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Metformin, a biguanide antidiabetic drug, is used to decrease hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, the epidemiological studies revealed the potential of metformin as an anti-tumor drug for several types of cancer, including breast cancer. Anti-tumor metformin action was found to be mediated, at least in part, via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-intracellular energy sensor, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and some other signaling pathways. Nevertheless, some patients can be non-sensitive or resistant to metformin action. Here we analyzed the mechanism of the formation of metformin-resistant phenotype in breast cancer cells and its role in estrogen receptor (ER) regulation. The experiments were performed on the ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells and metformin-resistant MCF-7 subline (MCF-7/M) developed due to long-term metformin treatment. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB and ER was measured by the luciferase reporter gene analysis. The protein expression was determined by immunoblotting (Snail1, (phospho)AMPK, (phospho)IκBα, (phospho)mTOR, cyclin D1, (phospho)Akt and ERα) and immunohistochemical analysis (E-cadherin). We have found that: 1) metformin treatment of MCF-7 cells is accompanied with the stimulation of AMPK and inhibition of growth-related proteins including IκBα, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and ERα; 2) long-term metformin treatment lead to the appearance and progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen; the resistant cells are characterized with the unaffected AMPK activity, but the irreversible ER suppression and constitutive activation of Akt/Snail1 signaling; 3) Akt/Snail1 signaling is involved into progression of metformin resistance. The results presented may be considered as the first evidence of the progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen in breast cancer cells. Importantly, the acquired resistance to both drugs is based on the constitutive activation of Akt/Snail1/E-cadherin signaling that opens new perspectives to overcome the metformin/tamoxifen resistance of breast cancer.
Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided reductions in HbA1c, body weight, and systolic BP across studies in patients from Latin America that were generally similar to those seen in the overall populations of patients with T2DM. The AE profile in patients from Latin America was equivalent to that in the overall populations; higher rates of genital mycotic infections and osmotic diuresis-related AEs were seen with canagliflozin versus comparators. Limitations of this study include the post hoc analysis of data and the small sample size of patients from Latin America.
Ten participants were initially randomised to metformin and subsequently crossed over to gliclazide, while ten participants were initially randomised to gliclazide and subsequently crossed over to metformin. No participants discontinued the intervention and the adipose tissue AMPK activity was analysed in all 20 participants. There were no adverse events or side effects in the study group. Adipose AMPK activity was increased following metformin compared with gliclazide therapy (0.057 ± 0.007 vs 0.030 ± 0.005 [mean ± SEM] nmol min(-1) [mg lysate](-1); p < 0.005), independent of AMPK level, glycaemia or plasma adiponectin concentrations. The increase was associated with reduced levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) protein and increased ACC Ser80 phosphorylation. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, metformin reduced levels of ACC protein and stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK Thr172 and hormone-sensitive lipase Ser565.
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Aspirin, the pro-drug of salicylate, is associated with reduced incidence of death from cancers of the colon, lung and prostate and is commonly prescribed in combination with metformin in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Salicylate activates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by binding at the A-769662 drug binding site on the AMPK β1-subunit, a mechanism that is distinct from metformin which disrupts the adenylate charge of the cell. A hallmark of many cancers is high rates of fatty acid synthesis and AMPK inhibits this pathway through phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). It is currently unknown whether targeting the AMPK-ACC-lipogenic pathway using salicylate and/or metformin may be effective for inhibiting cancer cell survival. Salicylate suppresses clonogenic survival of prostate and lung cancer cells at therapeutic concentrations achievable following the ingestion of aspirin (<1.0 mM); effects not observed in prostate (PNT1A) and lung (MRC-5) epithelial cell lines. Salicylate concentrations of 1 mM increased the phosphorylation of ACC and suppressed de novo lipogenesis and these effects were enhanced with the addition of clinical concentrations of metformin (100 μM) and eliminated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in AMPK β1. Supplementation of media with fatty acids and/or cholesterol reverses the suppressive effects of salicylate and metformin on cell survival indicating the inhibition of de novo lipogenesis is probably important. Pre-clinical studies evaluating the use of salicylate based drugs alone and in combination with metformin to inhibit de novo lipogenesis and the survival of prostate and lung cancers are warranted.
