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Cozaar (Losartan)

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Cozaar is an effective medication which helps to fight with the symptoms of high blood pressure and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with hypertension. It is used in the treatment of kidney problems in people with type 2 diabetes. Cozaar acts by preventing the hormone angiotensin II from constricting the blood vessels, which tends to raise blood pressure.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Lasix, Norvasc, Toprol, Hyzaar


Also known as:  Losartan.


Cozaar is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against the symptoms of high blood pressure and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with hypertension.

Its target is to treat kidney problems in people with type 2 diabetes.

Cozaar is also known as Losartan potassium, Cosart, Los-Po.

Cozaar acts by preventing the hormone angiotensin II from constricting the blood vessels, which tends to raise blood pressure. It is angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

Generic name of Cozaar is Losartan Potassium.

Brand name of Cozaar is Cozaar.


Take Cozaar tablets orally with or without food.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Cozaar once or twice a day at the same time.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cozaar suddenly.


If you overdose Cozaar and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Cozaar overdosage: fainting, feeling lightheaded, rapid heartbeat.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cozaar are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cozaar if you are allergic to Cozaar components.

Do not take Cozaar if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Cozaar can harm your baby.

Do not use Cozaar if you are taking salt substitutes or potassium supplements, other blood pressure medicine, diuretic (water pill).

It can be dangerous to use Cozaar if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease, kidney disease, heart failure.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop taking Cozaar suddenly.

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Tubulointerstitial damage plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) reflects tubular KIM-1 and is considered a sensitive biomarker for early tubular damage. We hypothesized that a decrease in proteinuria by using therapeutic interventions is associated with decreased urinary KIM-1 levels.

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From the patent investigation it is clear that new areas on the subject are still offered for new discoveries. New structural features can be still considered in the synthetic compounds that can advance the knowledge and beneficial effects on diseases related to Angiotensin II and AT1 receptor. There is era also for new formulations (i.e., cyclodextrins, polymers and liposomes). The multitarget approach can be further strengthened and more combinations can be sought in the rational drug design for seeking cocktails. Furthermore, the revealing of the complexity of the RAS offers new avenues for novel targets and this must not be overlooked.

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A high-sodium diet downregulated AQP-1 and AQP-2 expression levels in the proximal tubule and collecting duct, respectively. The high-sodium diet also induced Ang II, TGF-β(1) and α-SMA overexpression and decreased eNOS expression in the renal cortex and medulla. Losartan increased the diuresis and natriuresis, favoring urinary sodium concentration. Additionally, losartan prevented the profibrogenic response, decreasing Ang II, TGF-β(1) and α-SMA levels and normalizing AQP-2 expression in the HS-L group. AQP-1 expression was upregulated by losartan in both the NS-L and HS-L groups.

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Losartan, amlodipine, and especially fosinopril can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis, prevent myocardial fibrosis, and reverse heart hypertrophy. Inhibition of myocardium rennin--angiotension--aldsteron system may be the mechanism of the three drugs' cardioprotective effects.

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We report new examples of a series of losartan-hydrocaffeic hybrids that bear novel ester, amide and amine linkers. These compounds were made by linking hydrocaffeic acid to the side chain of losartan at the C-5 position of the imidazole ring through different strategies. Experiments performed in cultured cells demonstrate that these new hybrids retain the ability to block the angiotensin II effect and have increased antioxidant ability. Most of them reduced arterial pressure in rats better or as much as losartan.

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Adult Sprague-Dawley rats kept on a salt-depleted diet (0.05% sodium) were treated daily for 4 weeks with vehicle (olive oil, 1 ml/kg), CsA (15 mg/kg) or both CsA and losartan (10 mg/kg in drinking water). The effect of losartan on betaig-h3 expression was evaluated using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Histopathology, expressions of TGF-beta1 and intrarenal angiotensin II were compared across treatment groups.

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Angiotensin II initiates a variety of physiological effects in the kidney by binding to high-affinity receptors on plasma membranes. Recently, two subtypes of angiotensin II receptors have been distinguished on the basis of differences in signal transduction mechanisms, binding affinity to agonists and antagonists, and inhibition of binding by dithiothreitol. To evaluate the density and distribution of these receptor subtypes in the kidney, we performed an in situ autoradiographic study on frozen tissue sections obtained from rat and human kidneys. Sections were incubated with 125I-[Sar1,Ile8]angiotensin II and binding specificity was verified by competition with unlabeled [Sar1]angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor subtypes were characterized by competition with the nonpeptide receptor antagonists, DuP 753 (type 1) and PD123177 (type 2). Both rat and human kidney exhibited a high concentration of angiotensin II receptors in glomeruli and in the longitudinal bands traversing the outer portion of the medulla, corresponding to the medullary vascular bundles. Binding affinity (Kd = 0.6 +/- 0.4 nM), determined in rat kidney, was similar to that reported previously in isolated glomeruli and membrane vesicles prepared from renal tubules. Angiotensin II binding was almost completely inhibited by DuP 753, whereas PD123177 had little effect. Thus the predominant angiotensin II receptor subtype in both rat and human kidney is type 1. The distribution of angiotensin II receptors correlates well with the intrarenal sites at which the peptide has its major physiological effects.

