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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)

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Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel


Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.


Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.


Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.


If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

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The Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) comprises a number of rare malignant tumors. Standard first-line treatment for patients with these tumors includes chemotherapy with a five-drug regimen of vincristine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin(®)) and cyclophosphamide, alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (VAC/IE). In cases of inadequate response, there are a number of second-line regimens available. However, further treatment options are required for those patients with disease unresponsive to standard treatment. Trabectedin is a novel treatment option for patients with ESFT. The present study reports the case of a Caucasian 69-year-old female patient who presented with a soft tissue mass on the chest wall that had developed 7 months earlier. A computed tomography scan revealed a 9×8×7-cm mass on the anterior chest wall above the pectoral muscle. Histopathological evaluations and molecular analysis indicated that it was consistent with a metastatic extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma. The patient was treated with an alternating VAC/IE regimen; however, an inadequate response was observed. The patient received second-line treatment with a gemcitabine and dacarbazine combination regimen, but the disease progressed. Subsequently, treatment with trabectedin (1.5 mg/m(2) as a 24-h continuous infusion every 3 weeks) was initiated. Trabectedin treatment resulted in long-lasting (18 months) progression-free survival. It is vital that novel drugs continue to being developed for patients with ESFT following progression subsequent to standard chemotherapy. The current report presents a case of a patient with metastatic, pre-treated Ewing's sarcoma achieving disease stabilization with trabectedin. Based on these results and the observed tolerability profile, trabectedin represents an alternative treatment for patients with ESFT. Further studies are required in order to determine the efficacy of trabectedin as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. It is also important to identify which tumor subtypes, specific translocations and patient profiles will benefit the most from treatment with trabectedin.

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Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the lung is an extremely rare disease. This disease is a great challenge for pneumologists due to its nonspecific clinical presentations and radiological findings. Appropriate invasive biopsy and immunohistochemistry are important for diagnosis. There is currently no standard treatment.

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Despite moderate heterogeneity among the studies, this pooled analysis confirmed the deleterious effects on overall survival of emotional disorders ("depressed", as assessed by investigators or the HADS score), and decreased functionality (IADL score), in addition to FIGO stage.

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Lifetime exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal damage and an increase in duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To assess whether these tumors could be the result of a direct mutagenic or genotoxic mode of action, we conducted a GLP-compliant 7-day drinking water study to assess crypt health along the entire length of the duodenum. Mice were exposed to water (vehicle control), 1.4, 21, or 180 ppm Cr(VI) via drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Crypt enterocytes in Swiss roll sections were scored as normal, mitotic, apoptotic, karyorrhectic, or as having micronuclei. A single oral gavage of 50mg/kg cyclophosphamide served as a positive control for micronucleus induction. Exposure to 21 and 180 ppm Cr(VI) significantly increased the number of crypt enterocytes. Micronuclei and γ-H2AX immunostaining were not elevated in the crypts of Cr(VI)-treated mice. In contrast, treatment with cyclophosphamide significantly increased numbers of crypt micronuclei and qualitatively increased γ-H2AX immunostaining. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy revealed the presence of strong Cr fluorescence in duodenal villi, but negligible Cr fluorescence in the crypt compartment. Together, these data indicate that Cr(VI) does not adversely effect the crypt compartment where intestinal stem cells reside, and provide additional evidence that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal cancer in B6C3F1 mice involves chronic villous wounding resulting in compensatory crypt enterocyte hyperplasia.

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Cyclophosphamide (CYC) is an immunosuppressant drug widely used to treat various diseases including lupus nephritis, but its efficacy highly varies from individual to individual. This pharmacogenomics association study searched for genetic variations associated with CYC efficacy.

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This study paves the way for qualitative studies to ascertain how parents are informed about the possible side effects such as hearing loss because of chemotherapy treatment. The mode in which parents are informed about the possible side effects related to chemotherapy is critical, considering that a high number of children are still receiving chemotherapeutic drugs that are directly linked to hearing loss.

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Almost all oncologists (95%) reported awareness of cardiac dysfunction as an LE of doxorubicin and peripheral neuropathy as an LE of paclitaxel (97%) and oxaliplatin (97%). These LEs were reported by 55%, 27%, and 22% of PCPs, respectively. Most oncologists reported awareness of premature menopause (71%) and secondary malignancies (62%) as LEs of cyclophosphamide, compared with only 15% and 17% of PCPs, respectively. Main LEs associated with all four agents were identified by 65% of oncologists and only 6% of PCPs.

