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The Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) comprises a number of rare malignant tumors. Standard first-line treatment for patients with these tumors includes chemotherapy with a five-drug regimen of vincristine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin(®)) and cyclophosphamide, alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (VAC/IE). In cases of inadequate response, there are a number of second-line regimens available. However, further treatment options are required for those patients with disease unresponsive to standard treatment. Trabectedin is a novel treatment option for patients with ESFT. The present study reports the case of a Caucasian 69-year-old female patient who presented with a soft tissue mass on the chest wall that had developed 7 months earlier. A computed tomography scan revealed a 9×8×7-cm mass on the anterior chest wall above the pectoral muscle. Histopathological evaluations and molecular analysis indicated that it was consistent with a metastatic extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma. The patient was treated with an alternating VAC/IE regimen; however, an inadequate response was observed. The patient received second-line treatment with a gemcitabine and dacarbazine combination regimen, but the disease progressed. Subsequently, treatment with trabectedin (1.5 mg/m(2) as a 24-h continuous infusion every 3 weeks) was initiated. Trabectedin treatment resulted in long-lasting (18 months) progression-free survival. It is vital that novel drugs continue to being developed for patients with ESFT following progression subsequent to standard chemotherapy. The current report presents a case of a patient with metastatic, pre-treated Ewing's sarcoma achieving disease stabilization with trabectedin. Based on these results and the observed tolerability profile, trabectedin represents an alternative treatment for patients with ESFT. Further studies are required in order to determine the efficacy of trabectedin as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. It is also important to identify which tumor subtypes, specific translocations and patient profiles will benefit the most from treatment with trabectedin.
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Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the lung is an extremely rare disease. This disease is a great challenge for pneumologists due to its nonspecific clinical presentations and radiological findings. Appropriate invasive biopsy and immunohistochemistry are important for diagnosis. There is currently no standard treatment.
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Despite moderate heterogeneity among the studies, this pooled analysis confirmed the deleterious effects on overall survival of emotional disorders ("depressed", as assessed by investigators or the HADS score), and decreased functionality (IADL score), in addition to FIGO stage.
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Lifetime exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal damage and an increase in duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To assess whether these tumors could be the result of a direct mutagenic or genotoxic mode of action, we conducted a GLP-compliant 7-day drinking water study to assess crypt health along the entire length of the duodenum. Mice were exposed to water (vehicle control), 1.4, 21, or 180 ppm Cr(VI) via drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Crypt enterocytes in Swiss roll sections were scored as normal, mitotic, apoptotic, karyorrhectic, or as having micronuclei. A single oral gavage of 50mg/kg cyclophosphamide served as a positive control for micronucleus induction. Exposure to 21 and 180 ppm Cr(VI) significantly increased the number of crypt enterocytes. Micronuclei and γ-H2AX immunostaining were not elevated in the crypts of Cr(VI)-treated mice. In contrast, treatment with cyclophosphamide significantly increased numbers of crypt micronuclei and qualitatively increased γ-H2AX immunostaining. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy revealed the presence of strong Cr fluorescence in duodenal villi, but negligible Cr fluorescence in the crypt compartment. Together, these data indicate that Cr(VI) does not adversely effect the crypt compartment where intestinal stem cells reside, and provide additional evidence that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal cancer in B6C3F1 mice involves chronic villous wounding resulting in compensatory crypt enterocyte hyperplasia.
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Cyclophosphamide (CYC) is an immunosuppressant drug widely used to treat various diseases including lupus nephritis, but its efficacy highly varies from individual to individual. This pharmacogenomics association study searched for genetic variations associated with CYC efficacy.
This study paves the way for qualitative studies to ascertain how parents are informed about the possible side effects such as hearing loss because of chemotherapy treatment. The mode in which parents are informed about the possible side effects related to chemotherapy is critical, considering that a high number of children are still receiving chemotherapeutic drugs that are directly linked to hearing loss.
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Almost all oncologists (95%) reported awareness of cardiac dysfunction as an LE of doxorubicin and peripheral neuropathy as an LE of paclitaxel (97%) and oxaliplatin (97%). These LEs were reported by 55%, 27%, and 22% of PCPs, respectively. Most oncologists reported awareness of premature menopause (71%) and secondary malignancies (62%) as LEs of cyclophosphamide, compared with only 15% and 17% of PCPs, respectively. Main LEs associated with all four agents were identified by 65% of oncologists and only 6% of PCPs.
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Obesity is a well-known risk factor for the development of several types of cancer including lymphomas, but its influence on the course of disease is fairly unknown. Recently, a retrospective cancer registry analysis demonstrated significantly prolonged survival for overweight and obese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The study population almost exclusively consisted of male US American patients of lower socioeconomic status and one-fifth of patients received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy without rituximab. Therefore, it remains unclear if these results can be extrapolated to the general DLBCL population.