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Co-administration of vitamin C and losartan was compared with losartan (10 mg/kg), vitamin C (250 mg/kg), and placebo in 4 groups of rats with CIN. The prophylactic agents were injected daily for a period of 4 days, and on day 3, a single dose (6 mg/kg) of cisplatin was administrated. The animals were sacrificed 7 days later for pathological examination of the kidneys.

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Angiotensin II (Ang II) AT2 receptors were purified 40,000-fold to a nearly homogeneous state after solubilization from neonatal rat kidney membranes with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy-1-propane-sulfonic acid. Comparable IC50 values for the soluble extract (0.32 nM) and membranes (0.31 nM) were obtained by competition curves with 125I-labeled CGP42112, a selective AT2 ligand. Binding to AT2 receptors in the soluble extract was not sensitive to dithiothreitol. AT2 receptors were further purified by gel filtration and a CGP42112 Sepharose affinity column. Ang II AT2 receptors were selectively eluted with 5 microM CGP42112 at 4 degrees C, and a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 71 kDa was obtained after SDS/PAGE. Two-dimensional electrophoresis confirmed the purity of the protein and an isoelectric point of 5.3-5.5 was obtained. A highly selective elution of the AT2 receptors from the affinity column was performed with 5 nM 125I-labeled CGP42112 at room temperature after the column was treated with 1 microM losartan in the presence of high salt. After cross-linking, a major labeled protein with similar molecular mass and isoelectric point was obtained. Dissociation of the radiolabeled protein was insensitive to losartan but was enhanced by CGP42112, PD123177, Ang II, and [Sar1]Ang II. In summary, Ang II AT2 receptors were purified by CGP42112 affinity chromatography and selective elution and retain the pharmacological specificity of particulate receptors.

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2-n-Butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)bip hen yl-4-yl)methyl]imidazole, potassium salt (Losartan) (previous name, DuP 753 or MK 954) is a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist. This study was performed to investigate the ability of Losartan to inhibit the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of the phospoinositide signalling system and the angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. 10(-7) M Losartan abolished the angiotensin II-induced formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in vascular smooth muscle cells. 10(-6) M Losartan completely abolished the angiotensin II-induced elevation of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). 10(-6) M Losartan lacked effects on the [Arg8]vasopressin-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i. In addition, 10(-6) M completely inhibited the angiotensin II-induced stimulation of Na+/H+ exchange in the vascular smooth muscle cells. 10(-10) to 10(-6) M Losartan inhibited the angiotensin II-induced cell protein synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, yielding to an effective concentration (ED50) of 6.2 +/- 1.8 x 10(-8) M (n = 4). Losartan did not affect the platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced increase in cell protein. These results show that Losartan is a highly specific angiotensin II receptor antagonist which inhibits angiotensin II-induced cell growth and thus may have beneficial effects on the development and regression of vascular hypertrophy.

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Heart failure is associated with impairment in nitric oxide (NO) mediated vasodilatation, which has been demonstrated to result from a reduction in the relative expression of the leucine zipper positive (LZ+) isoform of the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of myosin light chain phosphatase. Further, captopril preserves normal LZ+ MYPT1 expression, the sensitivity to cGMP-mediated vasodilatation and modulates the expression of genes in the p42/44 MAPK and p38 MAPK signaling cascades. This study tests whether angiotensin receptor blockade (ARB) with losartan decreases p42/44 MAPK or p38 MAPK signaling and preserves LZ+ MYPT1 expression in a rat infarct model of heart failure. In aortic smooth muscle, p42/44 MAPK activation increases and LZ+ MYPT1 expression falls after LAD ligation. Losartan treatment decreases the activation of p42/44 MAPK to the uninfarcted control level and preserves normal LZ+ MYPT1 expression. The expression and activation of p38 MAPK, however, is low and does not change following LAD ligation or with losartan therapy. These data suggest that either reducing or blocking the effects of circulating angiotensin II, both decreases the activation of the p42/44 MAPK signaling cascade and preserves LZ+ MYPT1 expression. Thus, the ability of ACE-inhibitors and ARBs to modulate the vascular phenotype, to preserve normal flow mediated vasodilatation may explain the beneficial effects of these drugs compared to other forms of afterload reduction in the treatment of heart failure.

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Angiotensin II (AngII) is a main mediator in the regulation of vascular tone. Although its effects on vascular smooth muscle cells are well known, data on its role on endothelial biology are still insufficient. The present study examined the effect of endogenous and exogenous AngII on bovine aortic endothelial cells possessing both AT-1 and AT-2 receptors. A DNA synthesis-promoting effect of AT-2 blockade by PD123319 (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) was demonstrated. This effect was transduced through an AT-1-mediated pathway, as shown by using the AT-1 antagonist, losartan. In addition, an AT-1-mediated effect of AngII was demonstrated on bovine aortic endothelial cell proliferation, which occurred despite the absence of AngII-induced Ca2+ transients. In summary, the present study disclosed relevant characteristics of the effect of AngII on endothelial cell growth that have potential pathophysiologic projections, particularly for the use of selective AngII blocking agents.

