Generic Combivir is used for treating HIV infection in combination with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Lamivudine\Zidovudine.
Generic Combivir is an antiviral combination. Lamivudine and Zidovudine are both nucleoside analogues that work together to slow the growth of HIV by blocking an enzyme needed by the virus to reproduce.
Generic Name of Generic Combivir is Lamivudine plus Zidovudine.
Combivir is also known as Lamivudine, Zidovudine, Duovir.
Brand name of Generic Combivir is Combivir.
Generic Combivir is available in tablets which should be taken orally.
Take Generic Combivir with or without food.
Continue to use Generic Combivir even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.
Take Generic Combivir at the same time each day.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Combivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep the container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Combivir are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Be careful with Generic Combivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Combivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are allergic to Generic Combivir components.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are taking stavudine, zalcitabine, or other medicines containing lamivudine or zidovudine.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you have severe kidney problems, decreased liver function, abnormal liver function tests, or high levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis).
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you weigh less than 66 lbs (30 kg) .
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you are significantly overweight.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you take interferon alfa or ribavirin because serious liver problems may occur; stavudine because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Combivir; clarithromycin, doxorubicin, rifampin, or zalcitabine because they may decrease Generic Combivir 's effectiveness; acetaminophen, ganciclovir, ibuprofen, methadone, probenecid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, valproic acid, vancomycin, or zalcitabine because they may increase the risk of Generic Combivir 's side effects or toxic effects.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
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To determine the impact of nevirapine and subclinical mastitis on HIV-1 RNA in maternal plasma and breast milk after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine combined with either 1-week tail of Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine) or single-dose Truvada (tenofovir/emtricitabine).
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During the trial, 2 subjects in the EFV group were excluded due to rash and 1 subject in the LPV/RTV group due to gastric intolerance. The remaining 51 subjects (13 (25.5%) in the NTG and 38 (74.5%) in the TG) were included in the data analysis. Overall, 43 (84%) of analyzed patients were male and 8 (16%) female with an overall mean age of 33 ± 9 years. Of the 38 treated patients, 19 received LPV/RTV and 19 received EFV. Patients in the TG showed an increase in their CD4+ cell count, a decrease in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from 39.3 ± 28 IU/ml to 22.7 ± 6 IU/ml (p = 0.02), and a decrease in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from 52.0 ± 25 IU/ml to 23.8 ± 13 IU/ml (p < 0.01). Patients in the NTG showed no statistically significant differences in these measurements. Positive correlation was found between HIV viral load, AST (r = 0.31, p = 0.001) and ALT (r = 0.40, p = 0.04).
The median time to an undetectable HIV-1 viral load was 12 weeks (range 4-36 weeks). CD4 and CD16/56 counts increased during treatment and CD8 counts decreased minimally. The main side-effects observed were transient sleep disturbances (five patients). In addition, we observed a decrease in lymphocyte activation as assessed by CD38 surface expression.
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Contradicting results on the effect of abacavir (ABC) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment responses in HIV/HCV co-infected patients have been reported. We evaluated the influence of ABC on the response to pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV)-containing HCV treatment in HIV/HCV co-infected patients in a large European cohort collaboration, including data from different European countries.
Five ARV regimens are commonly used in China CARES: zidovudine (AZT) + lamivudine (3TC) + nevirapine (NVP), stavudine (D4T) + 3TC + efavirenz (EFV), D4T + 3TC + NVP, didanosine (DDI) + 3TC + NVP and combivir + EFV. The mean annual expenditure per person for ARV medications was US$2,242 (US$1 = 7 Chinese Yuan (CNY)) among 276 participants. The total costs for treating all adverse drug events (ADEs) and opportunistic infections (OIs) were US$29,703 and US$23,031, respectively. The expenses for treatment of peripheral neuritis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections were the highest among those patients with ADEs and OIs, respectively. On the basis of multivariate linear regression, CD4 cell counts (100-199 cells/μL versus <100 cells/μL, P = 0.02; and ≥200 cells/μL versus <100 cells/μL, P < 0.004), residence in Mangshi County (P < 0.0001), ADEs (P = 0.04) and OIs (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with total expenditures in the first ARV treatment year.
A total of 29 subjects were recruited (eight each in cohorts 1-3, and five in cohort 4). The geometric mean ratios for AUC(12) and C(max) for each treatment group compared with maraviroc monotherapy were: 47% and 67% (cohort 1); 48% and 76% (cohort 2); 101% and 154% (cohort 3); and 265% and 180% (cohort 4), respectively. T(max) was similar in all treatment groups. Mean values for renal clearance ranged from 8.2 l h(-1) (cohort 1) to 13.2 l h(-1) (cohort 4). There were no renal clearance data collected in the comparator study.
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Overall, 101 patients were enrolled (TVD group = 61, CBV group = 20, KVX group = 20); 191 observations were analysed. Male sex was associated with reduced leg fat mass, while age and body mass index (BMI) were associated with increased leg fat mass (all p < 0.05). Leg fat mass and male sex were associated with increased waist circumference (p < 0.001 for both). Leg fat mass predicted reduced ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, while age and BMI predicted increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (all p < 0.05). BMI predicted HOMA-IR increase (p = 0.0017). No differences in lipoatrophy, central fat accumulation, dyslipidaemia or glucose metabolism were observed among any of the three different nevirapine plus nucleoside backbone groups (TVD, CBV or KVX).
