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Dopamine depletion is one of the most important features of Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, insufficient response to dopaminergic replacement therapy suggests the involvement of other neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of PD. Cholinergic degeneration contributes to gait impairments, cognitive impairment, psychosis, and REM-sleep disturbances, among other symptoms. Areas covered: In this review, we explore the idea that enhancing cholinergic tone by pharmacological or neurosurgical procedures could be a first-line therapeutic strategy for the treatment of symptoms derived from cholinergic degeneration in PD. Expert opinion: Rivastigmine, a drug that increases cholinergic tone by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, is effective for dementia, whereas the use of Donepezil is still in the realm of investigation. Interesting results suggest the efficacy of these drugs in the treatment of gait dysfunction. Evidence on the clinical effects of these drugs for psychosis and REM-sleep disturbances is still weak. Stimulation of the pedunculo-pontine tegmental nuclei (which provide cholinergic innervation to the brain stem and subcortical nuclei) has also been used with some success for the treatment of gait dysfunction. Anticholinergic drugs should be used with caution in PD, as they may aggravate cholinergic symptoms. Notwithstanding, in some patients they might help control parkinsonian motor symptoms.
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Progressive supranucleair palsy (PSP) is a serious neurologic disease which is seldom diagnosed due to its complexity. In 1996 international diagnostic criteria were developed by a group of experts, the diagnosis remains complicated. We describe three cases, which were followed in the period 2001-2008. In these case reports we elaborate on the therapeutic use of rivastigmine. During off-label rivastigmine use, patients showed minimal further cognitive decline, specifically with respect to frontal defects. However, larger studies and trials are necessary to explore the effects of rivastigmine in patients with PSP.
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Neurological and psychiatric practitioners perceive antidementia drugs as effective in multiple domains in AD. Appreciation of the overall success of treatment requires consideration of the patient-caregiver dyad.
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The integrated treatment of RTP with CS in AD patients for 6 months improved significantly cognition, depressive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, functional status, and mortality risk in comparison with a group of AD patients receiving only RTP.
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An isocratic, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate, a cholinesterase inhibitor in bulk drugs and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The developed method is also applicable for the related substance determination of Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate in bulk drugs. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters X Terra RP18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column using aqueous 0.01 M sodium-1-heptane sulphonate (pH: 3.0 with dilute phosphoric acid)-acetonitrile (72:28, v/v) as a mobile phase. The chromatographic resolution between Rivastigmine and its potential impurity, namely (S)-3-(1-dimethylaminoethyl) phenol (Imp 1) was found to be greater than four. Forced degradation studies were performed for Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate bulk drug using acid (0.5 N hydrochloric acid), base (0.5 N sodium hydroxide), oxidation (3% hydrogen peroxide), heat (60 degrees C) and UV light (254 nm). No degradation was observed for Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate except in base hydrolysis and the formed degradation product was found to be Imp 1. The mass balance of Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate was close to 100 in all the stress conditions. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of Imp 1 were found to be 100 and 300 ng/ml, respectively, for 10 microl injection volume. The percentage recovery of Imp 1 in bulk drug sample was ranged from 95.2 to 104.3. The active pharmaceutical ingredient was extracted from its finished dosage form (capsule) using water. The percentage recovery of Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate was ranged from 99.2 to 101.3 and 98.6 to 101.5 in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation samples, respectively. Rivastigmine hydrogen tartrate sample solution and mobile phase were found to be stable for at least 48 h. The developed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and forced degradation studies prove the stability indicating power of the method.
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Sixty-nine patients completed the study and 17 withdrew because of adverse effects. In two measures of computerized testing (subtraction test, p = 0.034 and correct answers in the 10-15 minute vigilance test, p = 0.048) rivastigmine was better than placebo. The clinical interviews did not yield significant results. After the study, 45% of patients considered rivastigmine beneficial compared to 20% with placebo.
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Rivastigmine, a dual cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI), is widely approved for the symptomatic treatment of both mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia. Orally administered ChEIs may be associated with gastrointestinal (GI) side effects and add-on therapy with memantine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, approved for moderate-to-severe AD, may ameliorate such side effects. This was a 26-week, prospective, multicenter, single-arm, open-label pilot study to assess the safety and tolerability of rivastigmine capsules plus memantine in patients with moderate AD.
