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Our data suggest that antagonists of MC1R and MC5R could be effective sebum suppressive agents and might have a potential for the treatment of acne and other sebaceous gland pathologies.
Exposure of male Albino Swiss rats to the nonsteroidal antiandrogen flutamide during the period from gestational day (d) 10 to birth resulted in feminisation of the external genitalia and the suppression of growth of the male reproductive tract. In adulthood, testes were found to be located in diverse positions. True cryptorchidism occurred in 10% of cases, whereas 50% of testes descended to the scrotum and 40% were located in a suprainguinal ectopic region. Varying degrees of tubule abnormality were seen in the testes of flutamide-treated animals, ranging from completely normal tubules with full spermatogenesis (and the expected frequency of the stages of spermatogenesis) to severely abnormal tubules lined with Sertoli cells only. For each individual testis, the overall severity of tubule damage was strongly correlated with its adult location, with intra-abdominal testes worst affected and scrotally-located testes least; only the latter contained normal tubules. Similarly, intra-abdominal testes were the smallest in weight and contained the least testosterone. By contrast, postnatal treatment of male rats with flutamide from birth to postnatal d 14 did not impair development of the external genitalia, the process of testicular descent or adult spermatogenesis. These findings confirm that androgen blockade during embryonic development interferes with testicular descent but also demonstrate that (1) prenatal flutamide treatment per se has a detrimental effect on adult testis morphology but (2) the degree of abnormality of the testes is strongly influenced by location.
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Identification of aberrant expression patterns of genes in prostate cancer (PCa) is a key step towards the development of effective therapies. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are commonly measured for the early detection of PCa, but which itself is still not an ideal biomarker. We analysed the expression patterns of prostate cancer susceptibility candidate (PRAC) in prostate cancer. The PRAC gene is known to be commonly expressed in prostate tissue, rectum and colon. To provide clear insights into the expression patterns of PRAC in PCa, we examined the gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results showed that PRAC expression levels in androgen‑insensitive cells (DU145 and PC3) are lower than those in androgen-sensitive cell lines (LNCaP, LNCaP-R and CW22R). However, treatment of the LNCaP cell line with androgen and anti-androgen demonstrated that PRAC is expressed in an androgen-independent manner. Further, PRAC expression was restored upon treatment of DU145 and PC3 cells with the methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR), which indicates the effect of methylation in the control of PRAC expression. In addition, IHC analysis revealed a significantly decreased immunoreactivity of PRAC protein in PCa tissues compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (p<0.0001). Thus, our findings suggest that the pathogenesis of PCa may be due to the expression levels of PRAC protein, and this protein can serve as a potential biomarker for the management of PCa.
We could not expect more than 50% cases to show the down grading and down staging. But, in T 3 case, surgical failure could be decrease. We could expect prostate cancer cases without positive bcl-2 cells, p 53 over expression and Gleason 4 x 5 to reveal the good histological effects of neoadjuvant CAB therapy.
The aim of this study was to assess whether the joint effects of three androgen receptor antagonists (vinclozolin, flutamide, procymidone) on male sexual differentiation after in utero and postnatal exposures can be predicted based on dose-response data of the individual chemicals.
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In a multicenter trial conducted by the Danish Prostatic Cancer Group, 264 patients with advanced prostate cancer were randomized either to undergo bilateral orchiectomy or to receive combination treatment with goserelin acetate and flutamide. This report is an update of that study, covering a median follow-up for survival of 57 months. Of 262 patients who were evaluated, 208 have died. As noted in earlier analyses of this study, no differences in time to progression and cause-specific and overall survival could be identified between the two treatment groups. In conclusion, the combination of goserelin and flutamide was not clinically superior to bilateral orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.
Gender-related phenotypes in the cardiovascular system have been observed in various genetically modified mice. Here, we report that cardiac functions are significantly improved only in male CD38-null mice and we explore the potential mechanisms of the sexual dimorphism mediated by CD38 deficiency.
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The HEECs were treated with LNG or progesterone and levels of tPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) measured. The HEECs were specifically examined for the presence of androgen receptors through Western blot. Levonorgestrel ± flutamide were added to HEECs and the levels of tPA and uPA were examined.
GPx activity is secreted from human epididymal cells in a region dependent manner and is regulated by androgens.