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After adjustment for >40 covariates through inverse probability weights derived from propensity scores, the PIO group showed a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.31, 0.36). The risk of all-cause mortality was also significantly lower in the PIO cohort than the INS cohort among subgroups based on baseline variables such as sex, age (<55 years, ≥55 years), antidiabetic medication use (sulfonylureas or metformin), lipid-altering medication use, and congestive heart failure status. The study has some limitations. Use of a claims database means a potential bias toward a younger cohort. Disease-specific mortality was not identified because of no recorded cause of death. Reliable information regarding the differences in disease deterioration rate and some clinical and lab results were not available, which limits the statistical adjustment of baseline variables.
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Retrospective study of patients with T2D in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink with first prescription for dapagliflozin. Patients were included in the study if they: (1) had a first prescription for dapagliflozin between November 2012 and September 2014; (2) had a Read code for T2D; (3) were registered with a practice for at least 6 months before starting dapagliflozin; and (4) remained registered for at least 3 months after initiation. A questionnaire ascertained reason(s) for adding dapagliflozin to insulin.
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Counterregulatory responses are critical to prevent hypoglycemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes. This is particularly important in insulin-treated patients. This study explored the effect of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on the hormonal counterregulatory responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia when added to basal insulin therapy in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
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Metformin is a widely used anti-diabetic drug with potential anti-tumor activity. However, little is known about its global metabolic and transcriptional impacts on tumor cells. In current study, we performed a metabolic profiling on human-derived colon cancer LoVo cells treated by 10 mM metformin for 8, 24 and 48 h. An obvious time-dependent metabolic alteration was observed from 8 to 48 h, prior to the reduction of cell viability. A total of 47, 45 and 66 differential metabolites were identified between control and metformin-treated cells at three time points. Most of the metabolites were up-regulated at 8 h, but down-regulated at 24 and 48 h by metformin. These metabolites were mainly involved in carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, vitamins and nucleotides metabolism pathways. Meanwhile, the transcirptomic profile revealed 134 and 3061 differentially expressed genes at 8 and 24 h by metformin. In addition to the cancer signaling pathways, expression of genes involved in cell energy metabolism pathways was significantly altered, which were further validated with genes in glucose metabolism pathway. Altogether, our current data indicate that metformin suppressed the proliferation of LoVo cells, which may be due to the modulation on cell energy metabolism at both metabolic and transcriptional levels in a time-dependent way.
Sulphonylurea treatment in patients with a renal function of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) should be considered with caution. Moreover, an increased risk of hypoglycaemic events was observed among all users of sulphonylureas. This contrasts with several guidelines that recommend gliclazide as first choice sulphonylurea, and therefore requires further investigation.
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In this study, we review the efficacy and safety limitations of insulin-dependent oral antidiabetic agents. In terms of efficiency, the main drawback of metformin, sulfonylureas, gliptins and -to a lesser extent-glitazones is durability. No drug per se is able to maintain stable blood glucose control for years. Metformin, sulfonylureas and gliptins have demonstrated safety. Experience with the first two drug groups is more extensive. The main adverse effect of metformin is gastrointestinal discomfort. Major concerns related to the use of sulfonylureas are hypoglycemia and weight gain. The use of pioglitazone has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, edema, heart failure, weight gain, and distal bone fractures in postmenopausal women. The most common adverse reactions associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists are gastrointestinal discomfort that sometimes leads to treatment discontinuation.
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In this multicentre, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled phase 3 trial, 1306 treatment-naïve patients with T2D >or=18 to or=8 to or=1.0 ng/ml, body mass index
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Primary cultures of epithelial ovarian cancer cells established from ascitic fluid of untreated ovarian cancer patients were used. The cells were treated with metformin at doses standardized by MTT assay and its ability to induce apoptosis was studied. The cells were analysed for apoptosis and apoptosis related proteins by flow cytometry and western blotting respectively.
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The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen to epidemic proportions, and this is associated with enormous cost. T2DM is preceded by 'prediabetes', and the diagnosis of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) provides an opportunity for targeted intervention. Prediabetic subjects manifest both core defects characteristic of T2DM, that is, insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Interventions which improve insulin sensitivity and/or preserve β-cell function are logical strategies to delay the conversion of IGT/IFG to T2DM or revert glucose tolerance to normal.