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Three trials, with a total of 800 participants, were identified for inclusion. The participants in one trial did not have dementia, while the other two studies included participants with dementia of different severities. The dose of rivastigmine was different in each study. No pooling of study results was attempted because of these differences between the studies.One trial included 40 participants with subcortical vascular dementia (age range 40 to 90 years) with a mean mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score of 13.0 and 13.4 in the rivastigmine and placebo arms, respectively. Treatment over 26 weeks was limited to 3 mg rivastigmine twice daily, or placebo. No significant difference was found on any outcome measure relevant to cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, function or global rating, or in the number of withdrawals before the end of treatment.Another trial included 710 participants with vascular dementia, including subcortical and cortical forms (age range 50 to 85 years). Over 24 weeks, a mean dose of rivastigmine of 9.4 mg/day was achieved versus placebo. Baseline MMSE was identical for both groups, at 19.1. Statistically significant advantage in cognitive response (but not with global impression of change or non-cognitive measures) was seen with rivastigmine treatment at 24 weeks (MMSE change from baseline MD 0.6, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.09, P value 0.02; Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale (VaDAS) change from baseline MD -1.3, 95% CI-2.62 to 0.02, P value 0.05 ). Significantly higher rates of vomiting, nausea, diarrhoea and anorexia and withdrawals from treatment were noted in the participants randomized to rivastigmine compared with placebo (withdrawals rivastigmine 90/365, placebo 48/345, OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.98) (withdrawals due to an adverse event rivastigmine 49/365, placebo 19/345, OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.53 to 4.62, P value 0.0005).The third study included 50 participants (age range 48 to 84 years) with mean MMSE scores of 23.7 and 23.9 in the rivastigmine and placebo arms, respectively. Over a 24-week period, participants labelled as having cognitive impairment but no dementia (CIND) following ischaemic stroke were given up to 4.5 mg rivastigmine twice daily, or placebo. Primary and secondary outcome measures showed no statistically significant difference when considering neurocognitive abilities, function, neuropsychiatric symptoms and global performance. One participant in the rivastigmine group and two in the placebo group discontinued their medication because of an adverse effect.
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Pharmacologic treatments for Alzheimer's disease include the cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine. We reviewed their evidence by searching MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from 1980 through 2007 (July) for placebo-controlled and comparative trials assessing cognition, function, behavior, global change, and safety. Thirty-three articles on 26 studies were included in the review. Meta-analyses of placebo-controlled data support the drugs' modest overall benefits for stabilizing or slowing decline in cognition, function, behavior, and clinical global change. Three open-label trials and one double-blind randomized trial directly compared donepezil with galantamine and rivastigmine. Results are conflicting; two studies suggest no differences in efficacy between compared drugs, while one study found donepezil to be more efficacious than galantamine, and one study found rivastigmine to be more efficacious than donepezil. Adjusted indirect comparison of placebo-controlled data did not find statistically significant differences among drugs with regard to cognition, but found the relative risk of global response to be better with donepezil and rivastigmine compared with galantamine (relative risk = 1.63 and 1.42, respectively). Indirect comparisons also favored donepezil over galantamine with regard to behavior. Across trials, the incidence of adverse events was generally lowest for donepezil and highest for rivastigmine.
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The clinical benefits on cognition from treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors resulted in an incremental cost per QALY gained ranging from 53,780 pounds sterling to 74,735 pounds sterling, over 5 years (vs usual care). Uncertainty analysis suggests that the probability of any of these treatments having an incremental cost per QALY of < 30,000 pounds sterling is < 21%. The key determinants of cost effectiveness were the effectiveness of treatment, the mean treatment cost and the cost savings associated with an expected delay in disease progression.
Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are prescribed to dementia patients despite their poor tolerance. Low tolerability potentially reduces persistence and adherence, while inducing switching between medications. Comparisons of these utilization measures contribute to knowledge of the relative tolerability of these medications.
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During the first 16 weeks after initiation of rivastigmine patch therapy, patients with probable mild to moderate AD had statistically significant improvement in cognitive function, but clinically marginal benefit. Rivastigmine was safe and well tolerated.