A prior comparison of 750 mg flutamide daily to 500 mg daily with an LHRH analog or orchiectomy showed no difference in effect on prostate specific antigen (PSA). However, any difference was likely masked by hypogonadism from concomitant LHRH analog or orchiectomy. We sought to evaluate different flutamide dosing schedules without this confounding factor. We recruited 50 men with advanced prostate cancer who elected to receive hormonal therapy to be randomized to 1 of 3 flutamide treatment groups: 1) 250 mg once daily, 2) 250 mg twice daily, or 3) 250 mg 3 times daily for 3 months, after which the therapy of their choice was instituted. Serum samples at the initiation of therapy and at the 1- and 3-month time point were assessed for PSA, testosterone, liver function tests, hematology, and renal function. Prostate volume, androgen deficiency symptoms, and a compliance diary were also recorded. Testosterone and PSA levels show a dose-dependent response to flutamide monotherapy. Loss of libido and erectile dysfunction occurred in all 3 treatment groups, with a trend toward worsening sexual function with higher flutamide dosing, but this trend did not reach statistical significance. Prostate volumes decreased by an average of 34.3% in the patients receiving 250 mg flutamide 3 times daily, 27.8% in patients receiving 250 mg flutamide twice daily, and 19.2% in those receiving a once daily dose of 250 mg flutamide. There was a significant difference between the once daily group and the 3 times daily group (P =.047). Flutamide at 500 mg did not result in significant changes in testosterone, PSA, prostate volume, or androgen deficiency symptoms compared to 750 mg daily after 3 months.
Significant changes of the aromatase and 5 alpha-reductase hypothalamic activity were found in juvenile prenatally stressed male Wistar rats. The blood plasma testosterone level increased following niftolide (NF) or 1, 4, 6-androstatine-3, 17-dione (ATD) administration. Prenatal stress seems to exert a modifying effect upon the regulating mechanisms of the pituitary gonadotropin function, lowering the functional reserves of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-testicular axis in pre- and postpubertal male rats.
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Hirsutism can be evaluated with a detailed history and physical examination and a limited number of hormonal tests. Serious disorders presenting as hirsutism are rare and can be excluded with the recommended evaluation. Treatment is targeted at reducing the production and bioavailability of testosterone, as well as blocking target tissue androgen action.
The toxicity rates of 480 consecutive prostate cancer patients were reviewed and compared using the chi2 test. Ordered logit regression analyses were performed including the major demographic, disease, and treatment factors. Although no reduction in acute GI toxicity from HT use was observed (P=0.067), a lower rate of acute GU toxicity was observed (P=0.002). No factor reached statistical significance on regression analysis.
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In the pathogenesis of acne, androgen hormones play a crucial role. In the treatment of acne, hormonal therapies provide valuable alternatives to standard modalities in selected women. Although numerous factors contribute to the development of acne, the requirement for androgens is absolute and is one that allows for effective treatments in women through inhibition of androgen expression. The two prerequisites for androgen expression at the level of the pilosebaceous unit are the presence of androgen in the form of either testosterone or dihydrotestosterone; and functioning androgen receptors. A third component may be the metabolism of androgen precursors to active androgens within pilosebaceous units. Hormonal treatment of hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, androgenetic alopecia) such as that seen in polycystic ovary syndrome, centers on reduction of circulating androgen levels and androgen receptor blockade. Combination oral contraceptives represent the primary treatment modality for reducing circulating androgens from ovarian and, to a lesser degree, adrenal sources. Newer formulations may also have clinically significant androgen receptor blocking and 5alpha-reductase inhibiting effects. Newer oral contraceptives have high safety profiles and are used widely internationally for this purpose. Androgen receptor blockers currently in use include spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, and flutamide. Androgen receptor blockers are frequently combined with oral contraceptives to achieve optimal results in selected women. In women with adrenal hyperplasia, low-dose corticosteroids may be added to reduce adrenal androgen precursors. Inhibition of enzymes of androgen metabolism in the pilosebaceous unit remain largely investigational in the treatment of acne, although the benefit of 5alpha-reductase (type 2) inhibition is established in androgenetic alopecia in men. This article reviews the essentials of hormonal influence in acne pathogenesis, discusses the hormonal therapies most utilized in the treatment of acne, and the pre-treatment evaluation of women in whom hormonal therapies are being considered.
Five cases of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma were studied in terms of the presence of progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone in the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma tissue using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Progesterone and estradiol were positive in all cases. Testosterone was positive in 2 of the 5 patients. Dihydrotestosterone was positive in 3 of the 5 patients. Hormone in the juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma tissue seems to change by the activity of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.
To investigate the effects of low dose flutamide (250 mg/d) on hirsutism score and hormone levels in women with hirsutism.
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In general, most therapies garner recommendations that are weak (where the estimates of benefits versus risks of therapy are either closely balanced or uncertain) and are based on low- to moderate-quality evidence.
