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Clinical literature accessed through MEDLINE (1965 -September 2002), IPA database, and Drug-Reax System. The following search terms were used: selegiline, pseudoephedrine, dextromethorphan, MAOI, and drug interactions. Somerset Pharmaceuticals, the marketers of Eldepryl (selegiline HCl), were also contacted.
We have examined the changes induced by the monoamine oxidase (MAO; EC 18.104.22.168) inhibitors tranylcypromine, clorgyline, and deprenyl on MAO activity and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content in rat brain and blood (plasma and whole blood). The decreases of MAO-A activity observed in the liver and lungs after different doses of clorgyline or tranylcypromine correlated significantly (r > 0.80 in all cases) with the decline of plasma 5-HIAA. This was unaffected by 0.25 and 5 mg kg-1 of deprenyl, indicating that 5-HT was deaminated exclusively in the periphery by MAO-A. It is interesting that very potent and significant correlations (r > 0.75) were found between plasma 5-HIAA and MAO-A activity, 5-HIAA and 5-HT content in brain tissue. These results suggest that plasma 5-HIAA can be used confidently as a peripheral indicator of the inhibition of MAO-A in brain. This may represent a favorable alternative to the analysis of 5-HIAA in CSF in psychiatric patients undergoing antidepressant treatment with nonspecific MAO inhibitors or with the new selective MAO-A inhibitors.
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Human CYP2B6 has been thought to account for a minor portion (<1%) of total hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) content and to have a minor function in human drug metabolism. Recent studies, however, indicate that the average relative contribution of CYP2B6 to total hepatic CYP content ranges from 2% to 10%. An increased interest in CYP2B6 research has been stimulated by the identification of an ever-increasing substrate list for this enzyme, polymorphic and ethnic variations in expression levels, and evidence for cross-regulation with CYP3A4, UGT1A1 and several hepatic drug transporters by the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor. Moreover, 20- to 250-fold interindividual variation in CYP2B6 expression has been demonstrated, presumably due to transcriptional regulation and polymorphisms. These individual differences may result in variable systemic exposure to drugs metabolized by CYP2B6, including the antineoplastics cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, the antiretrovirals nevirapine and efavirenz, the anesthetics propofol and ketamine, the synthetic opioid methadone, and the anti-Parkinsonian selegiline. The potential clinical significance of CYP2B6 further enforces the need for a comprehensive review of this xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme. This communication summarizes recent advances in our understanding of this traditionally neglected enzyme and provides an overall picture of CYP2B6 with respect to expression, localization, substrate-specificity, inhibition, regulation, polymorphisms and clinical significance. Emphasis is given to nuclear receptor mediated transcriptional regulation, genetic polymorphisms, and their clinical significance.
Studies were identified through bibliographic databases, trials registers, gray literature, reference lists, and experts. The authors used the search terms "Lewy or parkinson" and "dementia" through March 2015 and used the following inclusion criteria: participants with diagnoses of Lewy body dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, or Parkinson's disease dementia (or participants' caregivers); investigation of pharmacological management strategies; outcome measures and test scores reported. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by at least two authors. Meta-analyses were conducted, and when studies could not be combined, summaries were provided.
Past studies including our own have confirmed that chronic administration of deprenyl can prolong life spans of at least four different animal species. Pretreatment with the drug for several weeks increases activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in selective brain regions. An up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme activities can also be induced in organs such as the heart, kidney, spleen, and adrenal gland, and all are accompanied by an increase in mRNA levels for SODs in these organs. The effect of deprenyl on enzyme activities has a dose-effect relationship of a typical inverted U shape. A similar inverted U shape also has emerged for the drug's effect on survival of animals. An apparent parallelism observed between these two effects of the drug seems to support our contention that the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes is at least partially responsible for the life-prolonging effect on animals. Further, when a clinically applied dose of the drug for patients with Parkinson's disease was given to monkeys, SOD and CAT activities were increased in striatum of these monkeys, which suggests potential for the drug's applicability to humans. The drug was also found to increase concentrations of cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the above rat organs. Together with past reports demonstrating that deprenyl increases natural killer (NK) cell functions and interferon-gamma, and prevents the occurrence of malignant tumors in rodents and dogs, the mobilization of these humoral factors may therefore be included as possible mechanisms of action of deprenyl for its diverse antiaging and life-prolonging effects. The potentials of propargylamines, (-)deprenyl in particular, for human use as antiaging drugs remain worthy of exploration in the future.
