Medi-Cal patient level data for 5,385 DMARD recipients between ages 18 and 100 years with at least 1 diagnosis of RA (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 714.xx) and the use of 1 DMARD between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2005 were collected. The outcome of interest was the choice of either standard DMARDs (methotrexate, lefluonomide, hydroxychloroquine, and sulfasalazine) or biologic DMARDs (adalimumab, etanercept, anakinra, and infliximab). A univariate analysis and logistic regression model were applied to examine the association of the choice of DMARD among different racial/ethnic groups.
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This study was performed to develop ultrasound composite scores for the assessment of inflammatory and structural lesions in Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA).
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This is a case of a 65-year-old man with seropositive erosive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), well controlled on methotrexate, sulfasalazine, low-dose prednisolone and monthly infusions of tocilizumab. He presented with a 3-week history of pain and swelling in his left knee, gradually increasing in severity with an inability to bear weight. He was systemically well with normal vital signs. Examination confirmed an effusion and aspiration was turbid in appearance. C reactive protein (CRP) was normal. He was treated empirically with antibiotics. Synovial fluid and blood cultures confirmed Staphylococcus aureus infection. He completed a 6 weeks course of antibiotics with complete resolution of symptoms. Throughout the treatment his CRP remained normal which is likely to have been the result of prior treatment with tocilizumab.
Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening and severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions characterized by epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. SJS, SJS-TEN overlap and TEN differ only by their extent of skin detachment.
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Sulfasalazine has been associated with bronchopulmonary complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in adults. We describe a 12-year-old boy who developed desquamative interstitial pneumonitis and hepatic cirrhosis several years following the onset of ulcerative colitis. The restrictive lung disease progressed despite cessation of sulfasalazine and initiation of corticosteroid therapy. We discuss a variety of bronchopulmonary complications of IBD and their association with sulfasalazine.
A new water soluble copper(II) complex, [Cu(glygly)(ssz)(H(2)O)]⋅6H(2)O, 1 derived from dipeptide (glycyl glycine anion) and sulfasalazine was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), molar conductance measurements and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV-vis, ESI-MS). The complex 1 is non-ionic in nature and possess octahedral geometry around Cu(II) metal ion. The interaction of complex 1 with Human Serum Albumin (HSA) was investigated under physiological condition in Tris-HCl buffer solution at pH 7.4 by means of various spectroscopic methods (fluorescence, CD and FTIR) and molecular docking technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that the complex 1 strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching procedure. Binding constants (K(b)) and the number of binding sites (n≈1) were calculated using modified Stern-Volmer equations. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG at different temperatures were calculated subsequently the value of ΔH and ΔS was also calculated which revealed that the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions play a major role in HSA-complex 1 association. The distance r between donor (HSA) and acceptor (complex 1) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer and the alterations of HSA secondary structure induced by complex 1 were confirmed by FT-IR and CD measurements.
In the assessment of the effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, three or four clinical measurements supported by the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and sometimes radiographs, are generally agreed to be correct. Some advocate functional assessments also, or even alternatively. Several studies compared gold, penicillamine, antimalarials, and sulfasalazine either with each other or with placebo, and occasionally with methotrexate. No important differences between the general performance of the four drugs were found. More work was reported on sulfasalazine than on the other three drugs; the data support that it has a place in our armamentarium. Several important contributions concerned strategies of treatment. It is considered that disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs should be used earlier and more aggressively in rheumatoid arthritis. This aspect was perhaps the key note of the 1990 literature on this topic. As part of the new strategies, combination therapy is urged by some rheumatologists, whereas others urge caution on the grounds that we do not yet know enough about the effects of combinations, or by how much the risks of adverse effects are increased in combination.
In patients with early axial spondyloarthritis active inflammatory lesions detected by whole-body MRI improved significantly more in etanercept versus sulfasalazine-treated patients. This effect correlated with a good clinical response in the etanercept group.
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A 6-month observation on curative effect of Panlongqi Tablet (PLQ) in treating patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was conducted for evaluating its efficacy and safety.