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LR rates were analyzed in 462 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma who underwent surgical excision and adjuvant RT at five Scandinavian sarcoma centers from 1998 to 2009. Medical records were reviewed for dose fractionation parameters and to determine the location of the LR relative to the radiation portals.
Relapse remains a major cause of mortality among patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The impact of donor type on post-relapse survival (PRS) has not been widely examined. We compared the survival outcomes for patients relapsing after haploidentical donor transplantation (HIDT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide with those relapsing after matched-related donor transplantation (MRDT) or matched-unrelated donor transplantation (MUDT) at our institution. Two hundred and thirty-seven consecutive HCT recipients with relapse occurring after HIDT (N=48), MUDT (N=87) and MRDT (N=102) were included in this analysis. Median age was 49 years (19-77 years) and the median time to relapse was 156 days (12-2465) after HCT. HIDT recipients had similar median time to relapse (5.8 vs 4.8 vs 5.5 months, P=0.638) compared with MUDT and MRDT, respectively. One-year PRS was worse among HIDT recipients compared with MRDT and MUDT (17% vs 46% vs 40%, P<0.05). In a multivariate analysis, time to relapse (<3 vs >3 months post transplant), no use of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) following relapse, higher Dana Farber disease risk index and HCT comorbidity index scores at the time of transplant and delayed platelet engraftment post transplant were all predictive of worse PRS. This analysis shows that 1-year PRS is inferior among HIDT when compared with MRDT or MUDT. Lower use of DLI after HIDT may have contributed to this inferior survival.
This study aimed to clarify the association between the TP53 rs1625895 polymorphism and the efficiency of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) therapy in 106 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). All patients received six to eight courses of R-CHOP therapy as a first-line treatment. The rs1625895 polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The G/G genotype of the TP53 rs1625895 polymorphism was shown to be associated with a high probability of R-CHOP therapy failure in DLBCL patients according to the probability of remission as well as 5-year overall and relapse-free survivals.
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Bladder sensation is mediated by lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion neurons and is essential for normal voiding and nociception. Numerous electrophysiological, structural, and molecular changes occur in these neurons following inflammation. Defining which neurons undergo these changes is critical for understanding the mechanism underlying bladder pain and dysfunction. Our first aim was to define the chemical classes of bladder sensory neurons that express receptors for the endogenous modulators of nociceptor sensitivity, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), the related neurotrophic factor, artemin, and estrogens. Bladder sensory neurons of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were identified with retrograde tracer. Diverse groups of neurons express these receptors, and some neurons express receptors for both neurotrophic factors and estrogens. Lumbar and sacral sensory neurons showed some distinct differences in their expression profile. We also distinguished the chemical profile of myelinated and unmyelinated bladder sensory neurons. Our second aim was to identify bladder sensory neurons likely to be undergoing structural remodeling during inflammation. Following systemic administration of cyclophosphamide (CYP), its renal metabolite acrolein causes transient urothelial loss, exposing local afferent terminals to a toxic environment. CYP induced expression of the injury-related immediate-early gene product, activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), in a small population of sacral nitrergic bladder sensory neurons. In conclusion, we have defined the bladder sensory neurons that express receptors for GDNF, artemin and estrogens. Our study has also identified a sub-population of sacral sensory neurons that are likely to be undergoing structural remodeling during acute inflammation of the bladder. Together these results contribute to increased understanding of the neurons that are known to be involved in pain modulation and hyperreflexia during inflammation.
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Our results indicate that the same process of osteoporosis caused by advancing age might occur in young women treated with docetaxel + cyclophosphamide (TC) and doxorubicin + cyclophosphamide (AC). 3D microtomography was shown to be an outstanding technique for bone analysis.
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Intrinsic subtypes and the DBCG-RT profile was determined from microarray analysis based on fresh frozen tissue from 191 patients included in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 82bc trial. Corresponding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was available from 146 of these patients and from another 890 DBCG82bc patients. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, CK5/6, Ki-67 and EGFR were combined into immunohistochemical approximations of the intrinsic subtypes. Endpoint considered was loco-regional recurrence (LRR).
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This retrospective case series provides Class IV evidence that bortezomib reduces antibody titers and improves the clinical course of patients with severe anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
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The use of lower doses of corticosteroids and an aggressive management of infectious complications, allows for an acceptable safety profile in patients treated with CYC.
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Data from 11 patients with THRLBCL were matched to 33 patients with DLBCL-NOS. Patients were matched by five established prognostic factors of the International Prognostic Index, including age, Ann Arbor stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, serum lactate dehydrogenase level and the number of extranodal involvement. There was no significant difference in the complete response rate to R-CHOP between THRLBCL (91%, 10/11) and DLBCL-NOS (97%, 32/33; p = 0.442). The 3-year event-free survival rate was 81% for both THRLBCL and DLBCL-NOS (p = 0.813). The 3-year overall survival rates were 75 and 81%, respectively (p = 0.719).
