Generic Casodex is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of prostate cancer. Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Bicalutamide.
Generic Casodex is a perfect remedy in struggle against prostate cancer.
Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Casodex is also known as Bicalutamide, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid, Bicalox.
Generic name of Generic Casodex is Bicalutamide.
Brand name of Generic Casodex is Casodex.
Take Generic Casodex tablets orally with or without food.
Take Generic Casodex at the same time every day with water.
Do not crush or chew it.
This medicine is only for men.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Casodex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Casodex are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Casodex if you are allergic to Generic Casodex components.
Use contraception and avoid vaccinations.
Try to be careful using Generic Casodex if you take warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin-substitute products, aspirin.
Be very careful with Generic Casodex if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease.
Do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
In the following article, we discuss the evolution of ADT from its initial applications in metastatic prostate cancer to its more recent incorporation into front line treatment in conjunction with radiation therapy (RT) for intermediate and high risk disease. We emphasize the results of phase III trials, which have defined the role of ADT in combination with RT in this patient population. We emphasize not only the potential benefits of ADT with RT, but also the potential risks, and underscore the need to consider both in order to maximize the therapeutic ration for each patient. Studies were identified via a search of PubMed as well as the bibliographies of articles discussed herein. Expert commentary: Even with advanced radiation techniques and dose escalation, adjuvant ADT continues to confer an overall survival benefit in intermediate and high-risk patients, although some evidence suggest that duration of treatment may be shortened, particularly for the high-risk group. The coming years will shed further information on this complicated topic with maturing of results from several ongoing trials.
Bicalutamide is a nonsteroidal anti-androgen used extensively during the initiation of androgen deprivation therapy with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist to reduce the symptoms of tumor flare in patients with metastatic prostate neoplasm. It can cause gynecomastia, hot flashes, fatigue, and decreased libido through competitive androgen receptor blockade. Although not as common, acute drug-induced liver injury is also possible with bicalutamide therapy. Typically, this results in transient derangement of liver function and patients remain asymptomatic. We share our experience with a case of symptomatic acute hepatotoxicity secondary to the use of bicalutamide and use this opportunity to present a brief review of existing literature.
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Eighty-four radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with localized prostate cancer (PC) (22 neoadjuvant androgen ablation, AA, 62 no AA), 42 non-cancer and 16 advanced PCs were assessed for MRP4/ABCC4 mRNA/protein expression. The effect of DHT and bicalutamide on LNCaP cells was assessed by immunoblotting. HEK293 cells (+/-MRP4/ABCC4) were assessed for the ability to efflux androgens and anti-androgens.
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Based on the data of current status of endocrine therapy for prostate cancer registered in the Japan Study Group of Prostate Cancer (J-CaP), we conducted an analysis of primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) and an interim analysis of the prognosis.
We evaluated serum levels of total testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone and screened prostate biopsy and metastatic specimens for androgen receptor protein expression and mutations. We did hormone analyses and capillary electrophoresis. We tested the effect of the HHDS product on androgen receptor-negative (DU-145 and PC-3) and androgen receptor-positive (LNCaP) human prostate cancer cell lines.
Androgen deprivation or treatment with the anti-androgen bicalutamide promoted autophagy in HRPCa-derived LNCaP cells. This effect was dramatically reduced after depletion of Atg5 and Beclin-1, two canonical autophagy genes, and was associated with an inhibition of the androgen-induced mTOR pathway. The depletion of Atg5 and Beclin-1 significantly increased the level of cell death induced by androgen deprivation or bicalutamide. Finally, the safe anti-malarial drug chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy, dramatically increased cell death after androgen deprivation or bicalutamide treatment.
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After 6 and 12 months, whereas patients treated only with calcium and cholecalciferol (group A) showed a marked bone loss, with increased levels of DPD and BALP compared with baseline values, patients treated also with neridronate (group B) had substantially unchanged levels of these markers. After 1 year of treatment, lumbar and total hip BMD decreased significantly in patients treated only with calcium and cholecalciferol (group A), whereas it did not change significantly at any skeletal site in patients treated also with neridronate (group B). No relevant side effects were recorded during our study.
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In this pilot study, 40 men were randomized 1 : 1 to bicalutamide 50 mg o.d. or cyproterone acetate 100 mg t.i.d. 5 days prior to goserelin acetate and continued for 21 days thereafter. PSA, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone were obtained before treatment and on days 6, 8, 10, 16, 21 and 28. Primary end point was PSA. Hormone profile and clinical features including urinary symptoms and bone pain were secondary end points.