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Obesity is a well-known risk factor for the development of several types of cancer including lymphomas, but its influence on the course of disease is fairly unknown. Recently, a retrospective cancer registry analysis demonstrated significantly prolonged survival for overweight and obese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The study population almost exclusively consisted of male US American patients of lower socioeconomic status and one-fifth of patients received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy without rituximab. Therefore, it remains unclear if these results can be extrapolated to the general DLBCL population.

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LR rates were analyzed in 462 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma who underwent surgical excision and adjuvant RT at five Scandinavian sarcoma centers from 1998 to 2009. Medical records were reviewed for dose fractionation parameters and to determine the location of the LR relative to the radiation portals.

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Relapse remains a major cause of mortality among patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The impact of donor type on post-relapse survival (PRS) has not been widely examined. We compared the survival outcomes for patients relapsing after haploidentical donor transplantation (HIDT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide with those relapsing after matched-related donor transplantation (MRDT) or matched-unrelated donor transplantation (MUDT) at our institution. Two hundred and thirty-seven consecutive HCT recipients with relapse occurring after HIDT (N=48), MUDT (N=87) and MRDT (N=102) were included in this analysis. Median age was 49 years (19-77 years) and the median time to relapse was 156 days (12-2465) after HCT. HIDT recipients had similar median time to relapse (5.8 vs 4.8 vs 5.5 months, P=0.638) compared with MUDT and MRDT, respectively. One-year PRS was worse among HIDT recipients compared with MRDT and MUDT (17% vs 46% vs 40%, P<0.05). In a multivariate analysis, time to relapse (<3 vs >3 months post transplant), no use of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) following relapse, higher Dana Farber disease risk index and HCT comorbidity index scores at the time of transplant and delayed platelet engraftment post transplant were all predictive of worse PRS. This analysis shows that 1-year PRS is inferior among HIDT when compared with MRDT or MUDT. Lower use of DLI after HIDT may have contributed to this inferior survival.

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This study aimed to clarify the association between the TP53 rs1625895 polymorphism and the efficiency of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) therapy in 106 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). All patients received six to eight courses of R-CHOP therapy as a first-line treatment. The rs1625895 polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The G/G genotype of the TP53 rs1625895 polymorphism was shown to be associated with a high probability of R-CHOP therapy failure in DLBCL patients according to the probability of remission as well as 5-year overall and relapse-free survivals.

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Bladder sensation is mediated by lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion neurons and is essential for normal voiding and nociception. Numerous electrophysiological, structural, and molecular changes occur in these neurons following inflammation. Defining which neurons undergo these changes is critical for understanding the mechanism underlying bladder pain and dysfunction. Our first aim was to define the chemical classes of bladder sensory neurons that express receptors for the endogenous modulators of nociceptor sensitivity, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), the related neurotrophic factor, artemin, and estrogens. Bladder sensory neurons of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were identified with retrograde tracer. Diverse groups of neurons express these receptors, and some neurons express receptors for both neurotrophic factors and estrogens. Lumbar and sacral sensory neurons showed some distinct differences in their expression profile. We also distinguished the chemical profile of myelinated and unmyelinated bladder sensory neurons. Our second aim was to identify bladder sensory neurons likely to be undergoing structural remodeling during inflammation. Following systemic administration of cyclophosphamide (CYP), its renal metabolite acrolein causes transient urothelial loss, exposing local afferent terminals to a toxic environment. CYP induced expression of the injury-related immediate-early gene product, activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), in a small population of sacral nitrergic bladder sensory neurons. In conclusion, we have defined the bladder sensory neurons that express receptors for GDNF, artemin and estrogens. Our study has also identified a sub-population of sacral sensory neurons that are likely to be undergoing structural remodeling during acute inflammation of the bladder. Together these results contribute to increased understanding of the neurons that are known to be involved in pain modulation and hyperreflexia during inflammation.

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Our results indicate that the same process of osteoporosis caused by advancing age might occur in young women treated with docetaxel + cyclophosphamide (TC) and doxorubicin + cyclophosphamide (AC). 3D microtomography was shown to be an outstanding technique for bone analysis.