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A total of thirty patients who had received cisplatin based chemotherapy/chemoradiotherapy as a primary treatment received ifosfamide 2500 mg/m2 days 1-3, mesna 2500 mg/m2 days 1-3, doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 day 1 (IMA), repeated every 21 days. Eligible patients had ECOG PS<2, measurable recurrent or metastatic disease, with adequate renal, hepatic and hematologic functions.
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Fifteen patients, with a median age of 19 years having severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) underwent human leucocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using conditioning regimens containing cyclophosphamide with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or a combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with or without ATG during December 2007 to May 2013. Cyclosporine and mini methotrexate were used as graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Graft source included peripheral blood stem cells in 11, bone marrow in 3 and both in 1. One patient had primary graft failure while 14 patients were engrafted with a median neutrophil and platelet engraftment time of 13.5 days. One patient had secondary graft rejection. Acute GVHD occurred in 3 patients and chronic GVHD in 4. One year death rate in engrafted patients was 14.28 %. At a mean follow-up of 21.2 months, 12 (80 %) are alive and well. One of the donors was a patient of haemophilia but the disease did not occur in the recipient. The graft was successful and the recipient is alive till date.
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We report a very rare case of malignant invasive thymoma with intraluminal growth through the thymic veins into the superior vena cava (SVC), with intracardiac right atrium extension. A 44-year old female with SVC syndrome underwent a radical thymectomy with pericardiectomy and complete removal of the endovascular and endocardiac neoplastic thrombus by a longitudinal incision starting from the atrium and extending along the SVC. The left anonymous vein was sacrificed, and the SVC and atrium were repaired with a continuous 5-0 Prolene suture. The hospital stay was uneventful. Postoperatively, the patient received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (three cycles of cisplatin, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide and subsequent mediastinal irradiation with 50 Gy). Nine months after surgery, no recurrences were seen and the patient is still well. This thymoma presentation with intravascular growth without direct vascular wall infiltration, although very rare, is possible and the management may be challenging. In our case, a primary radical operation was considered mandatory due to the clinical symptoms and the risk of neoplastic embolization. The collection of other similar cases could better clarify the role of adjuvant therapy.
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Brentuximab vedotin, administered sequentially with CHOP or in combination with CHP, had a manageable safety profile and exhibited substantial antitumor activity in newly diagnosed patients with CD30(+) PTCL. A randomized phase III trial is under way, comparing BV+CHP with CHOP (clinical trial No. NCT01777152).
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Despite originating from several different tissues, soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are often grouped together as they share mesenchymal origin and treatment guidelines. Also, with some exceptions, a common denominator is that when the tumor cannot be cured with surgery, the efficacy of current therapies is poor and new treatment modalities are thus needed. We have studied the combination of a capsid-modified oncolytic adenovirus CGTG-102 (Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF) with doxorubicin, with or without ifosfamide, the preferred first-line chemotherapeutic options for most types of STS. We show that CGTG-102 and doxorubicin plus ifosfamide together are able to increase cell killing of Syrian hamster STS cells over single agents, as well as upregulate immunogenic cell death markers. When tested in vivo against established STS tumors in fully immunocompetent Syrian hamsters, the combination was highly effective. CGTG-102 and doxorubicin (without ifosfamide) resulted in synergistic antitumor efficacy against human STS xenografts in comparison with single agent treatments. Doxorubicin increased adenoviral replication in human and hamster STS cells, potentially contributing to the observed therapeutic synergy. In conclusion, the preclinical data generated here support clinical translation of the combination of CGTG-102 and doxorubicin, or doxorubicin plus ifosfamide, for the treatment of STS, and provide clues on the mechanisms of synergy.
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A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for the evaluation of rapidly progressive renal dysfunction with serum creatinine of 2.7 mg/dl and urinary protein of 1.5 g daily. C-reactive protein (CRP) was 0.1 mg/dl. Kidney-limited intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL) localized to the glomerular capillaries was diagnosed because the intraglomerular cells were positive for CD20 and CD79a, while there was no positivity in the extraglomerular kidney and extrarenal organs. Treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunomycin, vincristine, and prednisolone was started, and the patient has since been doing well. When IVL is limited to the intraglomerular capillaries, CRP may not be elevated.
Mechanic's hands may be considered a marker of visceral involvement and should be sought in any instance of suspected antisynthetase syndrome flare-up.
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Our results show that a RAL-based regimen is safe and effective in patients requiring chemotherapy, irrespective of type and of duration of chemotherapy.
