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Eighty-eight volunteer students attending 2 secondary schools in Jos, Nigeria were involved in this study to determine the antimicrobial resistant profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from the nasopharynx. The study population consisted of males and females between the ages of 15-25 years. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were analyzed for the presence of S. pneumoniae using standard bacteriological methods. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method.
Of the 877 stool samples, 148 (16.8%) were culture positive for one of the three bacterial enteropathogens investigated. Among them, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. accounted for 98/877 (11.1%), 41/877 (4.6%), 9/877 (1.02%) of the isolates respectively. A year-to-year variation was seen in the type of predominant organism, with Shigella spp. being the most prevalent in 2002 and 2003 and Vibrio spp. in 2004. In all three years, Vibrio cholerae were encountered only during the months of April to June while Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were isolated throughout the whole year. All Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. All Shigella isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Ciprofloxacin resistance was observed among isolates of Shigella dysenteriae type-1 isolated after 2003.
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We report the case of a 68 year-old woman on haemodialysis who developed infective endocarditis as a result of Salmonella enteritidis. Although we treated the patient with ceftriaxone combined with ciprofloxacin, infective endocarditis was not detected early enough and unfortunately developed into cerebral septic emboli, which ultimately resulted in death.
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Fiberoptic bronchoscopic examination was performed, and bronchoalveolar samples were collected. Samples were analyzed immediately by a single technician. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for imipenem, cephalosporins (cefepime and cefpirome), ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin-tazobactam, and drug resistance rates were calculated. These drug resistance rates were translated into the likelihood of inadequate therapy (LIT; the frequency of inadequately treated patients per antibiotic and drug-resistant strain), cumulative LIT (the cumulative frequency of inadequately treated patients), and syndrome-specific LIT.
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Fluoroquinolones which are in use since 1986, are effective agents both against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Quinolones show bactericidal effect as a result of inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. Main quinolone resistance mechanisms are chromosomal mutations in these enzymes and decreased intracellular accumulation due to efflux pumps or decreased membrane uptake. Recently a new quinolone resistance mechanism mediated by plasmids has been defined. These plasmids carry genes called as qnr. Qnr genes do not cause quinolone resistance but they cause decreased quinolone susceptibility and lead to higher minimum inhibitory concentrations. Currently there are qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD and qnrS genes. This study was aimed to investigate the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected from four different centers in Turkey. A total of 647 isolates (387 from Trabzon, Black Sea region; 82 from Canakkale, Trace region; 96 from Ankara, Central Anatolia region; 82 from Tokat, Black Sea region) belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family collected between May-July 2009, were included in the study. Presence of qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and qnrC genes were investigated by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and confirmed by gene sequencing. The results of the PCR amplification revealed that 2 isolates were positive for qnrA, 12 isolates were positive for qnrB, 4 isolates were positive for qnrC and 10 isolates were positive for qnrS. However, the number of positive strains decreased with the use of gene sequencing, and this method led to the identification of qnrA1 in two isolates [Enterobacter cloacae (code. 796), Salmonella group B (code. 491)], qnrB1 in two isolates [Salmonella group B (code. 491), Citrobacter freundii (code. 768)], qnrB6 in one isolate [Escherichia coli (code. CC1800)], qnrB9 in one isolate [E.coli (code. CC1873)], qnrB24 in one isolate [Citrobacter koseri (code. MP5200)], qnrB27 in one isolate [C.freundii (code. 842)], qnrS1 in two isolates [E.coli (code. CC1705), E.coli (code.159)] and qnrB2 in one isolate [E.coli (code. 843)]. One of the isolates that carried the qnr gene was ciprofloxacin-resistant and two isolates were nalidixic-acid resistant. Transferable quinolone resistance due to the dissemination of qnr genes may have important impacts in terms of infection control and treatment problems. Survey of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance will help to determine the size of the issue and guide the measures that should be taken to avoid escalation of resistance and dissemination problem.
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Thirty-three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi blood isolates from Lima, Peru (2008 to 2012), were fully susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and tetracycline; 8/33 (24.2%) showed intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin carrying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene (Ser83-Phe and Asp87-Asn) and in the gyrB gene (Ser464-Phe).