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The effects of the angiotensin II (ANG II) AT2 ligand PD 123319 and the AT1 antagonist losartan on cerebral blood flow (CBF) were studied during hemorrhagic hypotension in anesthetized rats using laser-Doppler flowmetry. In the control group CBF remained stable when mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was lowered from 84 mmHg (baseline) to 45 mmHg, whereafter there was a pressure dependent decrease in CBF indicating inadequacy of autoregulation. Cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) was reduced until MABP 40 mmHg, where a maximum dilation was reached. PD 123319 dose-dependently (3-30 mg/kg i.v.) increased CVR through all blood pressures. Losartan 3 mg/kg i.v. had an effect similar to PD 123319. Selective stimulation of AT2 receptors with intravenous ANG II infusion, in the presence of AT1 receptor blockade by losartan, also increased CVR. As a result, reduced CBF was seen in the treatment groups. The effects of ANG II and PD 123319 30 mg/kg were antagonized by the nonselective ANG II antagonist Sar1,Ile8-ANG II (4 micrograms/kg/min i.v.). None of the treatments affected baseline CBF. The results confirm that ANG II contributes to cerebrovascular resistance and participates in the regulation of CBF apparently through AT2 receptors.

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51 patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were included in an open randomized prospective comparative study with no control. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on the chosen treatment strategy. Group 1 (n = 25) had been receiving standard treatment of NASH (Ursodeoxycholic acid 15 mg/kg once a day, per os divided into 3 doses, Atorvastatin 20 mg per os at night, Vitamin E 800 IU/day per os for 12 months); Group 2 (n = 26) had been receiving losartan 50 mg/day per os for 12 months in addition to the above mentioned standard treatment of NASH.

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Losartan, an antihypertensive agent in clinical development, was found to exist in two enantiotropic polymorphic forms, a low-temperature stable form (Form I) and a high-temperature stable form (Form II), the temperatures at which they are stable being related to the transition temperature. X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicated differences in the crystal packing of the two forms. The vibrational data from infrared and Raman spectroscopy suggested a subtle change in molecular conformation and crystal packing in the two forms. Solid-state 13C NMR data of the polymorphs concurred with the vibrational data and indicated that, while the observed line widths reflect no major changes in crystallinity, signal multiplicities and chemical shifts do reflect differences in molecular packing in the respective unit cells. Thus, in the absence of crystallographic data, useful structural information could be derived from spectroscopic results to identify each of the crystalline forms.

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Losartan alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Inhibiting the expressions of MCP-1 and bFGF in lung tissues may be one of the mechanisms.

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Eplerenone is a selective aldosterone blocker that effectively lowers BP in both white and black patients with hypertension and provides meaningful further antihypertensive efficacy when added to patients whose hypertension is inadequately controlled by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers.

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Overall blood pressure reductions were comparable in the losartan-based and atenolol-based treatment groups. The mean reductions in sitting trough systolic and diastolic blood pressures from baseline to the end of follow-up (or last visit before a primary endpoint event) were 30.2/16.6 mmHg in the losartan group and 29.1/16.8 mmHg in the atenolol group. The time-averaged difference in overall mean arterial pressure was similar between groups. The proportion of patients on individual dose combinations varied visit by visit but was generally comparable between groups. During the entire study, 56% (2579/4605) of losartan-treated patients received at least one dose of the combination of losartan 100 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg and 51% of atenolol-treated patients received 100 mg of atenolol plus hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg at some time during the study.

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We think that losartan should be recommended to use for protection against atherosclerosis at the young aged individuals that have multiple risks for atherosclerosis, other than hypertension.

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Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex is enhanced in dogs with experimental heart failure. The aim of the present study was to determine if the central gain of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex was also enhanced in dogs with heart failure. Fifteen dogs with pacing-induced heart failure were used in this study. Seventeen sham-operated dogs served as control. At the time of the acute experiment the dogs were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity were recorded. After sinoaortic denervation and cervical vagotomy, a thoracotomy was performed in the second intercostal space. The left stellate ganglion was identified, and the left cardiac sympathetic nerves were cut. The central end of the left cardiac sympathetic nerves was placed on bipolar stimulating electrodes. The renal sympathetic nerve activity responses to electrical stimulation (30 Hz, 1 ms with varying voltages from 1 to 10 V; or 10 V, 1 ms with varying frequencies from 1 to 30 Hz) of the afferent cardiac sympathetic nerves were compared between sham and heart failure groups. Reflex renal sympathetic nerve activity responses to stimulation of the cardiac sympathetic nerves were significantly greater in the heart failure group compared with that in the sham group (21.4 +/- 3.2 vs. 9.8 +/- 2.9% at 10 V, 30 Hz and 27.7 +/- 4.5 vs. 9.9 +/- 3.4% at 30 Hz, 10 V, heart failure vs. sham group, respectively; for both relationships, P < 0.05). This enhanced central gain of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in the heart failure group was significantly attenuated after intravenous and cerebroventricular injection of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan (5 mg/kg i.v. and 0.125 mg/kg in 0.1 ml i.c.v.). These data suggest that the central gain of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex is enhanced in dogs with heart failure and central angiotensin II plays an important role in this enhanced response.

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Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have a pharmacological role in the treatment of heart failure through their blockade of the effects of angiotensin II. ARBs, however, lack the potential benefits of inhibiting the breakdown of bradykinin that is seen with ACE-Is. Historically, the medical literature assessing ARBs in the treatment of chronic heart failure have been short in duration and primarily focused on surrogate markers of disease severity. Recent, well-designed clinical trials have shed new light on the potential roles of ARBs in the treatment of chronic heart failure and their effects on mortality in this patient population. In comparison to captopril, losartan has been shown to have similar benefits in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In patients with systolic dysfunction who are intolerant to ACE-Is, candesartan has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality and hospital admissions for heart failure. In combination with ACE-Is, candesartan and valsartan have been shown to improve heart failure morbidity and, with candesartan, reduced cardiovascular mortality in those with systolic dysfunction. These 2 trials show conflicting mortality information regarding the use of triple therapy with ACE-Is, ARBs, and beta-blockers for systolic dysfunction. In patients with heart failure but preserved systolic dysfunction, candesartan showed no effects on mortality and only modest effects on morbidity.