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Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is characterised by poor early response to conventional induction treatment. Consolidation phase IB, based on cyclophosphamide, 6-mercaptopurine, and ara-C at conventional (non-high) doses is effective in reducing minimal residual disease. Although the number of patients and observational time are limited, patients with early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with current BFM stratification and treatment strategy have a favourable outcome compared with earlier reports. The role of innovative therapies and haemopoietic stem cell therapy in early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia needs to be assessed.
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The detection rate was 70% in the BSC versus 15% in APOTECAchemo. During manual preparation of admixtures using BSC contamination with CP was below 0.001 ng/cm(2) at most locations, but significant on gloves (0.0004-0.0967 ng/cm(2)) and the majority (70%) of infusion bags (<0.0004-2.89 ng/cm(2)). During robotic preparation by APOTECAchemo, gloves (1 of 8: 0.0007 ng/cm(2)) and infusion bags (3 of 20: 0.0005, 0.0019, 0.0094 ng/cm(2)) were considerably less contaminated. Residual contamination was found on the surfaces under the dosing device in the compounding area (0.0293-0.1603 ng/cm(2)) inside the robotic system.
To evaluate the effect of first-line and subsequent therapies, the outcome of 1,558 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia from five prospective phase II/III trials conducted between 1999 and 2010 was analyzed. The 3-year overall survival rate was higher after first-line treatment with chemoimmunotherapies such as fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab (87.9%) or bendamustine/rituximab (90.7%) compared to chemotherapies without an antibody (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide: 84.6%; fludarabine: 77.5%; chlorambucil: 77.4%). Furthermore, the median overall survival was longer in patients receiving at least one antibody-containing regimen in any treatment line (94.4 months) compared to the survival in patients who never received an antibody (84.3 months, P<0.0001). Univariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that patients who did receive antibody treatment had a 1.42-fold higher risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval: 1.185-1.694). Therapies administered at relapse were very heterogeneous. Only 55 of 368 patients (14.9%) who started second-line treatment >24 months after first-line therapy repeated the first-line regimen. Among 315 patients requiring treatment ≤24 months after first-line therapy, cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone with or without rituximab as well as alemtuzumab were the most commonly used therapies. In these early relapsing patients, the median overall survival was shorter following therapies containing an anthracycline and/or three or more cytotoxic agents (e.g. cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone or fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/mitoxantrone, 30.0 months) compared to single agent chemotherapy (e.g. fludarabine; 39.6 months) and standard chemoimmunotherapy (e.g. fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab: 61.6 months). In conclusion, the analysis confirms the superior efficacy of chemoimmunotherapies in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Moreover, the use of aggressive chemo(immuno)therapy combinations in patients with an early relapse does not offer any benefit when compared to less intensive therapies. Trial identifier: NCT00281918, ISRCTN75653261, ISRCTN36294212, NCT00274989 and NCT00147901.
N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), serum troponin T, and difference between involved and uninvolved immunoglobulin free light chain values are used to classify patients into four groups of similar size; median survivals are 94.1, 40.3, 14.0, and 5.8 months.
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Accurate identification of patients likely to achieve long-progression-free survival (PFS) after chemoimmunotherapy is essential given the availability of less toxic alternatives, such as ibrutinib. Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) achieved a high response rate, but continued relapses were seen in initial reports. We reviewed the original 300 patient phase 2 FCR study to identify long-term disease-free survivors. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed posttreatment by a polymerase chain reaction-based ligase chain reaction assay (sensitivity 0.01%). At the median follow-up of 12.8 years, PFS was 30.9% (median PFS, 6.4 years). The 12.8-year PFS was 53.9% for patients with mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) gene (IGHV-M) and 8.7% for patients with unmutated IGHV (IGHV-UM). 50.7% of patients with IGHV-M achieved MRD-negativity posttreatment; of these, PFS was 79.8% at 12.8 years. A plateau was seen on the PFS curve in patients with IGHV-M, with no relapses beyond 10.4 years in 42 patients (total follow-up 105.4 patient-years). On multivariable analysis, IGHV-UM (hazard ratio, 3.37 [2.18-5.21]; P < .001) and del(17p) by conventional karyotyping (hazard ratio, 7.96 [1.02-61.92]; P = .048) were significantly associated with inferior PFS. Fifteen patients with IGHV-M had 4-color MRD flow cytometry (sensitivity 0.01%) performed in peripheral blood, at a median of 12.8 years posttreatment (range, 9.5-14.7). All were MRD-negative. The high rate of very long-term PFS in patients with IGHV-M after FCR argues for the continued use of chemoimmunotherapy in this patient subgroup outside clinical trials; alternative strategies may be preferred in patients with IGHV-UM, to limit long-term toxicity.