We included seven randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving 625 people mostly with relapsing-remitting, secondary-progressive and primary-progressive MS, evaluating the absolute efficacy of donepezil, ginkgo biloba, memantine and rivastigmine versus placebo in improving memory performance with diverse assessment scales. Overall, clinical and methodological heterogeneities existed across these studies. Moreover, most of them had methodological limitations on non-specific selections of targeted sample, non-matched variables at baseline or incomplete outcome data (high attrition bias). Only the two studies on donepezil had clinical and methodological homogeneity and relatively low risks for bias. One RCT evaluating estriol versus placebo is currently ongoing.We could not carry out a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneities across studies and the high attrition bias. A subgroup analysis for donepezil versus placebo showed no treatment effects on total recall on the Selective Reminding Test (mean difference (MD) 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.21 to 5.58), total correct scores on the 10/36 Spatial Recall Test (MD -0.93; 95% CI -3.18 to 1.32), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (MD -1.27; 95% CI -3.15 to 0.61) and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (2+3 sec) (MD 2.23; 95% CI -1.87 to 6.33). Concerning safety, the main adverse events were: diarrhoea (risk ratio (RR) 3.88; 95% CI 1.66 to 9.05), nausea (RR 1.71; 95% CI 0.93 to 3.18) and abnormal dreams (RR 2.91; 95% CI 1.38 to 6.14). However, the results in both studies were subjected to a serious imprecision resulting from the small sample sizes and the low power of test (lower than 80%), which contributed to a moderate quality of the evidence. No serious adverse events were attributed to the treatments in all experimental groups.
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Numerous approaches have been explored to treat individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). General approaches include the following treatment; treatment of cognitive symptoms, slowing decline, delaying onset of disease, and primary prevention. 2011 is the new era for the drug therapy for AD in Japan, because three anti-dementia drugs, galantamine, rivastigmine and memantine, were admitted to use for AD in addition to donepezil. Donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine has been developed based on cholinergic hypothesis that acetylcholine (ACh) acts a chief neurotransmitter as a cognitive neurotransmitter. Donepezil a specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI). Galantamine acts as an allosteric potentiating ligand of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in addition to the function of AChEI. Rivastigmine increase acetylcholine in the cholinergic synapse by inhibition of both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase. Recent study shows that these anti-dementia drugs afford symptomatic effect and also act as disease-modifiers which inhibit neuronal death and abnormal amyloid-beta deposition. These effects can slow the rate of decline of the disease. While in the past many of our attempts have been to treat secondary symptoms or improve the cognitive deficits, future attempts are likely to focus on slowing the rate of decline, delaying the onset of appearance, or preventing the disease.
In this pilot study, the revaluation in accordance with the recommendations of the Haute autorité de santé (HAS) led to the discontinuation of two third of anti-dementia drugs. Safety of sudden discontinuation of MSD remains to be studied.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia and poses considerable health challenges to both patients and their families. Rivastigmine is a powerful slow-reversible, noncompetitive carbamate cholinesterase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of up to 6 months duration have shown beneficial effects of rivastigmine compared with placebo in measures of cognition and global functioning. Less rigorous but growing data suggest that the beneficial effects may endure for up to 5 years, extend to more advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease and may occur in noncognitive domains, such as activities of daily living and the behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Evidence from controlled studies also supports the use of rivastigmine for cognitive and behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease associated with vascular risk factors, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. Early and continued treatment of Alzheimer's disease with rivastigmine maximizes the observed beneficial effects. The most prominent adverse effect of rivastigmine is centrally mediated cholinergic gastrointestinal events, which can be minimized by slower dose-escalation intervals and administration with a full meal. Therapeutic dosing is 6-12 mg/day given twice daily, with higher doses having the potential for greater benefits.
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Treatment with rivastigmine was associated with a reduction in the self-reported professional caregiver burden, as assessed by the NPI-NH OD scale.
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In the 16 identified trials that met the inclusion criteria, 5159 patients were treated with a ChEI and 2795 received a placebo. The pooled mean proportion of global responders to ChEI treatment in excess of that for placebo treatment was 9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 6%-12%). The rates of adverse events, dropout for any reason and dropout because of adverse events were also higher among the patients receiving ChEI treatment than among those receiving placebo, the excess proportions being 8% (95% CI 5%-11%), 8% (95% CI 5%-11%) and 7% (95% CI 3%-10%), respectively. The numbers needed to treat for 1 additional patient to benefit were 7 (95% CI 6-9) for stabilization or better, 12 (95% CI 9-16) for minimal improvement or better and 42 (95% CI 26-114) for marked improvement; the number needed to treat for 1 additional patient to experience an adverse event was 12 (95% CI 10-18).