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Intrinsic subtypes and the DBCG-RT profile was determined from microarray analysis based on fresh frozen tissue from 191 patients included in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 82bc trial. Corresponding formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was available from 146 of these patients and from another 890 DBCG82bc patients. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, CK5/6, Ki-67 and EGFR were combined into immunohistochemical approximations of the intrinsic subtypes. Endpoint considered was loco-regional recurrence (LRR).

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This retrospective case series provides Class IV evidence that bortezomib reduces antibody titers and improves the clinical course of patients with severe anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

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The use of lower doses of corticosteroids and an aggressive management of infectious complications, allows for an acceptable safety profile in patients treated with CYC.

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Data from 11 patients with THRLBCL were matched to 33 patients with DLBCL-NOS. Patients were matched by five established prognostic factors of the International Prognostic Index, including age, Ann Arbor stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, serum lactate dehydrogenase level and the number of extranodal involvement. There was no significant difference in the complete response rate to R-CHOP between THRLBCL (91%, 10/11) and DLBCL-NOS (97%, 32/33; p = 0.442). The 3-year event-free survival rate was 81% for both THRLBCL and DLBCL-NOS (p = 0.813). The 3-year overall survival rates were 75 and 81%, respectively (p = 0.719).

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A total of thirty patients who had received cisplatin based chemotherapy/chemoradiotherapy as a primary treatment received ifosfamide 2500 mg/m2 days 1-3, mesna 2500 mg/m2 days 1-3, doxorubicin 60 mg/m2 day 1 (IMA), repeated every 21 days. Eligible patients had ECOG PS<2, measurable recurrent or metastatic disease, with adequate renal, hepatic and hematologic functions.

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Fifteen patients, with a median age of 19 years having severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) underwent human leucocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using conditioning regimens containing cyclophosphamide with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or a combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with or without ATG during December 2007 to May 2013. Cyclosporine and mini methotrexate were used as graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Graft source included peripheral blood stem cells in 11, bone marrow in 3 and both in 1. One patient had primary graft failure while 14 patients were engrafted with a median neutrophil and platelet engraftment time of 13.5 days. One patient had secondary graft rejection. Acute GVHD occurred in 3 patients and chronic GVHD in 4. One year death rate in engrafted patients was 14.28 %. At a mean follow-up of 21.2 months, 12 (80 %) are alive and well. One of the donors was a patient of haemophilia but the disease did not occur in the recipient. The graft was successful and the recipient is alive till date.

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We report a very rare case of malignant invasive thymoma with intraluminal growth through the thymic veins into the superior vena cava (SVC), with intracardiac right atrium extension. A 44-year old female with SVC syndrome underwent a radical thymectomy with pericardiectomy and complete removal of the endovascular and endocardiac neoplastic thrombus by a longitudinal incision starting from the atrium and extending along the SVC. The left anonymous vein was sacrificed, and the SVC and atrium were repaired with a continuous 5-0 Prolene suture. The hospital stay was uneventful. Postoperatively, the patient received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (three cycles of cisplatin, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide and subsequent mediastinal irradiation with 50 Gy). Nine months after surgery, no recurrences were seen and the patient is still well. This thymoma presentation with intravascular growth without direct vascular wall infiltration, although very rare, is possible and the management may be challenging. In our case, a primary radical operation was considered mandatory due to the clinical symptoms and the risk of neoplastic embolization. The collection of other similar cases could better clarify the role of adjuvant therapy.

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Brentuximab vedotin, administered sequentially with CHOP or in combination with CHP, had a manageable safety profile and exhibited substantial antitumor activity in newly diagnosed patients with CD30(+) PTCL. A randomized phase III trial is under way, comparing BV+CHP with CHOP (clinical trial No. NCT01777152).

