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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on pluripotent-mesenchymal cell differentiation.
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This paper reviews the pathophysiology and diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy and recent clinical trials assessing the most appropriate therapeutic options for delaying the progression of nephropathy in patients with diabetes.
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All patients (mean age 33.7 years) presented a typical history of effort intolerance, palpitations and tachycardia. Resting HR (bpm) was decreased: 106.5 +/- 3 to 88.5 +/- 2 (week 1), to 77.0 +/- 3 (week 2) and to 73.7 +/- 13 (month 3). Reductions (Holter monitoring) of the maximum, average and minimum HR (beats) were: 152.0 +/- 19 to 128.5 +/- 18; 96.0 +/- 1.4 to 73 +/- 3.2 and 63.2 +/- 6 to 48.2 +/- 3. Total exercise time was amplified (555 +/- 99 to 679 +/- 90 s) and quality of life improved.
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Five new tetrahydrofuran lignans (1-5), accompanied by four known compounds, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Peperomia dindygulensis. Structures were elucidated mainly using 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and mass spectroscopic studies. The relative configurations of 1-5 were determined by NOE correlations. Several of the compounds showed weak growth inhibitory activity against three cell lines (WI-38, VA-13, and HepG2). Compound 5 exhibited stronger MDR (multidrug resistance) reversal activity than verapamil at 2.5 microg/mL in a cellular calcein accumulation assay. Compounds 4 and 5 showed weak inhibitory activity against induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in anti-inflammatory activity experiments.
Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is present in the plasma membrane of various tumor cells and in several normal cell types, contributes to the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype of many human cancers. As a prerequisite for therapy, the expression of Pgp must be studied. The available clinical radiopharmaceuticals for studying the expression of Pgp include the lipophilic (99m)Tc cations (sestamibi, tetrofosmin) as well as [(99m)Tc]Q57, [(99m)Tc]Q58, and [(99m)Tc]Q63. Here we describe the in vitro and in vivo properties of the structurally different complex (3-thiapentane-1, 5-dithiolato)[[N-(3-phenylpropyl)-N-2(3-quinazoline-2, 4-dionyl)-ethyl]amino-ethylthiolato¿ oxotechnetium(V) ((99/99m)Tc1) as a potential inhibitor of Pgp. (99)Tc1 enhances the net cell accumulation of Pgp substrates [(3)H]vinblastine, [(3)H]vincristine, [(3)H]colchicine, [(99m)Tc]sestamibi, and [(99m)Tc]tetrofosmin in rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4), an immortalized endothelial cell line that expresses Pgp. In addition, the cell accumulation of (99m)Tc1 could be increased by verapamil and reserpine, which are known Pgp inhibitors. A multitracer approach was used to study the side effects of (99)Tc1 on cell metabolism. The cells were simultaneously incubated with [(99m)Tc]sestamibi, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG), and various (3)H-labeled tracers. Two-dimensional scatter plots of [(99m)Tc]sestamibi uptake/[(18)F]FDG uptake show typical changes of known Pgp inhibitors including (99)Tc1. The effects of (99)Tc1 on the in vivo distribution of [(99m)Tc]sestamibi and [(18)F]FDG in rats also are comparable with the effects of verapamil, an established Pgp inhibitor and calcium channel blocker. We conclude that (99/99m)Tc1 is a transport substrate and a potential inhibitor of Pgp. Our approach may be useful in the design of further radiotracers with specificity to Pgp.
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SP cells were identified in the laryngeal cancer cell lines, AMC-HN-8 (head and neck cancer cell line 8, from the Asan Medical Center) and Hep-2 (human epithelial type 2) cell lines, by flow cytometry. Hep-2 SP cells were isolated and analyzed in proliferation assays, differentiation studies, radiotherapy resistance studies, and tumorigenesis ability.
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Based on currently available information, no confident statement can be made about the effectiveness of calcium-channel blockers for treating people with neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Before evaluation of these drugs in larger randomised controlled trials, clinicians should carefully weigh up their possible benefits against their potential adverse effects.
In order to assess the role of different classes of K(+) channels in recirculation of K(+) across the basolateral membrane of rabbit distal colon epithelium, the effects of various K(+) channel inhibitors were tested on the activity of single K(+) channels from the basolateral membrane, on macroscopic basolateral K(+) conductance, and on the rate of Na(+) absorption and Cl(-) secretion. In single-channel measurements using the lipid bilayer reconstitution system, high-conductance (236 pS), Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels were most frequently detected; the second most abundant channel was a low-conductance K(+) channel (31 pS) that exhibited channel rundown. In addition to Ba(2+) and charybdotoxin (ChTX), the BK(Ca) channels were inhibited by quinidine, verapamil and tetraethylammonium (TEA), the latter only when present on the side of the channel from which K(+) flow originates. Macroscopic basolateral K(+) conductance, determined in amphotericin-permeabilised epithelia, was also markedly reduced by quinidine and verapamil, TEA inhibited only from the lumen side, and serosal ChTX was without effect. The chromanol 293B and the sulphonylurea tolbutamide did not affect BK(Ca) channels and had no or only a small inhibitory effect on macroscopic basolateral K(+) conductance. Transepithelial Na(+) absorption was partly inhibited by Ba(2+), quinidine and verapamil, suggesting that BK(Ca) channels are involved in basolateral recirculation of K(+) during Na(+) absorption in rabbit colon. The BK(Ca) channel inhibitors TEA and ChTX did not reduce Na(+) absorption, probably because TEA does not enter intact cells and ChTX is 'knocked off' its extracellular binding site by K(+) outflow from the cell interior. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion was inhibited completely by Ba(2+) and 293B, partly by quinidine but not by the other K(+) channel blockers, indicating that the small (<3 pS) K(V)LQT1 channels are responsible for basolateral K(+) exit during Cl(-) secretion. Hence different types of K(+) channels mediate basolateral K(+) exit during transepithelial Na(+) and Cl(-) transport.