The recent emergence of new hormonal or chemotherapeutic drugs has resulted in a paradigm shift in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer(CRPC). Enzalutamide is a rationally designed, orally administered androgen receptor(AR)inhibitor. It inhibits multiple points in the androgen receptor signalling pathway, which is considered an important driver of CRPC, including the inhibition of androgen binding to the AR, nuclear translocation of the AR complex, and binding of the AR complex to deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA). Unlike other anti-androgens(such as bicalutamide), enzalutamide does not act as a partial AR agonist. The first in human phase I/II trial was conducted in the United States in both chemotherapy-naïve patients and postchemotherapy patients with progressive metastatic CRPC(mCRPC). The results showed encouraging antitumor activity of enzalutamide by considering all outcomes assessed in the trial. The first reported phase III trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study involving 1,199 patients with mCRPC that progressed even after docetaxel therapy(AFFIRM trial). Enzalutamide was associated with significant benefits over the placebo considering time-to-event outcomes(i.e. prolonged overall survival[OS], delayed time to prostatic specific antigen[PSA]progression[TTPP], prolonged radiographic progression free survival[rPFS], time to the first skeletal related event[SRE])as well as objective response outcomes(i.e. PSA, soft tissue, and quality of life[QOL]). On the basis of the AFFIRM results, Astellas and Medivation filed a new drug application with the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency in 2012, and obtained their approval. Another phaseI/II enzalutamide trial was conducted in both chemotherapy-naïve patients and post-chemotherapy pa- tients with progressive mCRPC. Enzalutamide at a dose of 160mg/day was well tolerated, and it showed pharmacokinetic characteristics, adverse events, and anti-tumor activity profiles similar to that of the non-Japanese population. On the basis of the results of the studies summarized above, a new drug application was submitted to the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan in May 2013 and obtained the approval in Mar 2014. The second phase III trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study of 1,717 chemotherapy- naïve patients with CRPC(PREVAIL trial). An interim analysis recently demonstrated the significant benefits of enzalutamide over the placebo considering both OS and rPFS. In light of these results, the Independent Data Monitoring Committee (IDMC)advised terminating the study early, and suggested treating the patients in the placebo group with enzalutamide. This paper reviews the developmental history of enzalutamide, its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, as well as available efficacy and tolerability data yielded in clinical trials of patients with CRPC.
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly diverse group of cancers, and subtyping is necessary to better identify molecular-based therapies. In this study, we analyzed gene expression (GE) profiles from 21 breast cancer data sets and identified 587 TNBC cases. Cluster analysis identified 6 TNBC subtypes displaying unique GE and ontologies, including 2 basal-like (BL1 and BL2), an immunomodulatory (IM), a mesenchymal (M), a mesenchymal stem-like (MSL), and a luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtype. Further, GE analysis allowed us to identify TNBC cell line models representative of these subtypes. Predicted "driver" signaling pathways were pharmacologically targeted in these cell line models as proof of concept that analysis of distinct GE signatures can inform therapy selection. BL1 and BL2 subtypes had higher expression of cell cycle and DNA damage response genes, and representative cell lines preferentially responded to cisplatin. M and MSL subtypes were enriched in GE for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and growth factor pathways and cell models responded to NVP-BEZ235 (a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) and dasatinib (an abl/src inhibitor). The LAR subtype includes patients with decreased relapse-free survival and was characterized by androgen receptor (AR) signaling. LAR cell lines were uniquely sensitive to bicalutamide (an AR antagonist). These data may be useful in biomarker selection, drug discovery, and clinical trial design that will enable alignment of TNBC patients to appropriate targeted therapies.
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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently emerged as a potential target for cancer therapy due to the observation that activation of AMPK inhibits tumor cell growth. It is well-known that androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a major driver for the development and progression of prostate cancer and that downregulation of AR is a critical step in the induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. However, little is known about the potential interaction between AMPK and AR signaling pathways. In the current study, we showed that activation of AMPK by metformin caused decrease of AR protein level through suppression of AR mRNA expression and promotion of AR protein degradation, demonstrating that AMPK activation is upstream of AR downregulation. We also showed that inhibition of AR function by an anti-androgen or its siRNA enhanced AMPK activation and growth inhibition whereas overexpression of AR delayed AMPK activation and increased prostate cancer cellular resistance to metformin treatment, suggesting that AR suppresses AMPK signaling-mediated growth inhibition in a feedback mechanism. Our findings thus reveal a novel AMPK-AR regulatory loop in prostate cancer cells and should have a potential clinical significance.