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Despite originating from several different tissues, soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are often grouped together as they share mesenchymal origin and treatment guidelines. Also, with some exceptions, a common denominator is that when the tumor cannot be cured with surgery, the efficacy of current therapies is poor and new treatment modalities are thus needed. We have studied the combination of a capsid-modified oncolytic adenovirus CGTG-102 (Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF) with doxorubicin, with or without ifosfamide, the preferred first-line chemotherapeutic options for most types of STS. We show that CGTG-102 and doxorubicin plus ifosfamide together are able to increase cell killing of Syrian hamster STS cells over single agents, as well as upregulate immunogenic cell death markers. When tested in vivo against established STS tumors in fully immunocompetent Syrian hamsters, the combination was highly effective. CGTG-102 and doxorubicin (without ifosfamide) resulted in synergistic antitumor efficacy against human STS xenografts in comparison with single agent treatments. Doxorubicin increased adenoviral replication in human and hamster STS cells, potentially contributing to the observed therapeutic synergy. In conclusion, the preclinical data generated here support clinical translation of the combination of CGTG-102 and doxorubicin, or doxorubicin plus ifosfamide, for the treatment of STS, and provide clues on the mechanisms of synergy.

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A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for the evaluation of rapidly progressive renal dysfunction with serum creatinine of 2.7 mg/dl and urinary protein of 1.5 g daily. C-reactive protein (CRP) was 0.1 mg/dl. Kidney-limited intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL) localized to the glomerular capillaries was diagnosed because the intraglomerular cells were positive for CD20 and CD79a, while there was no positivity in the extraglomerular kidney and extrarenal organs. Treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunomycin, vincristine, and prednisolone was started, and the patient has since been doing well. When IVL is limited to the intraglomerular capillaries, CRP may not be elevated.

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Mechanic's hands may be considered a marker of visceral involvement and should be sought in any instance of suspected antisynthetase syndrome flare-up.

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Our results show that a RAL-based regimen is safe and effective in patients requiring chemotherapy, irrespective of type and of duration of chemotherapy.

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Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is characterised by poor early response to conventional induction treatment. Consolidation phase IB, based on cyclophosphamide, 6-mercaptopurine, and ara-C at conventional (non-high) doses is effective in reducing minimal residual disease. Although the number of patients and observational time are limited, patients with early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with current BFM stratification and treatment strategy have a favourable outcome compared with earlier reports. The role of innovative therapies and haemopoietic stem cell therapy in early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia needs to be assessed.

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The detection rate was 70% in the BSC versus 15% in APOTECAchemo. During manual preparation of admixtures using BSC contamination with CP was below 0.001 ng/cm(2) at most locations, but significant on gloves (0.0004-0.0967 ng/cm(2)) and the majority (70%) of infusion bags (<0.0004-2.89 ng/cm(2)). During robotic preparation by APOTECAchemo, gloves (1 of 8: 0.0007 ng/cm(2)) and infusion bags (3 of 20: 0.0005, 0.0019, 0.0094 ng/cm(2)) were considerably less contaminated. Residual contamination was found on the surfaces under the dosing device in the compounding area (0.0293-0.1603 ng/cm(2)) inside the robotic system.

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To evaluate the effect of first-line and subsequent therapies, the outcome of 1,558 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia from five prospective phase II/III trials conducted between 1999 and 2010 was analyzed. The 3-year overall survival rate was higher after first-line treatment with chemoimmunotherapies such as fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab (87.9%) or bendamustine/rituximab (90.7%) compared to chemotherapies without an antibody (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide: 84.6%; fludarabine: 77.5%; chlorambucil: 77.4%). Furthermore, the median overall survival was longer in patients receiving at least one antibody-containing regimen in any treatment line (94.4 months) compared to the survival in patients who never received an antibody (84.3 months, P<0.0001). Univariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that patients who did receive antibody treatment had a 1.42-fold higher risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% confidence interval: 1.185-1.694). Therapies administered at relapse were very heterogeneous. Only 55 of 368 patients (14.9%) who started second-line treatment >24 months after first-line therapy repeated the first-line regimen. Among 315 patients requiring treatment ≤24 months after first-line therapy, cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone with or without rituximab as well as alemtuzumab were the most commonly used therapies. In these early relapsing patients, the median overall survival was shorter following therapies containing an anthracycline and/or three or more cytotoxic agents (e.g. cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone or fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/mitoxantrone, 30.0 months) compared to single agent chemotherapy (e.g. fludarabine; 39.6 months) and standard chemoimmunotherapy (e.g. fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab: 61.6 months). In conclusion, the analysis confirms the superior efficacy of chemoimmunotherapies in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Moreover, the use of aggressive chemo(immuno)therapy combinations in patients with an early relapse does not offer any benefit when compared to less intensive therapies. Trial identifier: NCT00281918, ISRCTN75653261, ISRCTN36294212, NCT00274989 and NCT00147901.