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To determine whether high protein feeding throughout development affects renal growth, renal hemodynamics, and the intrarenal distribution of renin and its mRNA in the adult animal, male Wistar rats were fed diets containing either 20% protein [normal (NP), n = 12] or 40% protein [high (HP), n = 12] from weaning until studied at 6 or 12 wk of age. Kidney weight, kidney weight-to-body weight ratio, cortical DNA content, and cortical protein-to-DNA ratio were higher in HP- than in NP-fed rats at 6 and 12 wk of age. Somatic and kidney growth response to HP was blunted by angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist Dup 753. Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were higher in HP- than in NP-fed rats at 6 and 12 wk of age. The intrarenal distribution of renin and renin mRNA, assessed by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively, were markedly different between the two groups. In NP-fed rats, renin and renin mRNA were confined to a juxtaglomerular location. In HP-fed rats, renin and its mRNA extended proximally along the afferent arterioles. The percentage of visible afferent arteriolar length containing renin or renin mRNA was higher in HP-fed rats (60 +/- 3.2 and 61 +/- 3.9%, respectively) than in NP-fed rats (39 +/- 2.5 and 33 +/- 0.6%; P less than 0.05). Also, the percentage of juxtaglomerular apparatuses (JGAs) containing renin or renin mRNA was higher in HP-fed rats (80 +/- 1.6 and 72 +/- 2%, respectively), than in NP-fed rats (46 +/- 2.2 and 40 +/- 4%; P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Activation of the renin-angiotensin system both systemically and locally seems to be of importance for cardiovascular hypertrophy and remodelling. The octapeptide angiotensin II definitively plays a central role. In the reversal, for example, of left ventricular hypertrophy, so far the most important independent risk factor for an adverse outcome, blocking of the renin-angiotensin system with ACE inhibition has been shown to be particularly effective. In cardiac tissue, however, ACE inhibition has been suggested to inhibit only a fraction of angiotensin II formed, indicating that other enzymatic pathways can be of importance. From a theoretical point of view a more complete blockade of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor would offer a more effective attenuation of the unfavourable effect of angiotensin II. Experimentally, losartan, a novel selective angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist has been shown to decrease cardiac hypertrophic response in models of both hypertension and volume cardiac hypertrophy as well as reverse hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats. TCV-116, another selective angiotensin II antagonist, also effectively reverses cardiac hypertophy and interstitial fibrosis in the rat. The only report so far regarding the effect of angiotensin II blockade on cardiac hypertrophy in essential hypertension suggests a more favourable short-term effect on cardiac hypertrophy for the same blood pressure reduction with losartan compared with atenolol in a small population of mild to moderate hypertensives. In the perspective of the well-established positive effects of ACE inhibition on the remodelling process in the remaining viable myocardium after myocardial infarction, involving myocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis and progressive dilatation, it is reassuring that angiotensin II blockade has been shown to perform equally well as ACE inhibition after experimental coronary ligation. In summary, the development of cardiovascular hypertrophy in hypertension is a serious prognostic indicator and selective angiotensin II blockade is a new anti-hypertensive treatment modality with promising properties, especially for prevention and reversal of cardiac hypertrophy including pathological fibrosis and cardiac remodelling after myocardial infarction. Thus, taking into account the shortcomings of today's anti-hypertensive treatment to achieve normalisation of excessive cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as the seemingly great importance of the renin-angiotensin system for hypertension-induced functional and structural abnormalities, a therapy based on a specific All antagonist could offer obvious advantages in a high risk hypertensive patient with cardiovascular hypertrophy. This hypothesis will be investigated in a large prospective trial (Losartan Intervention For End-point reduction in hypertension: The LIFE Study).

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cozaar drugs 2016-09-15

This study was designed to assess the influence of the activation status of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) on the hemodynamic effects of EXP 3174 (an angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist) and enalaprilat (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor) in tachycardia-induced heart failure. Thirteen dogs were chronically instrumented to measure left ventricular (LV) pressure, its first time derivative (LV dP/dt), atrial and aortic pressures, and cardiac output. EXP 3174 (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) or enalaprilat (1 mg/kg, i.v.) were administered in conscious dogs with heart failure induced by right ventricular pacing (250 beats/min, 3 weeks). EXP 3174 and enalaprilat produced significant vasodilation but the effects of EXP 3174 on mean aortic pressure (MAP), cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were only 50% of those produced by enalaprilat. When dogs were grouped according to their baseline plasma renin activity (PRA) values, in dogs with normal PRA (0.5 +/- 0.1 ng/ml/h) EXP 3174 did not produce significant change in MAP and TPR, while enalaprilat decreased significantly MAP and TPR. In contrast, in dogs with high PRA (6.7 +/- 3 buy cozaar online .2 ng/ml/h), EXP 3174 produced significant reductions in MAP and TPR, which were similar to those produced by enalaprilat. Thus, in conscious dogs with heart failure, enalaprilat is effective whether the RAS is activated or not. In contrast, EXP 3174 is effective only when the RAS is activated. These results may help in the choice of inhibitors of the RAS in heart failure.