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Type 2 diabetes represents a major medical and public health problem due to its huge heterogeneity, the alarming rise of its incidence worldwide and its associated vascular complications, which impair quality of life and reduce life expectancy. At the present time, a patient-centered approach is recommended for the management of type 2 diabetes patients. However, these recommendations are not easy to implement because we only have little objective evidences to establish individualized strategies. Following the recent introduction of new drug classes, a large number of combinations is offered to clinicians, but we do not have high quality interventional studies comparing these different therapeutic possibilities. Moreover, the response to pharmacological treatment can vary greatly from one subject to the other. Pharmacogenetics might be a useful tool to better characterize the patient. However, despite some progress, the evidence we now have is very preliminary and should not allow to improve significantly the individual management of type 2 diabetes in the near future.
To understand how aminoglycosides such as gentamicin are used in a tertiary care setting. To familiarize otologists with the demographics and risk factors associated with gentamicin use at major medical centers to allow the possibility of early intervention.
The nude mice model of lung cancer xenografts was established, and mice were randomly divided into the metformin group, the cisplatin group, the metformin + cisplatin group, and the control group. The animals were killed 42 days after drug administration, and the tumor tissues were then sampled to detect the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression levels of survivin, MMP-2, VEGF-C, and VEGFR-3 by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
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The use of drug price controls is a contentious issue globally. Low- and middle-income countries use direct price controls to improve access to essential drugs. But such price controls have little meaning if they are not designed and implemented well, and the extent to which firms coordinate in these countries to weaken price controls has been largely overlooked. In mid-2013, India adopted partial price-cap regulation for some, but not all, formulations of several essential medicines. Using data on sales and prices of the out-of-patent oral antidiabetic drug Metformin-considered essential by WHO since 1998-and employing the differences-in-differences methodology, we examine the impact of the regulation on curbing prices. We find that firms coordinated to increase the price of the regulated formulation in the period before regulation, which led to a higher ceiling price. We also find, using triple-differences analyses, that the coordination is stronger among larger firms and for time-release formulations. We present anecdotal evidence to suggest that pharmaceutical trade associations facilitated coordination among firms, and we conclude that partial price control of Metformin in India is, at best, a modest improvement over no regulation.
To determine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with diabetes risk in participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and whether intervention-related changes in MetS lead to differences in diabetes incidence.
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The efficacy of glimepiride, metformin, and rosiglitazone as antidiabetic monotherapies in drug-naïve Korean type 2 diabetic patients was similar in the three groups, with no statistical difference. This study is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of commonly-used oral hypoglycemic agents in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. An additional subgroup analysis is recommended to obtain more detailed information.
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Of the 520 patients initially randomized, 446 completed the base study and, of these, 317 entered the extension. In this extension study cohort, the mean reductions from baseline in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) at the end of the base study (week 24) were -2.5% and -62.1 mg/dl with the combination of sitagliptin 100 mg and pioglitazone 30 mg versus -1.9% and -48.7 mg/dl with pioglitazone monotherapy. At the end of the extension study (week 54), the mean reduction in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was -2.4% with the combination of sitagliptin 100 mg and pioglitazone 45 mg versus -1.9% with pioglitazone monotherapy [between-group difference (95% CI) = -0.5% (-0.8, -0.3)] and the mean reduction in FPG was -61.3 mg/dl versus -52.8 mg/dl, respectively [between-group difference (95% CI) = -8.5 mg/dl (-16.3, -0.7)]. Safety and tolerability of initial treatment with the combination of sitagliptin and pioglitazone and pioglitazone monotherapy were similar. As expected, increases in body weight from baseline were observed in both treatment groups at week 54: 4.8 and 4.1 kg in the combination and monotherapy groups, respectively [between-group difference (95% CI) = 0.7 kg (-0.7, 2.1)].
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Our data demonstrated that, in our ex vivo model of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury, AMPK activation in early reperfusion is associated with a reduction in infarct size.
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Ninety-eight girls ages 13-19.6 years, Tanner 5, average body mass index of 46.6 kg/m(2), menarche at 11.4 years, and average menarcheal age of 5 years.
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EDVI and %deltaMBF were significantly lower in diabetic patients before treatment in comparison with HC demonstrating endothelial dysfunction in the former. Treatment with Glimepiride/Metformin significantly increased EDVI and %deltaMBF in diabetic patients from baseline, thus showing an improvement in coronary endothelial function.