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N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), serum troponin T, and difference between involved and uninvolved immunoglobulin free light chain values are used to classify patients into four groups of similar size; median survivals are 94.1, 40.3, 14.0, and 5.8 months.

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Accurate identification of patients likely to achieve long-progression-free survival (PFS) after chemoimmunotherapy is essential given the availability of less toxic alternatives, such as ibrutinib. Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) achieved a high response rate, but continued relapses were seen in initial reports. We reviewed the original 300 patient phase 2 FCR study to identify long-term disease-free survivors. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed posttreatment by a polymerase chain reaction-based ligase chain reaction assay (sensitivity 0.01%). At the median follow-up of 12.8 years, PFS was 30.9% (median PFS, 6.4 years). The 12.8-year PFS was 53.9% for patients with mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) gene (IGHV-M) and 8.7% for patients with unmutated IGHV (IGHV-UM). 50.7% of patients with IGHV-M achieved MRD-negativity posttreatment; of these, PFS was 79.8% at 12.8 years. A plateau was seen on the PFS curve in patients with IGHV-M, with no relapses beyond 10.4 years in 42 patients (total follow-up 105.4 patient-years). On multivariable analysis, IGHV-UM (hazard ratio, 3.37 [2.18-5.21]; P < .001) and del(17p) by conventional karyotyping (hazard ratio, 7.96 [1.02-61.92]; P = .048) were significantly associated with inferior PFS. Fifteen patients with IGHV-M had 4-color MRD flow cytometry (sensitivity 0.01%) performed in peripheral blood, at a median of 12.8 years posttreatment (range, 9.5-14.7). All were MRD-negative. The high rate of very long-term PFS in patients with IGHV-M after FCR argues for the continued use of chemoimmunotherapy in this patient subgroup outside clinical trials; alternative strategies may be preferred in patients with IGHV-UM, to limit long-term toxicity.

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cytoxan drug label 2017-10-05

Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent, has been extensively used in chemotherapy, it possesses a wide spectrum of adverse effects including hepatotoxicity. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Zataria multiflora against hepatic damage induced by CP in mice.Mice were orally (gavages) pretreated with the ethanolic extract aerial parts of Zataria at doses of 50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days before a single intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg CP. After 24 h, animals were anesthetized, blood samples and hepatic tissues were collected and used for biochemical and histological examination.Serum levels of hepatic markers were significantly increased after only CP treated animals but restored in Zataria pretreated groups. A single dose of CP administration also markedly induced abnormality in the levels of several biomarkers associated with oxidative buy cytoxan online stress in liver tissues homogenates. However, pretreatment with Zataria significantly inhibited the abnormality of antioxidant enzymes defense system in the liver tissues. In addition, histopathological studies proved that CP causes damage to the liver, and this was evidenced by the induced dilated and congested sinusoidal space, lymphocytic infiltration between hepatocytes, portal space with moderate to severe inflammation and necrotic hepatocyte with absence of nuclei. Zataria effectively protected animals against CP-induced hepatic tissue damages.Our results reveal that Zataria produces a potent hepatoprotective role and could be a potent candidate to use concomitantly as a supplement agent against hepatotoxicity of CP for the patients undergoing chemotherapy.

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An adolescent with a recent diagnostic of Behçet's Disease (BD) was admitted with fever and buy cytoxan online intracardiac lesions detected on a routine transthoracic echocardiography, suggestive of endocarditis. Due to the absence of improvement after several rounds of antibiotics the patient was submitted to contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI that showed signs of intracardiac thrombosis, superior vena cava syndrome and pulmonary thromboembolism. The patient underwent surgery to excise the lesions and has been treated with cyclophosphamide and high dose prednisolone achieving complete remission. Intracardiac thrombosis is a rare manifestation of BD, and is associated with a poor prognosis. These patients usually require a combination of anticoagulation and immunosuppression to achieve remission.

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Random AMH can reveal evidence buy cytoxan online of oocyte depletion among female survivors reporting normal cycles, although low AMH should be interpreted cautiously among those taking oral contraception. Age at exposure and CED can aid identification of those more likely to have low AMH, although CED may underestimate the effect of procarbazine on oocyte reserve.