To evaluate the effect of St. John's wort (SJW), an effective and safe herbal antidepressant, on rat bladder contractility. Recent data have suggested a strong association between depression and urinary incontinence.
Forearm vasodilatation to all four drugs was reduced (>50%) in obese PCOS compared to lean PCOS subjects. There was no significant difference in vascular function between obese or lean women with PCOS compared to corresponding controls. Androgen levels did not correlate with vascular function. Stepwise regression analysis showed that body mass index (BMI) contributed maximally to vascular dysfunction (R(2) = 0.47).
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension associated with an elevated aldosterone to renin activity ratio (ARR) in a sample of adults aged 35-74 yr, randomly selected from the population register of the Bussolengo Health District (northern Italy) and representative of the total population of the district. Subjects (n = 1462) were randomly selected from the population register and examined by their general practitioners. Complete data for 1348 individuals were available for final statistical analysis. Apart from verapamil or alpha-blockers, no hypotensive drugs were allowed during the 4 wk before assay. Direct active renin and aldosterone were measured in the plasma of hypertensive patients after 2 h in the upright posture. Of 412 identified hypertensive patients, 287 subjects agreed to give blood (70% response rate). An aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) of 32 pg/ml was taken as the cut-off value, equivalent to an ARR of 50 ng/dl/ng/ml.h. An elevated AARR was observed in 32.4% of the hypertensive patients, with increased prevalence in females and in people aged 55 yr or older. As an elevated AARR is frequent in the general hypertensive population, screening should not be limited to the patients referred to specialist units.
Our findings suggest that about 54% of a paclitaxel oral dose is extruded to the gut lumen by P-glycoprotein. Thus, the bioavailability of paclitaxel could be enhanced by coadministration of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, KR-30031.
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In monocrotaline-treated rat pulmonary artery from which endothelium was removed, greater spontaneous muscular tone was observed under resting conditions than in vehicle-treated artery. The aim of the present study was to show the possible contribution of Cl- channels in the mechanism of the elevated tone. Verapamil almost completely inhibited the elevated spontaneous muscular tone by decreasing [Ca2+]i. The elevated muscular tone was also inhibited by 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), a Cl- channel inhibitor. After the inhibition of muscular tone by DIDS, verapamil did not induce further relaxation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of ClC3 and Ca2+-activated Cl- channels did not change in the pulmonary hypertensive pulmonary artery from those of vehicle-treated rats. These results suggest that the elevated muscular tone observed in the monocrotaline-induced hypertensive pulmonary artery is due to membrane depolarization of smooth muscle cells and that this phenomenon might be mediated by the activation of DIDS-sensitive Cl- channels.
The syndrome is characterized by frequent attacks of intense pain localized in and around the eye on one side, characteristically accompanied by conjunctival injection and lacrimation in this eye, along with nasal stuffiness on the same side and sometimes a Horner's syndrome. All symptoms and signs are strictly unilateral and occur during attacks lasting between 15 minutes and three hours. The attacks occur from once to eight times daily during a period lasting from some weeks to months. After a remission of varying duration, the same pattern recurs.
Previous studies suggested that the phenothiazine chlorpromazine (CPZ) could reverse or reduce the antibiotic resistance of bacteria. In some areas of the world, the majority of Staphylococcus aureus isolates are now resistant to methicillin, prompting this study to see whether such resistance can be altered by phenothiazine thioridazine (TZ), an agent with equal antibacterial activity, which is free of the severe side-effects associated with chronic administration of CPZ. The results indicated that, whereas methicillin-sensitive strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) were not rendered more susceptible to oxacillin, resistance to oxacillin by highly-resistant strains (MRSA) could be significantly reduced by sub-inhibitory concentrations of TZ. Reserpine, an inhibitor of efflux pumps, was also shown to reduce the resistance of MRSA strains to oxacillin in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenothiazines have been shown, by others, to inhibit the efflux pumps of bacteria and the mechanism by which MRSA are rendered more susceptible to oxacillin in the presence of TZ is believed to be due to a similar efflux pump.
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The result does not support the hypothesis that Pgp inhibition by amiodarone increases cardiac uptake of the Pgp substrate verapamil.