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All isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, kanamycin, gentamicin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and resistant to rifampicin, penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefamandole, polymyxin B/colistin, fusidic acid, lincosamides, streptogramins, daptomycin, linezolid and cefuroxime. Old isolates exhibited reduced susceptibility to streptomycin. Cefotaxime and streptomycin showed significant differences in the K-W test. None of the strains studied presented ESBL. Resistance to antimicrobials was not drastically different in Serratia when old and current strains were compared.
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Mutations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes are the main mechanisms of resistance to quinolones. In this study, we determined mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE among 57 ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a South Korean hospital and analysed the relationship between the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fluoroquinolones and mutations in the topoisomerase IV gene. All ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates carried double mutations in gyrA and at least a single mutation in parC; some isolates also carried a single mutation in parE. The most common mutations were S83L and D87N in gyrA, S80I in parC and S458A in parE, which accounted for 25% of isolates. Single mutations in parE at L445I, S458P and S458W were identified for the first time. Double mutations in parC and a combination of single mutations in parC and parE significantly increased the MIC values of fluoroquinolones. In vitro induction of resistance to ciprofloxacin showed that double mutations in gyrA were a prerequisite to conferring a resistant phenotype to fluoroquinolones, and an additional mutation in the topoisomerase IV gene increased the MIC values of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, emergence of a new mutation in parC and parE and its accumulation induces high levels of resistance to fluoroquinolones in E. coli.
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287 Gram-negative isolates from 144 patients were identified, 80.1% were Escherichia coli and 13.9% were Klebsiella pneumoniae. 27 patients who received antibiotics within 3 months exhibited higher prevalence of organisms with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) production (40.7 vs. 22.2%) and ceftriaxone-resistance (48.1 vs. 28.2%). 134 patients received a short-course antibiotic prophylaxis in which fluoroquinolone (FQ) contributed to 89.6% of cases. Patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis showed a higher prevalence of organisms resistant to ceftriaxone (34.3 vs. 0%), ciprofloxacin (90.3 vs. 30%) and FQ (95.5 vs. 50%) and a trend of more ESBL production (27.6 vs. 0%).
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There were no statistically significant differences in antibiotic consumption with regulated or unregulated dispensing, either before or after the introduction of measures regulating the dispensing of antibiotics.
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The dermal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was treated with i.v. piperacillin 4 g/tazobactam 0,5 g twice daily. Furthermore, the patient received 400 mg ibuprofen twice daily per os. Seven days later all symptoms had resolved.
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Acinetobacter spp. are the frequent causes of nosocomial infections which are difficult to treat due to multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibilities and the presence of metallo-beta-lactamases in Acinetobacter spp. isolated from patients admitted to Hacettepe University Adult Hospital. A total of 124 Acinetobacter spp. isolates were included in the study. Antibiotic susceptibilities against imipenem (IMP), meropenem (MER), ceftazidime (CAZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and aztreonam (AZT) were studied by microdilution susceptibility testing according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Multidrug-resistant isolates (MDR) were further tested for susceptibility against colistin by microdilution, and against amikacin (AN), piperacillin-tazobactam (PIP-TAZ), cefepime (FEP), ceftriaxone (CRO), tetracycline (TET), trimetoprim-sulfomethoxazole (SXT) and mezlocillin (MEZ) by disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Each isolate was also tested for metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) production by using IMP and EDTA combined disk diffusion test and molecular analysis for bla(IMP-1) and bla(VIM-2) genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among 124 non-duplicate isolates, 72 were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii and 52 as Acinetobacter lwoffii. Minimum inhibitor concentration 50 (MIC50) and minimum inhibitor concentration 90 (MIC90) values of the isolates were 32 and 128 microg/ml for IMP, 16 and 32 microg/ml for MER, 128 and 256 microg/ml for CIP, 64 and 256 microg/ml for CAZ, 128 and 256 microg/ml for AZT, respectively. Forty-three (34.7%) isolates were susceptible to IMP. Overall, 51 (41%) Acinetobacter spp. were found to be resistant to > or = 3 antibiotics belonging to different antimicrobial classes and defined as MDR. Colistin MIC50 and MIC90 values were 2 and 8 microg/ml, respectively and the rate of colistin resistance was 27.5% in MDR isolates. The resistance rates for AN, PIP-TAZ, FEP, CRO, TET, SXT and MEZ were 80.4%, 98%, 92.2%, 100%, 100%, 86.3% and 86.3%, respectively. Among 124 isolates, 64 (51.6%) yielded positive result by IMP-EDTA combined disk test, and all the isolates were negative in terms of the tested MBL genes by PCR. These data revealed high level resistance among the Acinetobacter population in our hospital. The high rate of carbapenem resistance and increasing colistin resistance among Acinetobacter isolates should be surveyed cautiously. The increasing incidence of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter spp. emphasizes the need for new and effective treatment options.