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We identified 465 cases of GPA (mean age: 60 years, 52% male). The early cohort (1992-2002) GPA patients had considerably higher mortality rates than the late cohort (2003-2013) (i.e., 72.0 vs. 35.7 cases buy cytoxan online per 1000 person-years), as compared with a moderate improvement in the comparison cohorts between the two periods (19.8 vs. 17.0 cases per 1000 person-years). The corresponding absolute mortality rate difference was 52.2 (95% CI: 25.1-79.2) cases and 18.7 (95% CI: 8.3-29.1) cases per 1000 person-years (p for interaction = 0.025). The resulting HRs for mortality were 4.34 (95% CI: 2.72-6.92) and 2.41 (95% CI: 1.74-3.34), respectively (p for interaction = 0.043).

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IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is associated with the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into various organs. Nephropathy of IgG4-RD is generally interstitial buy cytoxan online nephritis and glomerulonephritis is rare. We describe a case of membranous nephropathy (MN) without interstitial nephritis associated with IgG4-RD symptoms including lymphadenopathy and pulmonary and pleural lesions. Treatment with steroids improved these clinical symptoms, but withdrawal of steroids induced the repeated relapse of MN. Finally, flaring of MN was prevented by the combination of steroids and cyclosporine. This is the first report of the successful treatment of MN associated with IgG4-RD by this combination therapy.

cytoxan dosage vasculitis 2017-03-22

This is the largest trial in AAV undertaken to date. PEXIVAS will inform the future standard of care for patients with severe AAV. The buy cytoxan online cooperation between investigators, funding agencies, and industry provides a model for conducting studies in rare diseases.

cytoxan drug info 2015-06-25

Toxicity was manageable. Eighteen patients were evaluable after six cycles. Of these, nine patients had progressive disease as best response and nine patients achieved stable disease. In three patients minor tumor regression was observed. By IFNγ ELISpot and proliferation assay immune buy cytoxan online responses were seen in 6/17 and 4/17 patients, respectively; however, no correlation with clinical response was found. The percentage of Tregs was unchanged during treatment.

cytoxan user reviews 2015-08-13

T cell/histiocyte-rich large B cell lymphoma (THRLBCL) is a rare morphological variant of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), accounting for 1-3% of all DLBCLs. However, its impact on buy cytoxan online treatment outcome and prognosis is still not clearly defined.

cytoxan chemotherapy drug 2016-07-12

To assess the outcomes of overall survival and posttransplantation buy cytoxan online survival in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) because of the development of relapse or resistance after chemotherapy (CT) or CT plus radiotherapy (combined modality treatment, CMT).

cytoxan medication 2017-02-28

MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central buy cytoxan online Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to the end of April 2013. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis, clinical trials, cohort studies, and case series with >3 patients were included. Independent article review and study quality assessment was done by 2 investigators with consensus resolution of discrepancies.

cytoxan dosing schedule 2016-04-15

Between 2002 and 2010, 549 patients were randomly assigned to ABVD8 (n = 275) or BEACOPP4+4 (n = 274). Other characteristics included median age, 35 years; male, 75%; stage IV, 74%; "B" symptoms, 81%; and International Prognostic Score ≥ 4, 59%. WHO performance status was 0 (34%), 1 (48%), or 2 (17%). Median follow-up was 3.6 years. CR/CRu was 82.5% in both arms. At 4 years, EFS was 63.7% for ABVD8 versus 69.3% for BEACOPP4+4 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.15; P = .312); disease-free survival was 85.8% versus 91 buy cytoxan online .0% (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.33 to 1.06; P = .076), and OS was 86.7% versus 90.3% (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.42 to 1.21; P = .208). Death as a result of toxicity occurred in six and five patients, early discontinuation (before cycle 5) in 12 and 26 patients, treatment crossovers in five and 10 patients, and secondary malignancies in eight and 10 patients in the ABVD8 and BEACOPP4+4 arms, respectively.

cytoxan 500 mg 2016-09-05

A 51-year-old otherwise healthy farmer presented with a 1-year history of numerous extremely itchy bumps on his skin. The lesions came in crops, were buy cytoxan online pinhead-sized, and subsequently enlarged to form nodules of varying sizes. There was no history of ocular or mucosal involvement or of spontaneous healing of any of the lesions. His medical history was unremarkable. There was neither any family history of similar illness nor any personal or family history of atopy or malignancy. He was previously treated with potent topical steroids and antihistamines without any appreciable benefit.