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A retrospective chart review was conducted of 39 patients with sulfasalazine-treated CIU evaluated at Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center from October 2007 to March 2012. Eight patients were excluded from the final analysis.
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Since PP and non-PP patients benefit equally from iCombo through earlier clinical response and functional improvement than with iMono, we conclude that personalized medicine as suggested in the guidelines is not yet feasible. The choice of treatment strategy should depend more on rapid relief of symptoms than on prognostic factors.
These results show that regular 5-ASA use is associated with some reduction in the risk of CRC developing in ulcerative colitis.
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degrades ubiquitinated proteins to remove damaged or misfolded protein and thus plays an important role in the maintenance of many important cellular processes. Because the pathway is also crucial for tumor cell growth and survival, proteasome inhibition by specific inhibitors exhibits potent antitumor effects in many cancer cells. xCT, a subunit of the cystine antiporter system xc (-), plays an important role in cellular cysteine and glutathione homeostasis. Several recent reports have revealed that xCT is involved in cancer cell survival; however, it was unknown whether xCT affects the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors. In this study, we found that two stress-inducible transcription factors, Nrf2 and ATF4, were upregulated by proteasome inhibition and cooperatively enhance human xCT gene expression upon proteasome inhibition. In addition, we demonstrated that the knockdown of xCT by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or pharmacological inhibition of xCT by sulfasalazine (SASP) or (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (CPG) significantly increased the sensitivity of T24 cells to proteasome inhibition. These results suggest that the simultaneous inhibition of both the proteasome and xCT could have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of bladder tumors.
76 patients with early RA who started treatment with methotrexate (n = 20), sulfasalazine (n = 37), or oral gold (n = 19) monotherapy were evaluated. The mean (SEM) DAS28 decreased from 4.6 (0.1) at baseline to 2.3 (0.1) after 2 years. The mean (SEM) DeltaLarsen score from baseline to year 2 was 10.3 (1.5). Correlation between cumulative inflammation and radiographic change was poor. In contrast, when calculating a person's factor Re in year 1 ( Re 1) and year 2 ( Re 2), a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.58, p<0.000001) was seen between Re 1 and Re 2.
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Although most psoriasis patients respond to standard therapies, many circumstances warrant the use of nonstandard or off-label treatments. For instance, patients with treatment-resistant psoriasis or those who have had multiple adverse effects to other therapies may be good candidates for off-label treatments. Similarly, patients with unusual and hard-to-treat forms of psoriasis such as pustular psoriasis and palmoplantar psoriasis or specific comorbidities may benefit from certain nonstandard therapies. Drugs that may be used as alternatives to standard therapies include mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus or pimecrolimus, isotretinoin, colchicine, sulfasalazine, paclitaxel, dapsone, azathioprine, and hydroxyurea. Other unconventional therapies include climatotherapy at the Dead Sea and grenz ray therapy.
We report a case of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) induced by salazosulfapyridine in a patient with ulcerative colitis. A 26-year-old Japanese man, who had been receiving medical attention for ulcerative colitis for one year, presented with diffuse erythema and pustules on his face and trunk, malaise, and fever up to 39 degrees C one day after the administration of salazosulfapyridine. A skin biopsy specimen disclosed intracorneal pustule composed of neutrophils and lymphohistiocytic infiltrate in the dermis. A drug lymphocyte stimulation test for salazoslufapyridine was positive, but the patch test was negative. Immunological mechanisms are suggested in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and ulcerative colitis. We suspect that a similar immunological pathway played a role in the pathogenesis of AGEP appearing in psoriasis and ulcerative colitis.
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We found no significantly increased overall risk of congenital abnormalities in children born to women with ulcerative colitis. However, our results indicate an increased risk of some selected congenital abnormalities (limb deficiencies, obstructive urinary congenital abnormalities, and multiple congenital abnormalities). More data are needed to determine whether the association between maternal ulcerative colitis and an increased risk of certain congenital abnormalities is causal or is influenced by bias.