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Metformin treatment reduced cell viability and enhanced apoptosis for both cell lines and additive effects were observed when LNCaP cells were treated with combined metformin and bicalutamide. Metformin down-regulated full-length AR protein in LNCaP cells. Both full-length and the truncated AR (AR-v7) were down-regulated by metformin in CWR22Rv1 cells. In both LNCaP and CWR22Rv1 cells, metformin repressed AR signaling pathway not by affecting AR protein degradation/stability, but rather through down-regulating the levels of AR mRNAs.
Patients with new metastatic prostate cancer were randomly assigned within 30 days of initiating androgen deprivation (AD) to cixutumumab added to a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist with bicalutamide versus AD alone. With 180 patients and one-sided alpha of 0.10, there would be 90% power to detect an absolute 20% difference in undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA; ≤ 0.2 ng/mL) rate at 28 weeks (relative risk, 1.44); this end point was previously strongly correlated with survival. Secondary end points included the proportion of patients with PSA > 4.0 ng/mL, safety and tolerability, circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels, and seven plasma IGF-IR biomarkers. Fisher's exact test was used for the primary end point, and extended Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test was used for three PSA response categories.
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This five-year study involved 14 patients aged 67-82 years (average 73). Zoladex LA was administered subcutaneously every 3rd month of treatment, and every day 1 tablet Casodex and 1 tablet Proscar. In the time when PSA was <0.1 mg/ml Zoladex and Casodex were withdrawn, and only Proscar was left. The mMAB treatment was resumed when PSA > 0.1 ng/ml. Before and every 3 months the following laboratory tests were made: PSA, sedimentation, bilirubine, transaminase, phosphatase, ultrasonography (USG); and adverse events were registered. The following criteria of assessment were adopted: CR--complete response--examination tests normal, improved condition, reduction of prostate dimension in USG and value of PSA < 0.1 ng/ml; PR partial response i.e. no progression, the PSA level drops down to the reference values and a reduction of prostate dimension in USG occurs, NR--no response i.e. progression, increased prostate dimension in USG and/or metastases in scintygraphy, as well as PSA above normal.
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One mechanism of prostate tumors for escape from androgen ablation therapies is mutation of the androgen receptor (AR). We investigated the unique properties of the AR L701H mutant, which is strongly stimulated by cortisol, by a systematic structure-function analysis. Most amino acid substitutions at position 701 did not affect AR activation by 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Further analysis of the AR Leu(701) variants showed that AR L701M and AR L701Q, like AR L701H, had changed ligand responsiveness. AR L701M was strongly activated by progesterone but not by cortisol, whereas the opposite was observed for AR L701Q and AR L701H. Next, we analyzed a panel of structurally related steroids to study which of the OH groups at positions 11beta, 17alpha, and 21, which discriminate cortisol from progesterone, underlie the differential responses to both hormones. The results showed that the 17alpha-OH group was essential for activation of AR L701H and AR L701Q, whereas its absence was important for activation of AR L701M. Modeling indicated a conserved H-bonding network involving the steroidal 17alpha-OH group, His(701) or Gln(701), and the backbone of Ser(778). This network is absent in Leu(701) and in other mutants. A hydrophobic leucine or methionine at position 701 is unfavorable for the 17alpha-OH group. Our results indicate that the specific amino acid residue at position 701, its interaction with the backbone of Ser(778), and the steroidal 17alpha-hydroxyl group of the ligand are all important for the distinct transcriptional responses to progesterone and cortisol of AR mutants, including the prostate cancer mutant L701H.
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A response to deferred CAB was observed in 27 (48%) of the 56 patients. There was no significant difference between the responders and the non-responders in pretreatment clinical variables, including Gleason score, metastatic sites, PSA level at diagnosis, and PSA nadir during castration monotherapy. A deferred CAB response was a significant predictor of CSS after confirmation of resistance to initial castration monotherapy. The deferred CAB responders had significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (median 3.2 months in the responders, 2.1 month in the non-responders, P = 0.04) and CSS (median 3.0 years in the responders, 1.5 years in the non-responders, P = 0.04) after oestrogen therapy. Likewise, PFS (median 8.2 months in the responders, 2.2 months in the non-responders, P < 0.01) and CSS (median not reached in the responders, 1.4 years in the non-responders, P < 0.01) after docetaxel therapy was significantly longer in the deferred CAB responders.