The median follow-up period was 16.9 months. Therapy failed in 1 patient with Stage D2 disease at 12 months, but an additional response to subsequent LHRH agonist therapy was observed. One patient developed National Cancer Institute grade 3 diarrhea and was withdrawn from the study. Seven of 20 men developed mild gynecomastia, and 3 of 20 developed mild transient liver function test elevations. Mean PSA levels were 94.6 +/- 38.2 ng/mL at baseline and 7.8 +/- 2.7 and 4.7 +/- 2.2 ng/mL at the first and second PSA nadir values, respectively (P = 0.034). Mean percent decline in PSA value from baseline was 87.0 +/- 3.1% with flutamide alone and 94.0 +/- 1.9% with both flutamide and finasteride (P = 0.001). Eleven of 20 men were potent at baseline. At the second nadir PSA value, 9 (82%) of 11 were potent, whereas 2 (18%) of 11 were impotent. With longer follow-up (median 16.4 months), 6 (55%) of 11 men were potent, 2 (18%) of 11 were partially potent, and 3 (27%) of 11 were impotent. With flutamide alone, testosterone rose a mean of 77 +/- 14.7% of baseline (P = 0.0001), DHEA fell a mean of 32.4 +/- 4.6% (P = 0.0001), and DHT was unchanged. With the addition of finasteride, testosterone rose another 14 +/- 6% (P = 0.06, not significant), DHEA was unchanged, and DHT fell a mean of 34.8 +/- 4.7% (P = 0.0009).
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We investigated the ability of a mixture of three androgen receptor antagonists to induce disruption of male sexual differentiation after perinatal exposure. The aim was to assess whether the joint effects of vinclozolin, flutamide, and procymidone can be predicted based on dose-response data of the individual chemicals. Chemicals were administered orally to pregnant Wistar rats from gestational day 7 to postnatal day 16. Changes in reproductive organ weights and of androgen-regulated gene expression in prostates from male rat pups were chosen as end points for extensive dose-response studies. With all end points, the joint effects of the three antiandrogens were dose additive. Histological evaluations showed that dysgenesis and hypoplasia of prostates, seminal vesicles, and epididymis were seen with the highest mixture doses. No changes were observed in any single-compound low-dose group for these lesions, nor were there histopathological changes in the testes. Pronounced dysgenesis of external genitals was observed with all doses of the mixture, and severe dysgenesis was seen with a mixture for which the individual compounds caused no effects. A combination of doses of each chemical that on its own did not produce significant reductions in the weights of seminal vesicles and PBP C3 expression induced a marked mixture effect. Thus, antiandrogens cause additive effects on end points of various molecular complexities such as alterations at the morphological and the molecular level. Exposure to antiandrogens, which appears to exert only small effects when judged on a chemical-by-chemical basis, may induce marked responses in concert with, possibly unrecognized, similarly acting chemicals.
The study enrolled 35 young women with acne and irsutism; 31 had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and 4 periferic iperandrogenism. In other 8 young women, sexually active, the flutamide has been associated with the hormonal contraceptive. On the three young women with iperinsulinism it has been decided to associate the flutamide with the metformina. All the young women were checked each month for the liver functional. Before the beginning of the therapy the menstrual situation, the Body Mass Index (BMI), the Ferriman' s and Cremoncini's score, the ovary's ultrasound aspect, and the hormonal order were evaluated. Follow-up was made after three months and after six months after the beginning of the therapy with flutamide 62.5 mg/die.
Flutamide, a widely used nonsteroidal antiandrogen drug for the treatment of prostate cancer, has been associated with rare incidences of hepatotoxicity in patients. It is believed that bioactivation of flutamide and subsequent covalent binding to cellular proteins is responsible for its toxicity. A novel N-S glutathione adduct has been identified in a previous bioactivation study of flutamide (Kang et al., 2007). Due to the extensive first pass metabolism, flutamide metabolites such as 2-hydroxyflutamide and 4-nitro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenylamine (Flu-1) have achieved plasma concentrations higher than the parent in prostate cancer patients. In vitro studies in human liver microsomes were conducted to probe the cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated bioactivation of flutamide metabolites and identify the possible reactive species using reduced glutathione (GSH) as a trapping agent. Several GSH adducts (G1, Flu-1-G1, Flu-1-G2, Flu-6-Gs) derived from the metabolites of flutamide were identified and characterized. A comprehensive bioactivation mechanism was proposed to account for the formation of the observed GSH adducts. Of interest were the formation of a reactive intermediate by the desaturation of the isopropyl group of M5 and the unusual bioactivation of Flu-1. Studies using recombinant P450s suggested that the major P450 isozymes involved in the bioactivation of flutamide and its metabolites were CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19. These findings suggested that, in addition to the direct bioactivation of flutamide, the metabolites of flutamide could also be bioactivated and contribute to flutamide-induced hepatotoxicity.
Although 2 studies totaling 11 cases have indicated some benefit of anti-androgen treatment with flutamide on juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA), it is not part of contemporary practice.
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Previous studies demonstrated a strong association between low androgen levels and reduced capacity to mount an inflammatory response. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are largely not understood.
Twenty-six patients with prostate cancer and elevated serum levels of PSA were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Group A patients (n = 6) were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 3.75 mg leuprorelin acetate depot alone. Group B, C, D and E patients (5 patients in each group) were treated with 375 mg/day of orally administered flutamide combined with leuprorelin. Flutamide was initiated on the day of leuprorelin injection in group B, and at 1, 2 and 4 weeks before leuprorelin injection in groups C, D and E, respectively. Serum PSA and testosterone levels were measured in each patient.