Cabergoline is a synthetic ergoline dopamine agonist with a high affinity for D(2) receptors indicated for use in both early and advanced Parkinson's disease and in hyperprolactinaemic disorders. Following oral administration, peak plasma concentrations of cabergoline are reached within 2-3 hours. Over the 0.5-7mg dose range, cabergoline shows linear pharmacokinetics in healthy adult volunteers and parkinsonian patients. Cabergoline is moderately bound (around 40%) to human plasma proteins in a concentration-independent manner; concomitant administration of highly protein-bound drugs is unlikely to affect its disposition. The absolute bioavailability of cabergoline is unknown. Cabergoline is extensively metabolised by the liver, predominantly via hydrolysis of the acylurea bond of the urea moiety. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism appears to be minimal. The major metabolites identified thus far do not contribute to the therapeutic effect of cabergoline. A significant fraction of the administered dose undergoes a first-pass effect. Less than 4% is excreted unchanged in the urine. The elimination half-life of cabergoline estimated from urinary data of healthy subjects ranges between 63 and 109 hours. Mild to moderate renal and hepatic impairment, administration of food and the use of concomitant antiparkinsonian medications, such as levodopa and selegiline, have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of cabergoline.The pharmacokinetic properties of cabergoline allow once daily administration in patients with Parkinson's disease and twice weekly administration in patients with hyperprolactinaemia, making this drug advantageous over other dopaminergic agents in term of both therapeutic compliance and better symptom control.
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We undertook an analysis of the hazard functions derived from results published by the Parkinson Study Group following their investigation of deprenyl. Our findings indicate that the action of deprenyl is transient rather than sustained. We also infer that this effect may be mediated through alleviation of symptoms rather than by neuroprotection.
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The difference in time course between the psychostimulant and physical effects suggests more than one mode of action.
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This review found mixed results, therefore evidence of the efficacy of psychostimulants for cocaine dependence is inconclusive. Nevertheless promising results exist for methadone maintained dual heroin-cocaine addicts and for some specific drugs such as dexamphetamine and bupropion.
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This study of patients with PD who were new to PD drug therapy examined patient compliance and persistence, by drug, to provide a comprehensive investigation of medication-taking behavior in PD.
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Clinical trials for treatment of Parkinson's disease suggest that (-)deprenyl (selegiline), an inhibitor of type B monoamine oxidase, may slow the disease progression. However, the mechanism underlying protection of nigral dopamine neurons by selegiline remains an enigma. Recently, rasagiline, (R)(+)-N-propargyl-1-aminoindan, was reported to be neuroprotective by in vivo and in vitro experiments, which is another selective irreversible inhibitor of type B monoamine oxidase and not metabolized into amphetamine-like derivatives as in the case of selegiline. In this paper, the mechanism of the neuroprotection was examined using human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite generated from SIN-1. After treatment with SIN-1, the apoptotic DNA damage in the cells was quantified by a single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay and by staining with Hoechst 33342. Change in mitochondrial membrane potential, Deltapsim, was measured by use of a fluorescent indicator, JC-1. Rasagiline reduced apoptosis with much more potency than selegiline, and the protection required 20 min pre-incubation before SIN-1 treatment. The protection by rasagiline was proved to be due to stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential against the collapse induced by SIN-1, whereas rasagiline did not scavenge peroxynitrite directly. The studies on structure-activity relationship showed that a propargylamine group and a hydrophobic group with an adequate intermediate space were required for the protection. These results suggest that rasagiline may protect declining neurons through its anti-apoptotic activity in neurodegenerative diseases.