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether the addition of disposable enemas and a 24-hour diet of clear fluids to the bowel preparation protocol before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy decreases the rate of postbiopsy sepsis.
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Shigella is a frequent cause of bacterial dysentery in the developing world. Treatment with effective antibiotics is recommended for shigellosis, but options become limited due to globally emerging resistance. One of the mechanisms for the development of resistance utilizes integrons. This study described the antibiotic susceptibility and the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons in S. flexneri and S. sonnei isolated in Uzbekistan.
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In chicken, prevalent serogroups and serovars were associated with chicken ages, lines and regions; and flouroquinolone-resistant and MDR isolates emerged. H1 antigens "g complex and i" and H2 antigens "1 complex and -" might be important for transmission of Salmonella between chicken and human.
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Streptococcus suis is a common infection of pigs. Human infection is often related to accidental inoculation through skin injuries during occupational exposure to pigs and pork. The disease may present as meningitis, bacteremia, and less commonly endocarditis, arthritis, or bronchopneumonia.
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We observed a consistent rate of emergency admissions for complications following TGB; 90 % of these were due to infections. Ciprofloxacin-resistant but amikacin-sensitive E. coli was isolated in all bacteriologically confirmed infections. These results suggest that infective complications of TGB cannot be altogether eliminated despite appropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis. Therefore, additional strategies for reduction in biopsy-related admissions due to infections have to be considered.
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Response to therapy was higher for CHC (95.71% vs 89.83%) but was statistically noninferior (lower confidence limit, -4.98) to NPH + AMX. Median time to end of pain was 6 days for both groups. Noninferiority was declared for symptom scores at all measurement periods and for microbiological eradication. No serious adverse events related to treatment were reported.
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Clinical and laboratory characteristics of six pediatric refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia cases treated with ciprofloxacin and glucocorticoids were reported.
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Fourteen out of 16 carbapenem-resistant quinolone-susceptible Enterobacter cloacae isolates were found to carry qnrB2 and bla(KPC-2) genes encoded on the same plasmid. One isolate also carried the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene. Coexistence of quinolone resistance determinants and bla(KPC-2) on the same plasmid in quinolone-susceptible E. cloacae isolates may have important clinical implications.
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A total of 53 patients with IgAN (group A) and 53 chronic tonsillitis patients without nephritis (group B) underwent tonsillectomy. The tonsil tissues of patients were collected under sterile condition. The bacteria in the tonsil crypt of patients in both groups were isolated and identified for antibiotic susceptibility test by the manual routine of the laboratory and also with the autoScan/Microscan system.
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Ciprofloxacin is commonly used in Poland specially for the treatment of urinary tract infections including urethritis. Patients are often treated without pathogen identification and antimicrobial resistance tests. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is one of the most common causes of urethritis in Poland. The resistance of bacteria to a wide range of antibiotics including ciprofloxacine makes the therapy of gonorrhoea more difficult. The mechanism of ciprofloxacine action depends on inactivation of bacterial topoisomerase II (gyrase) and topoisomerase IV. A resistance to ciprofloxacine occurring in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is mainly due to mutations in bacterial gyrA (encoding topoisomerase II) and/or parC (encoding topoisomerase IV ) genes. High level resistance is an effect of combination of three or four mutations. Another, less important mechanism of ciprofloxacin resistance, that can coexist with mutations in gyrA and parC genes related to the overproduction of membrane pumps proteins.