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Neonatal Wistar rat cardiomyocytes grown on a buy cozaar online flexible membrane base were stretched by vacuum to 20% of maximum elongation at 60 cycles/min. Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and promoter activity assay were performed. In vitro monocyte adhesion to stretched myocyte was detected.

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The ICAE-AT1- buy cozaar online antagonist combination exerts a positive impact on life quality in patients with heart failure.

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A 24-year-old woman was admitted to Toyosaka Hospital with proteinuria, hematuria, lymphopenia, hypocomplementemia, positive anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), and elevation of anti-streptolysin O (ASO). Renal biopsy specimen revealed diffuse mesangial and endocapillary glomerulonephritis with crescent formation and duplication of the capillary loop on light microscopic examination. Mild to moderate proliferation of mesangial matrix and cells were observed. On immunofluorescence (IF) examination, deposition of IgG, IgA, IgM, C1q, C3, and C4 to the mesangium and capillary wall were observed. By electron microscopy (EM), mesangial, subendothelial, and subepithelial deposits were recognized. However, microtubular structure in glomerular endothelial cells, fingerprint structures, and circumferential mesangial interposition were not observed by EM. The patient was referred to our hospital, but there was no change in her proteinuria 3 weeks after admission. The elevation of ASO, hypocomplementemia, and endocapillary proliferation suggested acute glomerulonephritis, while lymphocytopenia, positive ANA, the persistent hypocomplementemia, and various deposits detected by IF and EM suggested lupus nephritis; however, she did not fulfill the buy cozaar online classification criteria of systemic lupus erythematosus. We started prednisolone (40 mg/day) with the diagnosis of chronic glomerulonephritis revealing diffuse mesangial and endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis, but it was not effective for the proteinuria. Quinapril (10 mg/day) and losartan (25 to 50 mg/day) were administered and the proteinuria decreased. It is possible that this use of an angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor and an angiotensin II receptor antagonist was effective in reducing the proteinuria in this patient.

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The ELITE-II, BEST and CHAMP Trials were reported for the first time at the American Heart Association in November 1999. These trials provide valuable new information to guide clinical practice in the management of heart failure and of myocardial infarction, although none mandate a major change from current clinical practice. The IMPRESS trial of the vasopeptidase inhibitor, omapatrilat, indicated a promising new treatment buy cozaar online for the management of heart failure.

cozaar lethal dose 2016-12-12

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of losartan (100 mg) plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ; 25 mg) on nitric oxide (NO) production and blood pressure (BP) in "nondipper" severe hypertensive patients. Twelve hypertensive "nondipper patients" (6 of each gender) with sitting systolic/diastolic BP of 188.0 +/- 5.2/116.2 +/- 1.2 mm Hg were studied by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) after daily administration of 100 mg losartan plus 25 mg HCTZ for a period of 12 weeks. Office and mean 24-hour, as well as mean awake- and sleep-time systolic/diastolic BP, serum NO levels, and urinary excretion of NO were measured after the placebo period (3 weeks) and after 12 weeks of therapy. At the end of the 12-week treatment period, the mean 24-hour systolic/diastolic BP decreased significantly from 158.6 +/- 4.7/102.2 +/- 2.6 mm Hg (placebo period) to 140.3 +/- 4.8/90.9 +/- 3.3 mm Hg (P = 0.001/< or = 0.002). The mean BP (systolic/diastolic) during the waking period was reduced from 159.3 +/- 4.4/103.0 +/- 2.5 mm Hg to 135.0 +/- 4.4/88.2 +/- 3.1 (P < or = 0.007/P < or = 0.002), whereas the mean BP (systolic/diastolic) during the sleeping hours changed from 154.9 +/- 5.3/98.9 +/- 3.1 to 140.9 +/- 4.6 (P = 0. buy cozaar online 035)/91.7 +/- 3.2 mm Hg (P = 0.035/P = 0.051). Serum NO levels increased from 40.89 +/- 5.69 microM/L (placebo period) to 67.35 +/- 6.96 microM/L (posttreatment; P < or = 0.007), whereas the 24-hour urinary NO excretion did not change significantly (69.71 +/- 3.68 microM/L [placebo period] vs 79.64 +/- 4.25 microM/L [posttreatment]; P < or = 0.16). Urinary clearance of NO also did not change. Serum NO levels increased significantly without a significant change in urinary NO excretion. BP was significantly reduced but without modifying the nondipper pattern in these patients.

cozaar starting dose 2016-10-04

The effect of angiotensin-(1-7) on jejunal water absorption in rats was investigated. The jejunal sac of anesthetized rats was filled with two ml of tyrode solution containing 3.7 MBq of tritiated water. A femoral vein was cannulated for administration of peptides and drugs. Infusion of Ang-(1-7) at the dose of 0.7 ng/kg.min produced a significant increase in jejunal water absorption compared to control (32% increase). The Ang-(1-7) antagonist A-779 abolished the effect of Ang-(1-7) on water absorption. A reduction of the Ang-(1-7) effect was also produced by treatment with the AT(1) receptor antagonist, losartan or the AT(2) receptor antagonist, PD123.177. The increase in jejunal water absorption produced by Ang-(1-7) was blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME and by indomethacin. These data suggest that the effect of Ang-(1-7) on the jejunal loop is mediated by activation of a multiple angiotensin receptors and/or by an atypical angiotensin receptor. Furthermore, the effect of Ang-(1-7) buy cozaar online on jejunal water absorption is mediated by nitric oxide and by a cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanism.