The measured arterial input function values for smokers and nonsmokers are significantly different for these two tracer pairs for nonsmokers and smokers particularly for the first few minutes after radiotracer injection. Model estimates of k(3) that indicate that smokers have lower lung MAO A and B activity than nonsmokers are robust and insensitive to variations in model assumptions for relative fractions of lung tissue, blood and air in the PET voxel. Although we have only investigated the behavior of [(11)C]clorgyline and [(11)C]l-deprenyl and their deuterium-substituted analogs in this report, the extent to which reduced arterial input and longer lung retention also hold for other tracers for subjects who smoke merits investigation.
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Fluoxetine and L-deprenyl were prescribed concurrently in a 19-year-old female with Huntington's disease. The patient showed significant affective, behavioral, and motoric improvements and there was no adverse effect resulting from this combination. Concomitant use of L-deprenyl in low doses and fluoxetine may be safe and beneficial in certain clinical situations, although further study is needed.
In an effort to explore the contribution of the metabolites of pargyline towards the in vivo inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO), the effects of pargyline and its major metabolites on the production and metabolism of a number of biogenic amines were studied in rats. The administration of pargyline gave rise to three major ethyl acetate extractable metabolites: benzylamine, N-methylbenzylamine and N-propargylbenzylamine (NPB). Only NPB demonstrated in vivo monoamine oxidase inhibitory properties at an acute dose of 30 mg kg-1. The acute effects of pargyline, NPB, and deprenyl on urine and brain concentrations of a number of biogenic amines (phenylethylamine (PEA), m- and p-tyramine, noradrenaline (NA), dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites were evaluated. Increased urine and brain concentrations of PEA were considered to represent in vivo inhibition of type B MAO while decreased concentrations of NA and 5-HT metabolites were regarded as indicators of an in vivo inhibition of MAO type A. NPB, like deprenyl and pargyline, significantly increased urine and brain PEA while only pargyline reduced 5-HT metabolism, suggesting that the metabolism of pargyline to NPB may contribute towards the MAO type B inhibitory effects of pargyline in vivo. Since the therapeutic benefits of MAO inhibitors in clinical practice usually require some period of chronic treatment, the chronic effects of repeated 14 daily doses of the above MAO inhibitors on central and peripheral biogenic amines were evaluated at the following times: during treatment, one day and five days after termination of treatment. The biochemical changes observed during the course of chronic NPB, pargyline and deprenyl treatments generally follow the expected in vitro characteristics of these drugs, but the detailed changes observed suggest clear differences. For example, the in vivo effect of pargyline on urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion was considerably weaker than its effect on the excretion of NA and dopamine metabolites. These changes are opposite to the in vitro effects of pargyline on 5-HT, dopamine and NA oxidative deamination. Inhibitions of the metabolism of all the amines studied were clearly observed during chronic MAOI treatments, but these effects were less evident five days after the end of treatment, suggesting an almost normal metabolism of biogenic amines. It is concluded that while MAO inhibitors may be the primary compound responsible for MAO inhibition, the effects of their metabolites in some cases may also play equally important roles in the regulation of monoamines both in the periphery and the brain. Thus, as demonstrated here, NPB was found to be as potent as pargyline and deprenyl with regard to its in vivo MAO type B inhibitory properties.
Among the 151 adolescents, with a mean age of 14.6 years (SD = 1.6) and a mean baseline CDRS-R total of 60.6 (SD = 12.1), 68.2% were females, 50.3% was Caucasian, and 39.7% had a history of recurrent depression. Placebo response rate was 58.3%. Based on the logistic mixed model, the re-specified equation with the highest discriminatory ability to estimate the probability of placebo response was APICS = age + (0.32 × CDRS-R Total at baseline) + (-2.85 × if female) + (-5.50 × if history of recurrent depression) + (-5.85 × if non-Caucasian). The AUC for this model was 0.59 (p = .049). Within a Bayesian decision-theoretic framework, in 95.5% of the time, the 10,000 posterior Monte Carlo samples suggested that as APICS decreased the probability of placebo response increased. The observed APICS and related probability of responding to placebo in this adolescent sample ranged from 14.1 = 74.1% (in placebo responders) to 39.1 = 41.8% (in placebo non-responders).