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Although high concentrations of SASP inhibit IL-8 production by cultures of endocervical cells stimulated with pathogens associated with preterm birth, this effect may be because of toxicity of the antibiotic on the cells.
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158 trials were included, with between 10 and 53 trials available for each outcome. In methotrexate naive patients, several treatments were statistically superior to oral methotrexate for ACR50 response: sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine ("triple therapy"), several biologics (abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, rituximab, tocilizumab), and tofacitinib. The estimated probability of ACR50 response was similar between these treatments (range 56-67%), compared with 41% with methotrexate. Methotrexate combined with adalimumab, etanercept, certolizumab, or infliximab was statistically superior to oral methotrexate for inhibiting radiographic progression, but the estimated mean change over one year with all treatments was less than the minimal clinically important difference of 5 units on the Sharp-van der Heijde scale. Triple therapy had statistically fewer withdrawals due to adverse events than methotrexate plus infliximab. After an inadequate response to methotrexate, several treatments were statistically superior to oral methotrexate for ACR50 response: triple therapy, methotrexate plus hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate plus leflunomide, methotrexate plus intramuscular gold, methotrexate plus most biologics, and methotrexate plus tofacitinib. The probability of response was 61% with triple therapy and ranged widely (27-70%) with other treatments. No treatment was statistically superior to oral methotrexate for inhibiting radiographic progression. Methotrexate plus abatacept had a statistically lower rate of withdrawals due to adverse events than several treatments.
Predictive biomarkers of testicular toxicity are needed for an efficient development of drugs. The purpose of the present study was to obtain further insight into the toxicity mechanisms of various male reproductive toxicants and to detect genomic biomarkers for rapid screening of testicular toxicity. Four reproductive toxicants, 2,5-hexanedione (Sertoli cells toxicant), ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME; spermatocytes toxicant), cyclophosphamide (spermatogonia toxicant) and sulfasalazine, were orally administered to male rats once. Six hours after the single dosing, gene expression in the testes was monitored by cDNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR and the testes were histopathologically examined. No histopathological abnormality was detected except for slight degeneration of spermatocytes in the EGME-treated testes. cDNA microarray analysis revealed differential gene expression profiles, and it was possible based on the profiles to characterize the action of the compounds in the testes. Interestingly, 3 spermatogenesis-related genes -- heat shock protein 70-2, insulin growth factor binding protein 3 and glutathione S transferase pi -- were affected by all the compounds. The above changes of gene expression were detectable within a short period after the dosing prior to the appearance of obvious pathological changes. These data suggest that cDNA microarray is a useful technique for evaluation of primary testicular toxicity. Furthermore, we propose the above 3 spermatogenesis-related genes as potential biomarkers of testicular toxicity.
The rats with ulcerative colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid and ethanol enema were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely the model group, sulfasalazine (SASP) group, and Changyanqing decoction group. Daily treatment with intragastric administration and enema of normal saline, SASP (100 mg/kg), and Changyanqing decoction (39.75 mg/kg), respectively, were administered 24 h after the establishment of colitis till the end of the experiment. Another group of rats was used as the normal control group. The disease activity index (DAI) and colon mucosa damage index (CMDI) of the rats were calculated. The activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured by biochemical method, and the expressions of IL-10 and ICAM-1 protein were measured by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
814 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were assessed for clinical, functional, and laboratory indices of disease activity. Deprivation categories for individual patients were determined using the Carstairs index. Five year follow up is available for 440 patients.
Randomised controlled trials which compared the efficacy and safety of DMARDs (e.g. methotrexate, gold, sulfasalazine, penicillamine, leflunomide, hydroxychloroquine and newer agents such as biologic disease modifying agents and monoclonal antibodies) with each other, with no treatment or with placebo for cystic fibrosis-related arthropathy or hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.
Elderly patients with Crohn disease had a mild clinical course characterized by the lack of escalation to immunosuppressive and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, as well as long-term remission.