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Many formulated products contain complex polymeric excipients such as polyethylene glycols (PEGs). Such excipients can be readily ionized by electrospray and may be present at very high concentrations, thus making it very difficult to identify trace level impurities such as degradants in samples, even if hyphenated techniques such as liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) are used. Ion mobility (IM) spectrometry is a very rapid gas-phase separation technique and offers additional separation capability within the LC timeframe. This work investigates the use of an IM separator in combination with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and MS, to improve the separation of drug-related materials from excipients, thus aiding the identification of trace-level impurities in an anti-HIV medication, Combivir.
A province-wide standardized program of universal HIV counselling and offering of PEP to sexual assault survivors with frequent follow up was successfully implemented and feasible.
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We performed an observational study on prospectively collected data from patients participating in a multicentre Spanish treatment-naive cohort (VACH cohort). Efficacy was assessed comparing time to therapeutic failure and CD4 cell recovery. Safety was analysed comparing the proportion of patients who discontinued therapy for toxicity or any other reason.
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Preliminary reports suggest that patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have evidence of human betaretrovirus infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether antiviral therapy impacts on the disease process.
A human betaretrovirus has been characterized in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and the related mouse mammary tumor virus linked with autoimmune biliary disease in the NOD.c3c4 mouse model. Translational studies have been performed in patients who have PBC to investigate the role of viral infection in disease. Patients treated with Combivir experienced significant improvements in hepatic biochemistry, clinical symptoms, and histology with evidence of reversal of ductopenia. Preliminary studies suggest that the NOD.c3c4 mouse model of PBC provides a good model to test safer and more potent drug regimens for future use in trials for patients who have PBC.
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HIV-1 protease inhibitors (versus no protease inhibitors) and stavudine (versus zidovudine) are independently associated with a higher risk of lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients. We sought to determine whether the revision of stavudine and/or protease inhibitor-containing regimens to combivir/abacavir would result in prevention and/or reversibility of lipoatrophy in HIV-1-infected patients.
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Lamivudine/zidovudine and Combivir have equivalent antiretroviral activity over 12 weeks. Adding abacavir to Combivir can be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients, including those harbouring virus with the M184V mutation.
Chile, a middle-income country with an HIV epidemic of moderate proportions (global infection rate 0.2%) began a government sponsored, free, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for patients from the public health system in 2001 reaching in 2004 a 100% coverage. Arriaran Foundation (AF) is the largest public AIDS care center for adults in the country.
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After co-administration with BILR 355/r, the AUC(12,ss) and C(max,ss) of 3TC increased by 45% and 24%, respectively; the elimination half-life (t(1/2) ,ss) of 3TC was significantly increased. However, the pharmacokinetics of ZDV was unchanged. Co-administration with 3TC/ZDV resulted in a 22% decrease in AUC(12,ss) and a 20% decrease in C(max,ss) for BILR 355. The observed increase in exposure and prolongation of t(1/2,ss) of 3TC is potentially related to inhibition of OCT-mediated urinary excretion of 3TC.
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Review of AF database from 1991-2004 that at 12/31/2004 had a total cumulative population of 2,259 adult patients; an active census of 1,065 patients and admitting rate 160-190 patients per years.
: Samples of umbilical cord and cord blood were obtained from HIV-1-uninfected infants born to either HIV-1-infected women receiving Combivir therapy during pregnancy (n = 10) or HIV-1-uninfected women (n = 9).
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The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are commonly used in combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with hypersensitivity reactions on induction therapy. We report a case of recurrent hypersensitivity associated with Combivir, when there was a delay in determining the cause as the NNRTIs were considered to be the more likely cause.
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In the Treatment Options Preservation Study (TOPS) trial, 4 or 7 days of Combivir (CBV; zidovudine/lamivudine) with maternal single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) significantly reduced the emergence of NVP resistance as determined by virus population genotyping. To detect NVP resistance with greater sensitivity, we analysed TOPS samples by allele-specific real-time PCR (ASP).
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HAART is used at the stage of acute infection in the presence of psychic trauma provoked by establishment of HIV-infection diagnosis. Therefore, it is necessary to consult the patients for preparing them for treatment and to maintain compliance.
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With the FDC tablet, the geometric mean (90% CI) area under the curve (AUC) for ZDV, 3TC and NVP was 1.58 (1.49-1.68), 7.78 (7.38-8.19) and 68.88 (62.13-76.36) μg•h/ml, respectively. Rules for NVP therapeutic inadequacy were defined a priori, and despite lower NVP exposure with the tablet (P<0.001), the levels remained therapeutically adequate. ZDV AUC was similar between formulations. 3TC exposure was significantly higher with the tablet but comparable to historical data in adults and children taking branded tablets. While receiving the tablet, NVP AUC in children with CYP2B 516 GG (45%), GT (45%) and TT (10%) genotypes were 67.0, 74.5 and 106.4 μg•h/ml, respectively (P=0.04).
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Although most uninfected infants born to women infected with HIV-1 show no clinical evidence of mitochondrial compromise, mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in children born to women receiving zidovudine and/or lamivudine during pregnancy. In this pilot study we examined mitochondrial integrity in HIV-1-uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected women receiving Combivir during pregnancy.
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The results of this large European cohort study validate that SVR rates are generally not affected by ABC. Use of d4T or AZT as part of the HIV treatment regimen was associated with a lower likelihood of achieving an SVR.
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