A double-staining method was applied to cryosections of human spinal cord from patients who died with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and corresponding controls in order to investigate cellular content of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). 3H-L-Deprenyl emulsion autoradiography was used in combination with histochemical methods for the detection of astrocytes and monocytes/microglia. In the ALS spinal cords an increased number of astrocytes as well as an increased content of MAO-B in reactive species of astrocytes was demonstrated. No significant 3H-L-deprenyl binding was observed in cells derived from the mesoderm, e.g. monocytes or microglia. Furthermore, a sub-population of reactive astrocytes that contained low levels of MAO-B was observed in spinal sections. These findings were further substantiated by studies performed on primary astrocyte cultures.
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The present study examined the effect of the highly potent and selective MAO B inhibitor PF9601N on L-DOPA-induced rotational behavior in unilateral nigrostriatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Three doses of PF9601N (20, 40 and 60mg/kg) were administered 30 min before an injection of L-DOPA (25mg/kg), and both contralateral and ipsilateral rotational behavior was measured. In addition, we also studied the effect produced by another MAO B inhibitor, deprenyl (20mg/kg), the MAO A inhibitor, clorgyline (20mg/kg), and the dopamine reuptake inhibitor, GBR2909 (7.5 mg/kg) on L-DOPA-induced rotational behavior. The results showed that PF9601N plus L-DOPA significantly enhanced the duration of contralateral rotational behavior with respect to L-DOPA plus vehicle in a dose-related manner. At the dose of 40 and 60mg/kg, PF9601N produced significantly more overall contralateral turning than L-DOPA plus vehicle, and at the dose of 60mg/kg, PF9601N produced significantly more turning behavior than L-DOPA plus deprenyl. These results suggest that PF9601N may be used as a novel tool in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The compound 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which produces symptoms resembling Parkinson's disease in humans, acts both as a substrate and an enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of the B-form of monoamine oxidase from rat liver. Analysis of the inhibitory process showed the compound to be considerably more efficient as a substrate than as an irreversible inhibitor, with about 17000 mol of product being formed per mol of enzyme inactivated. The half-time of the inhibitory process was about 22 min. With the A-form of the enzyme, the compound had a lower Km value and a considerably lower maximum velocity than the corresponding values obtained with the B-form. Under the conditions used in the present work the inhibition of the A-form of the enzyme was largely reversible.
To examine the biochemical effects of 10-30 mg/day L-deprenyl, measurement of 24-hr urinary output of phenylethylamine (PEA), 3-methoxy 4-hydroxy phenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), and L-deprenyl's amphetamine metabolites were carried out before and during the treatment of atypical depressives. Platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was also assessed. With L-deprenyl 10-30 mg/day, the expected MAO B inhibition occurred, as indicated by significant increase in urinary PEA excretion and virtual disappearance of platelet MAO activity. Twenty-five to 33% of the daily dose of L-deprenyl was recovered as urinary methamphetamine or amphetamine. Excretion of MHPG was significantly decreased with L-deprenyl 10-20 mg/day. Overall, the results suggest that L-deprenyl's antidepressant effects are mediated by some mechanism other than, or in addition to, MAO B inhibition.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study was undertaken in 10 neuroleptic-treated male schizophrenic outpatients to assess the effect of coadministration of selegiline 15 mg/day for 3 weeks on their sexual dysfunction. Selegiline was not found to be effective in improving any domain of sexual functioning despite a significant decrease in prolactin levels (P < 0.05). This study emphasizes the complex nature of sexual dysfunction in schizophrenic-treated patients and the need for placebo-controlled trials for this condition.