cozaar y alcohol 2015-11-10

1. Male (350-450 g) Long Evans rats were chronically instrumented to permit regional haemodynamics to be monitored in the conscious state. In the first experiment, either saline (0.4 ml h-1) or buy cozaar online dexamethasone (3 mg kg-1, 125 micrograms kg-1 h-1) was infused continuously for 24 h, before co-infusion of lipopolysaccharide of (LPS, 150 micrograms kg-1 h-1) for 24 h. Dexamethasone prevented the delayed (5-24 h) fall in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and the renal and hindquarters vasodilatation seen with LPS infusion alone, but not the initial (about 2 h) fall in MAP or renal vasodilatation. However, at this dose, dexamethasone itself caused a significant rise in MAP and regional vasoconstrictions. 2. In the second experiment, dexamethasone at a lower dose (12.5 micrograms kg-1 h-1) had only slight pressor and vasoconstrictor effects. However, in its presence, infusion of LPS caused a substantial and progressive rise in MAP (maximum at 8 h, +32 +/- 3 mmHg) together with persistent mesenteric and hindquarters vasoconstriction and a transient renal vasodilatation. 3. In the third experiment, the non-selective endothelin antagonist, SB 209670 (600 micrograms kg-1 h-1), blocked the slight pressor and regional vasoconstrictor effects of the lower dose of dexamethasone. Furthermore, in the presence of dexamethasone and SB 209670, infusion of LPS caused marked, but transient hypotension (nadir at 5 h, -24 +/- 2 mmHg) and renal and mesenteric vasodilatation. 4. At the end of all experimental protocols, sequential administration of the AT1-receptor antagonist, losartan, followed by the V1-receptor antagonist, (+)-(CH2)5-O-Me-Tyr, vasopressin, caused effects indicating a variable involvement of angiotensin and vasopressin in the maintenance of cardiovascular status. 5. Collectively, the results indicate that, in the conscious rat, dexamethasone interacts with vasoconstrictor and vasodilator mechanisms, and hence its influence on the haemodynamic responses to LPS cannot be attributed, simply, to inhibition of the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and/or cyclo-oxygenase-2.

cozaar medication wikipedia 2017-08-25

To investigate whether ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blockade could protect kidney mitochondria in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetes, we treated 8-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single streptozotocin injection (65 mg/kg ip; STZ group), streptozotocin and drinking water containing either losartan (30; STZ+Los group) or amlodipine (3; STZ+Amlo group), or saline (intraperitoneally) and pure water (control group). Four-month-long losartan or amlodipine treatments started 30 days buy cozaar online before streptozotocin injection to improve the antioxidant defenses. The number of renal lesions, plasma glucose and lipid levels, and proteinuria were higher and creatinine clearance was lower in STZ and STZ+Amlo compared with STZ+Los and control groups. Glycemia was higher in STZ+Los compared with control. Blood pressure, basal mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial pyruvate content, and renal oxidized glutathione levels were higher and NADH/cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity was lower in STZ compared with the other groups. In STZ and STZ+Amlo groups, mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production rate was higher and uncoupling protein-2 content, cytochrome c oxidase activity, and renal glutathione level were lower than in STZ+Los and control groups. Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase activity was higher in STZ+Amlo compared with the other groups. Mitochondrial pyruvate content and H(2)O(2) production rate negatively contributed to electron transfer capacity and positively contributed to renal lesions. Uncoupling protein-2 content negatively contributed to mitochondrial H(2)O(2) production rate and renal lesions. Renal glutathione reduction potential positively contributed to mitochondria electron transfer capacity. In conclusion, AT(1) blockade protects kidney mitochondria and kidney structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetes independently of blood pressure and glycemia.

cozaar tabs 2016-05-26

The beneficial buy cozaar online effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the prevention of heart failure following myocardial infarction are widely accepted. However, the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of discussion. We therefore investigated the relative contribution of the breakdown of bradykinin and of the inhibition of angiotensin-II synthesis to the beneficial actions of ACE inhibitors in chronic heart failure following myocardial infarction.

cozaar medication picture 2017-07-13

The localization of subtypes of the angiotensin II receptor has been determined by autoradiographic techniques using iodinated angiotensin II and two buy cozaar online nonpeptide antagonists that exhibit selective affinities. DuP 753 specifically displaces type 1 sites (AII-1) and PD123177 inhibits only type 2 sites (AII-2). The rabbit adrenal cortex contains predominately AII-1 sites and the few AII-2 sites that are present are nonuniformly distributed. In the rabbit kidney, the fibrous outer sheath contains exclusively AII-2 sites whereas the glomeruli of the renal cortex and the renal medulla exhibit only AII-1 sites.

cozaar 100mg tablet 2017-10-04

In LIFE patients, higher in-treatment BP6-24 months variability buy cozaar online was independently of mean BP6-24 months associated with later CEP and stroke, but not with MI or TOD after 24 months.