cytoxan iv dosing 2016-06-16

Rituximab combined with CTX is effective and relatively safe in patients with refractory and recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Additional treatment to relapse patients about 12 - 24 months after drug withdrawal buy cytoxan online continues to be effective.

cost cytoxan iv 2015-05-18

Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG) is an uncommon non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving skin and extracutaneous tissues. The lesions are usually asymptomatic and commonly appear in the Crestor Tabs 10mg periorbital area. Paraproteinemia is closely associated with NXG and its pathogenesis remains unclear. NXG prognosis is poor with several treatments showing variable results. Treatment of monoclonal gammopathy with alkylating agents does not necessarily influence the activity of the skin disease and vice versa. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize all reported treatments of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma of the skin, with or without underlying malignant condition and based on articles from the PubMed database using the query 'necrobiotic xanthogranuloma treatment', both in English and German, about 'human' subjects and published between 1980 and 2014, documenting adequate treatment for NXG. Mainly individual case reports, small case series and retrospective studies were found. Treatment options include topical and systemic corticosteroids, thalidomide, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, rituximab, melphalan, infliximab, interferon alpha, cladribine, hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, methotrexate, laser therapy, radiotherapy, surgery, PUVA, plasmapheresis and extracorporeal photopheresis. Randomized controlled trials and studies on long-term outcomes after treatment were not found and are necessary to focus on in the future.

buy cytoxan cyclophosphamide 2017-03-09

Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should Uroxatral Dosing consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders.

cytoxan cancer drug 2016-04-30

The final Chemo-N0 trial analysis (recruitment 1993-1998; n=647; 12 centres) comprises 113 (5-167) months of median follow-up. Patients with low-uPA and PAI-1 tumour tissue levels (n=283) were observed. External quality assurance guaranteed uPA/PAI-1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) standardisation. Of 364 high uPA and/or PAI-1 patients, 242 agreed to randomisation for CMF chemotherapy (n=117) versus observation (n=125). Luvox Drug

cytoxan lupus dosage 2017-11-05

Polymyositis is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterised by inflammatory myopathy of the skeletal muscles predominantly affecting the proximal muscles and associated with extra-muscular manifestations like dysphagia and skin involvement. In this case report, we describe the occurrence of diaphragmatic weakness and respiratory failure due to Luvox Typical Dose polymyositis with relatively well preserved power in limb muscles.

cytoxan pills 2015-06-13

Despite several limitations, we have attempted to provide a reasonable approximation of the emetic risk associated with new antineoplastic agents through a comprehensive search of the available literature. Hopefully by the next update, more precise information Zyloprim 200 Mg on emetic risk will have been collected during new agent development process.

cytoxan tablets dose 2016-02-20

54-yr-old male patient with history of breast carcinoma presented with pain in the vertebral column. Baseline X-ray and CT scan revealed multiple osteosclerotic and osteolytic metastatic lesions in the thoracic vertebrae along with a compression fracture at T9. Stentoplasty was performed to limit fracture progression. Intraoperative scan revealed restoration of the vertebral body shape. Following surgery, direct reduction in pain was obtained. Postoperative 1-year follow-up did not show any loss in height of the operated vertebra. Results Tofranil Tabs of adjuvant chemotherapy administration and a new method of treatment of compression fractures caused by metastatic lesions were compared with previously published studies.

cytoxan drug action 2017-08-04

Sixteen patients were enrolled, including 1 patient who did not receive study therapy. Of the 15 remaining patients, 6 received cyclophosphamide and 9 received mitoxantrone in combination with fludarabine, rituximab, and GM-CSF. The overall response rate for all patients was 87%. Nine patients Zetia Online have subsequently had relapse of their disease, and 6 remained in remission at last study contact. There were no toxic deaths during the study.

cytoxan drug insert 2017-08-08

No therapy shows better response for the two efficacy outcomes (CR and ORR); though, Cisplatin plus Doxorubicin plus Etoposide plus Vincrisitine might be a promising therapy for SCLC. The results should be interpreted with caution Lopressor Safe Dose because the network was dominated by indirect comparisons. Large scale head-to-head RCTs are needed to confirm the present findings.