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Mature data from phase III studies have shown that 150 mg bicalutamide monotherapy provide similar survival outcome to that observed with castration in patients with locally advanced (M0) disease. Moreover, 150 mg bicalutamide have benefits over castration in terms of quality of life, particularly sexual interest and physical capacity, and preservation of bone mineral density. In the bicalutamide early prostate cancer program 150 mg significantly reduced the risk of objective progression in patients with localized or locally advanced disease at 3 years of median followup, with the greatest benefit seen in patients with poorer prognosis. Followup is ongoing to further determine the benefit of 150 mg bicalutamide in early prostate cancer.
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A patient affected by metastatic prostatic carcinoma and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) was treated with flutamide 750 mg/day plus an LH-RH analog. After confirmation of basal castration during treatment, he continued with antiandrogens alone. Following the normalization of gonadic function and subjective mild bone flare-up, the patient resumed the initial treatment and obtained a partial response. When flutamide was interrupted because of liver toxicity, the patient showed progressive disease in the bone, which was unresponsive to both flutamide resumption and salvage hormone therapy (bicalutamide). The patient is currently receiving chemotherapy with VP16 and estramustine phosphate and is showing both serologic (PSA) and symptomatic response. The interest of this case lies in the incidental detection of HH during therapy and in the responsiveness to treatment.
Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are being evaluated as long-term adjuvant therapies and chemopreventives in breast cancer. However, there are concerns about bone mineral density loss in an estrogen-free environment. Unlike nonsteroidal AIs, the steroidal AI exemestane may exert beneficial effects on bone through its primary metabolite 17-hydroexemestane. We investigated 17-hydroexemestane and observed it bound estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) very weakly and androgen receptor (AR) strongly. Next, we evaluated 17-hydroexemestane in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells and attributed dependency of its effects on ER or AR using the antiestrogen fulvestrant or the antiandrogen bicalutamide. 17-Hydroexemestane induced proliferation, stimulated cell cycle progression and regulated transcription at high sub-micromolar and micromolar concentrations through ER in both cell lines, but through AR at low nanomolar concentrations selectively in T47D cells. Responses of each cell type to high and low concentrations of the non-aromatizable synthetic androgen R1881 paralleled those of 17-hydroexemestane. 17-Hydroexemestane down-regulated ERalpha protein levels at high concentrations in a cell type-specific manner similarly as 17beta-estradiol, and increased AR protein accumulation at low concentrations in both cell types similarly as R1881. Computer docking indicated that the 17beta-OH group of 17-hydroexemestane relative to the 17-keto group of exemestane contributed significantly more intermolecular interaction energy toward binding AR than ERalpha. Molecular modeling also indicated that 17-hydroexemestane interacted with ERalpha and AR through selective recognition motifs employed by 17beta-estradiol and R1881, respectively. We conclude that 17-hydroexemestane exerts biological effects as an androgen. These results may have important implications for long-term maintenance of patients with AIs.
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To assess the effect of adding bicalutamide on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) during androgen deprivation monotherapy (ADMT).
The records of all patients with cT1-4NXM0 adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with ADT as the primary initial therapy at the Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center between 1993 and 2000 were reviewed. Age, race, Charlson Health Index, family history, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA density, digital rectal examination (DRE) findings, Gleason score, and percentage of positive biopsy cores at diagnosis were recorded for 81 patients. Patients had a median (SD, range) age of 73 (5.6, 58-84) years, a PSA level of 14.3 (34.6, 1.4-252) ng/mL and tumours were classified as Gleason score < or = 5 in 9% of patients, 6 in 31%, 7 in 31% and 8-10 in 30%. Outcomes extracted were PSA progression, PSA nadir, bone fractures, local progression, distant progression and overall survival.
A total of 151 patients with prostate cancer, who were enrolled into this study from May 2001 to June 2003, were randomized to receive CAB therapy using a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (leuprorelin) combined with a steroidal antiandrogen (chlormadinone) or a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (bicalutamide). The incidence of, frequency of, and distress due to hot flashes were evaluated with a self-administered questionnaire during a 2-year period. The general and disease-specific quality-of-life outcomes were also measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate questionnaire.
Real-time RT-PCR showed that DHT at 1-100 nM significantly inhibited 1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3)-induced expression of 24-hydroxylase in LNCaP cells. Furthermore, the catabolism of 1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3) was decreased by 10 nM DHT. An androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, Casodex antagonized the DHT effect, whereas an AR agonist (due to the mutant AR in LNCaP cells) hydroxyflutamide did not.