cozaar dose range 2017-04-25

This study investigated the process of nitric oxide (NO) release from platelets after stimulation with different angiotensin II type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonists and its effect on platelet adhesion and aggregation. buy cozaar online Angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist-stimulated NO release in platelets was compared with that in human umbilical vein endothelial cells by using a highly sensitive porphyrinic microsensor. In vitro and ex vivo effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists on platelet adhesion to collagen and thromboxane A2 analog U46619-induced aggregation were evaluated. Losartan, EXP3174, and valsartan alone caused NO release from platelets and endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner in the range of 0.01 to 100 micro mol/L, which was attenuated by NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. The angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists had more than 70% greater potency in NO release in platelets than in endothelial cells. The degree of inhibition of platelet adhesion (collagen-stimulated) and aggregation (U46619-stimulated) elicited by losartan, EXP3174, and valsartan, either in vitro or ex vivo, closely correlated with the NO levels produced by each of these drugs alone. The inhibiting effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists on collagen-stimulated adhesion and U46619-stimulated aggregation of platelets were significantly reduced by pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Neither the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319, the cyclooxygenase synthase inhibitor indomethacin, nor the selective thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist SQ29,548 had any effect on angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist-stimulated NO release in platelets and endothelial cells. The presented studies clearly indicate a crucial role of NO in the arterial antithrombotic effects of angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonists.

cozaar 15 mg 2015-10-18

Nonpeptide angiotensin AT-1 and AT-2 receptor antagonists were administered cerebroventricularly to rats and their effects on various types of angiotensin II (AII)-stimulated water and NaCl intakes examined. The AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan potassium (DUP 753), inhibited water intake evoked by central administration of AII, with the 50% inhibitory dose being less than 0.1 microgram. The functional inhibition by Crestor 5mg Tablets higher doses lasted at least 1 h. The AT-2 receptor antagonist PD 123319 also inhibited AII-induced water intake, but at doses about tenfold higher than losartan. Central, but not peripheral, administration of losartan partially inhibited NaCl intake induced by either sodium depletion, treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (CEIs), or adrenalectomy. PD 123319 partially inhibited NaCl intake induced by both sodium depletion and administration of CEI, but not after adrenalectomy. Another AT-2 receptor antagonist, CGP 42112A, likewise inhibited NaCl intake after sodium deprivation. These data suggest that both AT-1 and AT-2 receptor subtypes in the brain are involved in angiotensin-related water and NaCl intakes.

cozaar overdose 2017-11-13

Perindopril and losartan may inhibit bleomycin A5-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by reducing the protein expression of TGF-beta1 and suppressing Casodex Pill the DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB and MMP-2, 9 activity.

cozaar dosage strengths 2017-02-12

Progression of renal failure, despite renoprotection with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with proteinuric nephropathies, may be caused by persistent renal production of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) through the angiotensin II subtype 1 (AT1) receptors. We tested the hypothesis that AT1-receptor blocker therapy added to a background of chronic maximal ACE inhibitor therapy will result in a reduction in urinary TGF-beta1 levels in such patients. Sixteen patients completed a two-period, crossover, randomized, controlled trial, details of which have been previously reported. All patients were administered lisinopril, 40 mg/d, with either losartan, 50 mg/d, or placebo. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using a 24-hour ambulatory BP monitor. Overnight specimens of urine were analyzed for urine TGF-beta1, protein, and creatinine concentrations. Mean age of the study population was 53 +/- 9 (SD) years; body mass index, 38 +/- 5.7 kg/m2; seated BP, 156 +/- 18/88 +/- 12 mm Hg; and urine protein excretion, 3.6 +/- 0.71 g/g of creatinine. Twelve patients had diabetic nephropathy, and the remainder had chronic glomerulonephritis. At baseline, urinary TGF-beta1 levels were significantly increased in the study population compared with healthy controls (13.2 +/- 1.2 versus 1.7 +/- 1.1 ng/g creatinine; P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between baseline urine protein excretion and urinary TGF-beta1 level (r2 = 0.53; P = 0.001), as well as systolic BP and urinary TGF-beta1 level (r2 = 0.57; P < 0.001). After 4 weeks of add-on losartan therapy, there was a 38% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16% to 55%) decline in urinary TGF-beta1 levels (13.3 [95% CI, 11.4 to 15.5] to 8.2 pg/mg creatinine [95% CI, 6.2 to 10.7]). The reduction in urinary TGF-beta1 levels occurred independent of changes in mean urinary protein excretion or BP. Thus, proteinuric patients with renal failure, despite maximal ACE inhibition, had increased urinary levels of TGF-beta1 that improved Plavix Drug over 1 month of add-on therapy with losartan. We speculate that dual blockade with losartan and an ACE inhibitor may provide additional renoprotection by decreasing renal production of TGF-beta1.

cozaar generic reviews 2016-03-16

In the rat, Inderal With Alcohol intakes of water and 1.8% NaCl induced by I.C.V. angiotensin II were inhibited by prior I.C.V. injection of the angiotensin subtype 1 receptor antagonist, Losartan, but not by the subtype 2 receptor antagonist, CGP 42112B. Drinking induced by I.C.V. carbachol was unaffected by either antagonist.