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Cholinesterase inhibitors are the only pharmacological class indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. These drugs are also being used off label to treat severe cases of Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia and other disorders. The widespread use of cholinesterase inhibitors raises the possibility of their use in combination regimens, with the subsequent risk of deleterious drug-drug interactions in high-risk populations. The purpose of this review is to present the possible sources of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions involving cholinesterase inhibitors. The four cholinesterase inhibitors (tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine) that are currently available have different pharmacological properties that expose patients to the risk of several types of drug interactions of nonequivalent clinical relevance. The principal proven clinically relevant drug interactions involve tacrine and drugs metabolised by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 enzyme, as well as tacrine or donepezil and antipsychotics (which results in the appearance of parkinsonian symptoms). The bioavailability of galantamine is increased by coadministration with paroxetine, ketoconazole and erythromycin. It is of interest to note that because rivastigmine is metabolised by esterases rather than CYP enzymes, unlike the other cholinesterase inhibitors, it is unlikely to be involved in pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. Care must be taken to reduce the risk of inducing central (excitation, agitation) or peripheral (e.g. bradycardia, loss of consciousness, digestive disorders) hypercholinergic effects via drug interactions with cholinesterase inhibitors. A review of the literature does not reveal any alarming data but does highlight the need for prudent prescription, particularly when cholinesterase inhibitors are given in combination with psychotropics or antiarrhythmics. Possible interactions involving other often coprescribed antidementia agents (e.g. memantine, antioxidants, cognitive enhancers) remain an open area requiring particularly prudent use.
Rivastigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; the genotype data seen alongside the phenotype data explain the mutation or the molecular genetics involved and also help to relate the phenotype of an individual with their genotype.
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29 patients were enrolled who met the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS/ ANDRA) criteria and had a score of 10-26 on the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE). After the rivastigmine patch had been applied for 24 weeks, changes in self-care activities were assessed using the K-MBI.
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Centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) improve cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia. Evaluation of treatment efficacy is based mainly on subjective assessment methods such as standardized neuropsychological tests. Therefore, an additional objective tool for the evaluation of drug response would be most helpful.Thirty-two patients suffering from dementia of several etiologies were treated with ChEIs (tacrine 19, donepezil 5, rivastigmine 8). Cognitive response was assessed pre ChEIs initiation (baseline) and after 26 weeks, as optimal tolerated doses were achieved and maintained (endpoint). Evaluation included repeated measurements of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's disease assessment scale cognitive part (ADAS-cog) and P300. For statistical analysis we used ANOVA with repeated measures and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results demonstrated improvement of mean ADAS-cog by 2.0 points (from 29.4, n = 31 to 27.4, n = 29; p = 0.08) while MMSE remained almost unchanged (20.1, n = 29 to 19.8, n = 28). Mean P300 latency reduced significantly by 24 ms (from 383 +/- 7.9 msec, n = 32 to 359 +/- 7 msec, n = 32; p = 0.0001). However mean amplitudes did not change significantly from baseline to endpoint (13.5 +/- 6.2, n = 31 to 12.8 +/- 6.1, n = 31). Significant correlations were found between mean ADAS-cog and mean P300 latency at baseline and end-point (R = 0.485 p = 0.019, R = 0.626 p = 0.001 respectively, n = 23) and between mean MMSE and P300 latency at baseline and endpoint (R = -0.420 p = 0.046, R = -0.703 p < 0.001 respectively, n = 23). Our data suggests that P300 is a reliable instrument for assessment of cognitive response to ChEIs in demented patients.
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In recent years, the efficacy of symptomatic treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease has repeatedly been demonstrated in a number of multicenter studies. Such treatment aims both to improve the patient's cognitive abilities and to preserve his or her quality of life and ability to cope with the activities of daily life. In this way the burden on relatives and caregivers is reduced, and the need for home or institutionalized care delayed. Causally effective therapeutic strategies resulting in a cure or the delaying of pathophysiological progression are currently not available, but are being investigated in ongoing clinical and experimental studies. Presently available treatments should be initiated early on, and applied as long as needed, which requires the earliest possible clinical diagnosis by the primary-care physician. The results of initial studies reveal an effect of antidementia agents also in mixed Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, as well as vascular and lewy-body dementia. Efforts to obtain approval for these indications are underway.
To compare the efficacy and safety of rivastigmine (3 to 6 mg/day) vs placebo over 12 weeks in patients with traumatic brain injury and persistent cognitive impairment.