The findings suggest that ALDH2 is involved in the bioactivation of NTG in humans in vivo but accounts for less than half of the total bioactivation. This may be of clinical importance in patients with mutations in the ALDH2 gene and in those taking drugs that inhibit ALDH2.
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ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large family of proteins whose role is to translocate various substances across biological membranes. They include the Tangier disease protein ABC1, sulfonylurea receptors (SUR), multidrug resistance protein (MDR), and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR). In the current study, we investigated the involvement of ABC transporters in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or interferon (IFN)-gamma-induced interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, nitric oxide formation, as well as major histocompatibility complex II up-regulation in macrophages. The general ABC transporter inhibitor glibenclamide suppressed both IL-12 p40 and nitric oxide production. However, glibenclamide failed to affect the production of TNF-alpha. The selective ABC1 inhibitors 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid and sulfobromophthalein mimicked the suppressive effect of glibenclamide on IL-12 p40 production. On the other hand, both the MDR inhibitor verapamil and CFTR blocker 2,2'-iminodibenzoic acid failed to suppress the production of IL-12 p40. Furthermore, selective inhibitors and activators of SURs were without effect. In agreement with the pharmacological data, macrophages expressed mRNA for ABC1, but not SURs or CFTR. Intracellular levels of IL-12 p40 were decreased by glibenclamide, suggesting that glibenclamide does not affect IL-12 p40 secretion. The effect of glibenclamide did not involve an interference with the activation of the p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases or c-Jun kinase. Glibenclamide also suppressed IFN-gamma-induced up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex II. Taken together, our results indicate that ABC proteins regulate LPS and/or IFN-gamma-induced macrophage activation.
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Verapamil (VER) is commercialized as a racemic mixture of the (+)-(R)-VER and (-)-(S)-VER enantiomers. VER is biotransformed into norverapamil (NOR) and other metabolites through CYP-dependent pathways. N-hexane is a solvent that can alter the metabolism of CYP-dependent drugs. The present study investigated the influence of n-hexane (nose-only inhalation exposure chamber at concentrations of 88, 176, and 352 mg/m3) on the kinetic disposition of the (+)-(R)-VER, (-)-(S)-VER, (R)-NOR and (S)-NOR in rats treated with a single dose of racemic VER (10 mg/kg). VER and NOR enantiomers in rat plasma was analyzed by LC-MS/MS (m/z = 441.3 > 165.5 for the NOR and m/z 455.3 > 165.5 for the VER enantiomers) using a Chiralpak AD column. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a monocompartmental model. The pharmacokinetics of VER was enantioselective in control rats, with higher plasma proportions of the (-)-(S)-VER eutomer (AUC(0-infinity) = 250.8 vs. 120.4 ng/ml/h; P < or = 0.05, Wilcoxon test). The (S)-NOR metabolite was also found to accumulate in plasma of control animals, with an S/R AUC(0-infinity) ratio of 1.5. The pharmacokinetic parameters AUC(0-infinity), Cl/F, Vd/F, and t(1/2) obtained for VER and NOR enantiomers were not altered by nose-only exposure to n-hexane at concentrations of 88, 176, or 352 mg/m3 (P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test). However, the verapamil kinetic disposition was not enantioselective for the animals exposed to n-hexane at concentrations equal to or higher than the TLV-TWA. This finding is relevant considering that the (-)-(S)-VER eutomer is 10-20 times more potent than R-(+)-VER in terms of its chronotropic effect on atrioventricular conduction in rats and humans.
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Consecutive patients with II or III degree AV block not related to acute myocardial infarction, digitalis toxicity, or vasovagal syncope were studied. The level of AV block (AV-nodal or infranodal) was defined by electrocardiographic criteria. The cause and effect relation between AV block and drugs was defined according to the response to drug discontinuation.
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The verapamil-treated group showed a faster wound closure rate in comparison with control and gel-base groups (P = .007 and P = .011). The numerical density of fibroblasts, volume density of collagen bundles, mean diameter, and volume densities of the vessels in the verapamil group were significantly higher than those in the control and the base groups (P < .005).
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(11)C-7 is a novel tracer of P-gp function with higher baseline uptake than (11)C-verapamil. Upregulation of P-gp function in response to treatment (which is hard to detect with (11)C-verapamil) may be detectable using (11)C-7 and PET. Because (11)C-6 shows specific binding in target organs, this compound is the first PET tracer allowing measurement of P-gp expression.
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Of mammary epithelial cells isolated from both the human and mouse mammary epithelia, 0.2-0.45% formed a distinct SP. The SP was relatively undifferentiated but grew as typical differentiated epithelial clones when cultured. Transplantation of murine SP cells at limiting dilution into cleared mammary fat pads generated epithelial ductal and lobuloalveolar structures.
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To develop a cheap and simple method of storing for 24-h vascular tissue and single myocytes while preserving therein the biophysical and pharmacological characteristics of L-type Ca(2+) channels and contractile activity.
Verapamil prevented the increase in fibrillatory frequency in PAF patients in relatively long-term observation. Verapamil might be effective for prevention of the electrophysiological change and increase in PAF episodes at least in specific type of PAF cases.