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data were used to calculate mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE), continuous overall net glycemic action (CONGA)-2, mean blood glucose (MBG), mean postprandial glucose excursion (MPPGE), and incremental area under the curve (IAUC). Blood pressure (BP), circadian rhythm, and urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane (8-iso-prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α]) were also evaluated. Subjects were divided into dipper (D) and nondipper (ND) groups according to ΔBP.
Intensive glycemic control has a beneficial effect on microvascular but not macrovascular endpoints, with one major trial reporting increased mortality out to 5 years with intensive treatment. Similarly, aggressive lowering of SBP to below 120 mmHg produced no advantage over treatment to 130-140 mmHg. Statins are the best treatment for diabetic dyslipidemia, with little benefit from adding a fibrate. Medical treatment may be appropriate for many with diabetes and stable coronary disease. When revascularization is needed, coronary bypass graft surgery has an advantage over percutaneous coronary intervention in those at the severe end of the coronary disease spectrum.
The three respiratory indexes and the number of nocturnal awakenings are highly correlated with the coefficient of variation of the fasting blood glucose recorded over the 7-day period at p < .005 level. A multiple regression analysis showed that the variables in the model explained 86% of the variability.
Metformin is considered to be the only drug suitable in patients with prediabetes and is the drug of choice in patients with type 2 diabetes. Apart from important antidiabetic effect, it also has some important additional effects: reduced incidence of tumours, positive effects on cardiovascular system, stimulation of immunity, positive effects on the bone, effect on ovulation, influence over body weight reduction, pancreas-protective effects (reduced incidence of carcinoma and possible effect on reduction in incidence of pancreatitis during incretin treatment), positive effects on liver steatosis. Since diabetes patients live with increased cardiovascular risk, it is important to continuously remind ourselves of the positive cardiovascular effects of metformin.
The study was conducted with objective of assessing the effectiveness of Yoga, Pranayama, and Sudarshan Kriya in the community-based management of diabetes mellitus. The primary outcome variable was Hb1Ac and secondary outcome variables were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), adherence to medication, and changes in lifestyle.
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Networks of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that control cancer cell proliferation also regulate stem cell renewal and possibly stem cell aging. Because (de)differentiation processes might dictate tumor cells to retrogress to a more stem-like state in response to aging-relevant epigenetic and/or environmental players, we recently envisioned that cultured human cancer cells might be used as reliable models to test the ability of antiaging interventions for promoting the initiation and maintenance of self-renewing divisions. Cancer cell lines naturally bearing undetectable amounts of stem/progenitor-like cell populations were continuously cultured in the presence of the caloric restriction mimetic metformin for several months. Microarray technology was employed to profile expression of genes related to the identification, growth, and differentiation of stem cells. Detection of functionally related gene groups using a pathway analysis package provided annotated genetic signatures over- and underexpressed in response to pharmacological mimicking of caloric restriction. By following this methodological approach, we recently obtained data fitting a model in which, in response to chronic impairment of cellular bioenergetics imposed by metformin-induced mitochondrial uncoupling as assessed by the phosphorylation state of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), tumor cells can retrogress from a differentiated state to a more CD44(+) stem-like primitive state epigenetically governed by the Polycomb-group suppressor BMI1-a crucial "stemness" gene involved in the epigenetic maintenance of adult stem cells. These findings might provide a novel molecular avenue to investigate if antiaging benefits from caloric restriction mimetics might relate to their ability to epigenetically reprogram stemness while prolonging the capacity of stem-like cell states to proliferate, differentiate, and replace mature cells in adult aging tissues.
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A retrospective study of singleton pregnancies in women with GDM delivered between January 2008 to June 2010 (n=592) at the Jessop Wing, Royal Hallamshre Hospital, UK. Introduction of metformin in August 2008 led to two comparable groups, those women receiving metformin, lifestyle advice (including dietary advice) ± supplementary insulin and those women receiving lifestyle advice (including dietary advice) ± supplementary insulin. Two hundred and ninety three women were treated with metformin and lifestyle advice and remaining 299 with lifestyle advice only. Supplementary insulin was used in both the groups if needed. Outcomes were analyzed using the chi-squared and t-tests.