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Data were available for analysis from 124 patients. Although the incidence of hot flashes largely tended to be greater in the bicalutamide group than in the chlormadinone group, no significant difference was noted in the cumulative incidence of hot flashes at 2 years. The median frequency of hot flashes daily was 1.3 and 2.2 for warmth/flushing (P = .16) and 1.0 and 3.6 for sweating (P = .021) in the chlormadinone and bicalutamide groups, respectively. Patients in the chlormadinone group were significantly less likely to be distressed by warmth/flushing (odds ratio 0.47, P < .001) and sweating (odds ratio 0.61, P = .01) than were those in the bicalutamide group. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate scores over time showed no intergroup differences.
CDC6 is a key component of the DNA replication initiation machinery, and its transcription is regulated by E2F or androgen receptor (AR) alone or in combination in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Through both overexpression and knockdown approaches, we found that in addition to its effects on the E2F pathway, the cell proliferation specific transcription factor FOXM1 stimulated CDC6 transcription in cooperation with AR. We have identified a forkhead box motif in the CDC6 proximal promoter that is occupied by FOXM1 and is sufficient to drive FOXM1-regulated transcription. Indirectly, FOXM1 elevated AR protein levels and AR dependent transcription. Furthermore, FOXM1 and AR proteins physically interact. Using synchronized cultures, we observed that CDC6 expression is elevated near S phase of the cell cycle, at a time coinciding with elevated FOXM1 and AR expression and CDC6 promoter occupancy by both AR and FOXM1 proteins. Androgen increased the binding of AR protein to CDC6 promoter, and AR and FOXM1 knockdown decreased AR binding. These results provided new evidence for the regulatory mechanism of aberrant CDC6 oncogene transcription by FOXM1 and AR, two highly expressed transcription factors in PCa cells. Functionally, the cooperation of FOXM1 and AR accelerated DNA synthesis and cell proliferation by affecting CDC6 gene expression. Furthermore, siomycin A, a proteasome inhibitor known to inhibit FOXM1 expression and activity, inhibited PCa cell proliferation and its effect was additive to that of bicalutamide, an antiandrogen commonly used to treat PCa patients.
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For all ADT treated patients, mean haemoglobin declined by -1.11 g/dL (p<.0001). Leuprolide-alone treated patients had a mean decline of -1.66 g/dL (p<0.0001). Leuprolide and bicalutamide combination treatment caused a mean decline of -0.78 g/dL (p=0.0426). 16 of 43 patients had anemia symptoms. Contingency analysis with Fisher's exact test shows patients receiving leuprolide therapy alone versus other forms of ADT were significantly less likely to have symptoms (chi(2)=0.0190).
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TERRAIN was a double-blind, randomised phase 2 study, that recruited asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic men with prostate cancer progression on androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) from academic, community, and private health-care provision sites across North America and Europe. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive voice response system to receive enzalutamide 160 mg/day or bicalutamide 50 mg/day, both taken orally, in addition to ADT, until disease progression. Patients were stratified by a permutated block method (block size of four), by whether bilateral orchiectomy or receipt of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist or antagonist therapy started before or after the diagnosis of metastases, and by study site. Participants, investigators, and those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, analysed in all randomised patients. Safety outcomes were analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The open-label period of the trial is in progress, wherein patients still on treatment at the end of the double-blind treatment period were offered open-label enzalutamide at the discretion of the patient and study investigator. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01288911.
The expression of AR and its effects on sperm were evaluated by RT-PCR, Western Blot, Immunocytochemistry, PI3Kinase and DNA laddering assays.
Testosterone has been implicated in the preservation of the skeleton in women and female rats. In this study we investigated the role of androgens in estrogen-replete female rats by giving Casodex (pure nonsteroidal anti-androgen) daily and analyzing the effects on the skeleton using static and dynamic histomorphometric parameters after 3 weeks. There was a significant reduction in the bone formation rate in both the cancellous bone of the tibial metaphysis and in the periosteal and corticoendosteal diaphyseal bone (90%, 30%, and 100% reduction, respectively), compared with control animals, which was unaccompanied by a change in the indices of bone resorption. Casodex had no effect on cancellous bone volume and cortical bone area but this can be accounted for by the short duration of the experiment. The serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and androstenedione were significantly reduced in the Casodex-treated rats compared with the control animals and there was no difference in the plasma levels of estrone, estradiol, or testosterone between the two groups. This study demonstrates that androgens play a physiological role in regulating osteoblast activity in female rats.
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Long-term hormonal ablation in prostate cancer is associated with decreased overall health and quality of life. Few reports emphasized the role of chemotherapy in the management of early stage prostate cancer. This study analyzed the safety and efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus chemotherapy as initial treatment for patients identified as local failures or not eligible for prostatectomy or radiation therapy due to advanced disease presentation.
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