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Wound infections result in sepsis, limb loss, long hospital stays, higher costs, and are responsible for significant human mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of pathogens cultured from wound infection and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. A retrospective analysis of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility was done on wound swab samples that have been cultured at Dessie Regional Laboratory from 2003 to 2010. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done using disc diffusion technique as per the standard of Kirby-Bauer method. The mean age of male and female patients was 31.2 and 29.8 years, respectively with male to female ratio of 1:1.6. Out of 599 wound swab samples analyzed, 422 (70.5%) were culture positive. A total of 500 bacteria from 422 positive cases were identified. Seventy eight (18.5%) of the culture had double infections. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen which accounted for 208 (41.6%) of isolates followed by Pseudomonas spp. 92 (18.4%), E. coli 82 (16.4%), Proteus spp. 55 (11.0%), Enterobacter spp. 21 (4.2%), and Citrobacter spp. 21 (4.2%), Kle.bsiella spp. 12 (2.4%) and Coagulate negative staphylococcus 9 (1.8%). Amoxicillin had the highest resistance rate 78.9%, followed by tetracycline 76.1% and erythromycin (63.9%). The sensitivity rates of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were 95.1%, 91.8% and 85%, respectively. The overall multiple antimicrobial resistances rate was 65.2% and only 13% of the isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobial agents tested. The most frequently isolated bacteria were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, cloxacillin and norfloxacin. These antimicrobials are considered as appropriate antimicrobials for empirical treatment of wound infections. Periodic surveillance of aetiology and drug susceptibility both in the community and hospital settings is recommended.
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Antibiotic resistance has become a major clinical and public health problem within the lifetime of most people living today. Development of new therapeutic approaches to prevent antimicrobial chemotherapy from bacterial multidrug resistance has thus been becoming a primary consideration in the medicinal community. In this study, we describe a protocol that is potential for combating multidrug resistance by rational screening of natural medicines to target the bacterial functional proteome. To achieve this, a pipeline of integrating virtual screening and susceptibility testing has been described to identify antibacterial agents from various natural products with diverse structures and high drug-likeness. A number of promising candidates with potent antibacterial activity were identified, from which six available compounds were assayed to determine their susceptibility to four multidrug-resistant strains. Consequently, while most tested candidates showed moderate (20 < MIC < 50 μg/mL) or low (MIC>50 μg/mL) antibacterial activities, two natural products, i.e. pseudopterosin A and ciprofloxacin, were measured to possess strong broad-spectrum potency combating different strains (MIC < 20 μg/mL).
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The evaluation of phenotypic resistance revealed all of the strains from poultry were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin or tylosin. But, widespread resistance to lincomycin (51-100%), extensive resistance to ampicillin (33·3-60·2%) and less resistance to tetracycline (5·6-40·7%) were observed in the different groups of chickens. Antibiotic resistance genes bla(OXA-61,) cmeB and tet(O) were found in 82·6-92·7%, 80·3-89% and 22·3-30·9% Camp. coli isolates from pigs, whilst 59-65·4% and 19·2-40·7% Camp. jejuni from chickens were found to encode bla(OXA-61) and tet(O), respectively.
We undertook this study to assess the efficacy of cefepime against current clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa and to study existence of different beta-lactamase enzymes among cefepime resistant P. aeruginosa isolates.
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Four new mixed-ligand complexes of Cu(II) with ciprofloxacin (Cip) and uninegative bidentate ligands have been synthesized and characterized. The structure of mixed-ligand complexes was investigated using spectroscopic method, physicochemical and elemental analyses. The fluorescence spectra of complexes show red shift, which may be due to the chelation by the ligands to the metal ion. It enhances ligand ability to accept electrons and decreases the electron transition energy. Antimycobacterial screening of ligand and its copper compound against Mycobacterium tuberculosis shows clear enhancement in the antitubercular activity upon copper complexation.
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We collected data referring to patients hostpitalized for K. pneumoniae infections in the 4 university hospitals of Marseille from January 2012 to July 2015. We then study their antibiotic resistance profiles according the clinical sites from which each strain was collected. Antibiotic consumption data from our four hospitals were also analyzed from January 2013 to July 2015.