cozaar dosage maximum 2016-04-22

Histometric analysis was performed to evaluate the amount of bone tissue formed at the interface of the recipient bed and bone Cymbalta 150 Mg graft. The total area of formed bone tissue was outlined and calculated. Immunohistochemical analysis was semi-quantitative and the significance of the differences between groups regarding the percentage of newly formed bone tissue interface and protein expression were determined by ANOVA analysis of variance and Kruskall-Wallis followed by Tukey test or Holm Sidak to detect differences between groups. The results were considered statistically significant when P<.05.

cozaar cost 2015-11-04

Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to increases in blood pressure. Recent studies indicate that the hypertrophic process is associated with increases in intracellular oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. We hypothesize that superoxide anion mediates the hypertrophic response and that antioxidant therapy may be effective in attenuating cardiac hypertrophy. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were stimulated with angiotensin II (AngII, 1 microM) with and without various antioxidants. N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 10 mM) and probucol (50 microM), and to a lesser extent, vitamin C (500 microM) and reduced glutathione (1 mM), inhibited AngII-induced [(3)H]-leucine uptake and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) promoter activity. The hypertrophic response is mediated by superoxide anion (O(2)(-).) since cell-permeable polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated superoxide dismutase (50 U/ml), but not PEG-catalase (500 U/ml), attenuated AngII-induced [(3)H]-leucine uptake and ANF promoter activity. Furthermore, NAC blocked AngII-induced increase in myocardial oxidative stress, decreased the expression of ANF and myosin light chain-2v, and inhibited the re-organization of cytoskeletal proteins, desmin and alpha-actinin. These effects of AngII were abolished by angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, but not type 2 receptor blocker, PD123319. Indeed, co-administration of losartan (10 mg/kg/d, 14 d) or NAC (200 mg/kg/d, 14 d) inhibited AngII-induced O(2)(-). production and cardiac hypertrophy in rats without affecting blood pressure. These findings indicate that the generation of O(2)(-). contributes to oxidant-induced hypertrophic response and suggest that antioxidant therapy may have beneficial effects in cardiac Effexor Starting Dose hypertrophy.

cozaar generic availability 2017-03-05

Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), renal oxidative stress and inflammation are constantly present in experimental hypertension. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibition with N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) has previously been reported to produce hypertension, increased expression of Angiotensin II (Ang II) and renal dysfunction. The use of Losartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist has proven to be effective reducing hypertension Voltaren Xr Medication and renal damage; however, the mechanism by which AT1R blockade reduced kidney injury and normalizes blood pressure in this experimental model is still complete unknown. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that AT1R activation promotes renal NAD(P)H oxidase up-regulation, oxidative stress and cytokine production during L-NAME induced-hypertension.

cozaar 100mg medicine 2016-07-27

ACE inhibitors have been shown to be effective in reducing the morbidity and mortality of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, but their application to clinical practice in this situation is still limited. In part, the failure to prescribe an ACE inhibitor to a patient with left ventricular systolic dysfunction is due to perceptions regarding their side effects, such as cough and renal dysfunction. Relatively few patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a serum creatinine > or = 2 mg/dl receive an ACE inhibitor in clinical practice. In this situation one should consider an agent such as fosinopril, which is metabolized by the liver as well as secreted by the kidney. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, fosinopril has been well tolerated without an increase in serum creatinine. In patients who develop cough due to an ACE inhibitor, consideration should be given to an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocking agent, such as losartan. The relative safety and efficacy of an ACE inhibitor compared with an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocking agent is being explored in a prospective randomized trial (Evaluation of Losartan In The Elderly [ELITE]), as well as the safety and pharmacological effectiveness of adding an angiotensin II receptor antagonist to an ACE inhibitor (Randomized Angiotensin receptor antagonists-ACE-inhibitor Study [RAAS]). There may also be a role for the combination of an aldosterone receptor antagonists and an ACE inhibitor in Indocin Dosage Chart patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Once an ACE inhibitor is administered to a patient with left ventricular systolic dysfunction it should be continued indefinitely. ACE inhibitors may be of value not only in preventing the progression of heart failure but also in reversing endothelial dysfunction and preventing the development of atherosclerosis and its consequences, such as myocardial infarction.

cozaar online 2015-12-12

The cluster of risk factors including hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension has been called syndrome X. Several evidences link the insulin resistance syndrome with endothelial dysfunction. Since the participation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in this pathology is still unclear, the present study examined the effect of chronic administration of an angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan (L), on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in aortic endothelium and cardiac tissue, and on the proliferation of primary cultured aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC), obtained from fructose-fed rats (FFR), an experimental model of syndrome X Male Wistar rats were used: Control, FFR and FFR+L (n = 8 in each group). After 8 weeks, tissue samples were obtained and 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) proliferative effect was examined in SMC by 3H-thymidine incorporation and cell counting. The eNOS activity was estimated in aortic endothelial lining and cardiac homogenates by conversion of 3H-arginine into 3H-citrulline. FFR aortic SMC showed a significantly increased 10% FCS-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation and cell number compared to controls. FFR aortic and cardiac eNOS activities were significantly decreased. Chronic treatment with L decreased systolic blood pressure,reverted cardiac hypertrophy, abolished the increased SMC proliferation and restoredeNOS activity. These data confirm that changes in SMC proliferation and endothelial dysfunction at different levels of the cardiovascular system are involved in syndrome "X", and that AT1 receptor blocking can revert those changes, suggesting an important role of the RAS, possibly mediated by AT2 receptors and kinins, in the physiopathological mechanisms of this model.