed with a GH-producing pituitary adenoma in 1987. Despite transsphenoidal resection, frontal craniotomy, and radiation therapy, symptoms and increased levels of GH persisted. The patient was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in August 1989 and treated with glipizide. Because of persistently increased GH levels, he was treated with octreotide. His glycohemoglobin level increased to 21% despite use of maximal doses of glipizide. The patient refused insulin therapy because of his objection to numerous daily injections. Despite adjustments in diet and exercise, glycemic control remained poor. As a trial, we thus attempted combining octreotide and regular insulin in the same syringe and administering the medications in a single subcutaneous injection. No precipitate formation was evident, and he had no adverse effects. Glucose control improved, and the glycohemoglobin level was lower but still elevated. GH levels remained at less than 5 ng/mL. His symptoms of acromegaly were unchanged, but his overall attitude and energy level improved.
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Oral hypoglycemic agents have been in clinical use since 1956 in the United States. Two new second-generation sulfonylureas, glipizide and glyburide, have been marketed recently. This article reviews the pharmacology of the oral sulfonylureas, compares the drugs from a safety and efficacy standpoint, and provides updated information regarding their use in the management of type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
The lack of adequate glycaemic control for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially with existing second-line therapies, represents an unmet medical need. Of the newer therapies, the incretin-based medicines, such as saxagliptin, look promising to consolidate second-line pharmacotherapy.
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Sulfonylureas and glinides have similar mechanisms of action but differ in receptor affinity and binding sites and in absorption and elimination rates. This promotes differences in potency, rate of onset, and duration of action. While prominent in single-dose studies, these differences have less importance during long-term sulfonylurea treatment: at ordinary dosages, rapid- and short-acting (glipizide) and slow- and long-acting (glyburide) sulfonylureas maintained continuously effective plasma levels and similar 24-h glucose control. Moreover, there was no difference in patient outcome between the first-generation sulfonylurea chlorpropamide and the second-generation glyburide in the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study. However, the risk of long-lasting and hence dangerous hypoglycemia is higher with these two long-acting sulfonylureas. Conversely, this risk should be low with the short-acting glinides, but seemingly at the expense of less effective glucose control. The most important kinetics-effect relations are that hyperglycemia delays sulfonylurea absorption and that the sulfonylurea dose-response curve is bell shaped; continuous sulfonylurea exposure over a certain level (e.g., 10 mg glipizide) impairs rather than improves insulin and glucose responses to sulfonylurea (downregulation). Accordingly, a vicious circle may be established: unrelenting hyperglycemia may promote sulfonylurea dose increase, which increases hyperglycemia, promoting further dose increase and eventually therapeutic failure.
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The site of study as well as the diet order did not affect the results. Compared with the high-monounsaturated-fat diet, the high-carbohydrate diet increased fasting plasma triglyceride levels and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 24% (P < .0001) and 23% (P = .0001), respectively, and increased daylong plasma triglyceride, glucose, and insulin values by 10% (P = .03), 12% (P < .0001), and 9% (P = .02), respectively. Plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remained unchanged. The effects of both diets on plasma glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels persisted for 14 weeks.
Glipizide-SR significantly improved glycemic control at lower serum insulin levels, was well tolerated, and improved QoL. Metformin improved glycemic control and reduced insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Initial insulin therapy led to rapid reduction in hyperglycemia with reduced insulin resistance. Folic acid therapy significantly (P<.001) lowered elevated serum homocysteine levels in poorly controlled patients.
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Previous studies have described specific photoincorporation of radiolabeled sulfonylureas into a peptide with high molecular mass (140-175 kDa), which thus has been suggested to represent the sulfonylurea receptor. In the present study, a 125I-labeled 4-azidosalicyloyl analog of glibenclamide, 125I-N3-GA (N-[4-(2-(4-azido-2-hydroxy-5-125I- iodobenzamido)ethyl)benzenesulfonyl]-N'-cyclohexylurea), was used for photoaffinity labeling. This novel probe was specifically photoincorporated into a peptide with an apparent molecular mass of 160-175 kDa when samples from insulin-secreting HIT cells or cerebral cortex were boiled in a SDS-buffer prior to separation with SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, omitting the heating step revealed specific labeling of an additional peptide with an apparent molecular mass of 38 kDa. The amount of radioactivity specifically photoincorporated into this peptide was 3-4-fold higher than that incorporated into the 160-175-kDa peptide. Both peptides displayed similar dissociation constants for binding of the sulfonylureas IN3-GA (N-[4-(2-(4-azido-2-hydroxy- 5-iodobenzamido)ethyl)benzenesulfonyl]-N'-cyclohexylurea), glibenclamide, glipizide, and tolbutamide. Analysis of photoaffinity labeling of solubilized fractions indicated an almost exclusive specific linkage to the 38-kDa peptide. The data support the view that the sulfonylurea receptor in insulin-secreting cells and cerebral cortex consists of a peptide with an apparent molecular mass of 38 kDa, which seems to be tightly coupled to a 160-175-kDa peptide.
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Despite the number of medications for type 2 diabetes, many people with the condition do not achieve good glycaemic control. Some existing glucose-lowering agents have adverse effects such as weight gain or hypoglycaemia. Type 2 diabetes tends to be a progressive disease, and most patients require treatment with combinations of glucose-lowering agents. The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) receptor inhibitors are a new class of glucose-lowering agents.
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Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE and Current Content databases (both 1966 to 1 October 2016) using the search terms insulin, metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride, acarbose, miglitol, albiglutide, exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, pramlintide, meglitinide, alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, colesevalam, bromocriptine, mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), and stroke. Trials were included if they were randomized clinical trials evaluating adult patients (≥18 years) with type 2 diabetes; had a period of intervention and follow-up of ≥12 months; and assessed CV outcomes (CV death, fatal/non-fatal MI or HF) as endpoints. Twenty-three randomized trials were included. Antidiabetic agents: Of agents approved prior to 2008, metformin has not been associated with measurable harm in patients with diabetes in terms of mortality and CV events (and has a trend of benefit). Controversial results existed with the use of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) for CV outcomes. Among agents approved after 2008, liraglutide and empagliflozin have been shown to be superior to placebo in improving CV outcomes.