Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.
name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.
Brand name of Artane is Artane.
Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.
If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.
If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Artane are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.
Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.
Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.
Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.
Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.
Avoid driving machine.
It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.
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Paradigms of isometric force control allow study of the generation and release of movement in the absence of complications due to disordered visuomotor coordination. The onset and release of isometric force in Parkinson's disease (PD) was studied, using computerised determinants of latency of response and rate of force generation and release. Components of isometric force control were related to measures of cognitive, affective and clinical motor disability. The effects of treatment were determined by longitudinal study of de novo patients. Patients with PD showed impairment in latency and rate of force change for movement release as well as onset. Rate of force change correlated with depression, clinical motor disability and memory quotient but latency showed no correlation with any of these measures. Treatment improved rate of force release, in concert with clinical motor disability, but not latency. These results suggest dissociations between latency and rate of force change that may be linked to different neurochemical deficits. Further, they demonstrate akinetic deficits in force release that argue against the "neural energy hypothesis" of akinesia.
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92 PD outpatients were enrolled in, including 48 males and 44 females, from 43 to 86 years old (mean 65.6 +/- 17.1) with duration of the disease from 0.2 to 27.8 years (mean 4.4 +/- 9.4). The preference of the drug use from the patients were: 40 (43.5%) preferred taking levodopa, 25 (27.2%) with amantadine and/or trihexyphenidyl, 14 (15.2%) with levodopa and others, 4 (4.4%) with dopamine agonist and others, 2 (2.2%) with other drugs, 7 (7.6%) with no treatment. There were 69 (75.0%) patients onset with resting tremor, 15 (16.3%) with bradykinesia, 6 (6.5%) with rigidity, and 2 (2.2%) with unknown symptoms. There was no startically significant difference in anti-PD drugs among the patients onset with different symptoms (P > 0.05). 45 patients appeared the onset of disease before 65 years old and with no dementia, 47 onset after 65 with or without dementia. There was no significant difference of anti-PD drugs between the two groups (P > 0.05). Most patients initiated anti-PD treatment with levodopa but few of them chose dopamine agonist. According to the classification of Hoehn & Yahr, 25(27.2%)belonged to Grade I, 53 (57.6%) to Grade II, 8 (8.7%) to Grade III, 3 (3.3%) to Grade IV and 3 (3.3%) to Grade V. There was no significant differences of anti-PD drugs between different grades of the disease (P > 0.05). 55.3% of the patients changed their anti-PD drugs randomly during the therapy, but with no relation to their gender, age, educational level, dementia, the number of family members, course of diseases, or the degree of Hoehn & Yahr, frequency and categories of medicine.
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Two cases of normal dose dependence on Trihexyphenidyl are reported. The literature on anti parkinsonian drug abuse and dependence is briefly reviewed.
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The investigation of the metabolism of the antiparkinson drugs trihexyphenidyl (1), pridinol (2) and biperiden (3) revealed a graduate tendency for hydroxylation in the different structural elements: If alicyclic, saturated heterocyclic and aromatic ring systems are present in one compound like in 1, the alicyclic ring system is attacked predominately. The amount of metabolites with hydroxy-groups in the saturated heterocyclic ring is much lower, and no hydroxylation takes place in the aromatic ring. In drugs without alicyclic ring systems like 2 the saturated heterocyclus is attacked preferentially, but also some phenolic metabolites are formed. Consequently the following arrangement of falling hydroxylation-tendency can be established: Formula: see text. Probably this arrangement is of common validity and therefore a prediction on the hydroxylation-tendency of other compounds seems to be possible.
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The prejunctional muscarine receptor on sympathetic nerves in the rat caudal artery was characterized using several selective antagonists. The inhibitory response of carbachol on vasoconstriction elicited by sympathetic nerve stimulation was antagonized by benzhexol (trihexyphenidyl; pKB 7.1), heptane-1,7-bis(dimethyl-3'-phthalimidopropyl ammonium bromide) (C7/3-phth; pKB 6.5) and hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD; apparent pKB 6.0). These pKB values suggest that the receptor most closely resembles the muscarine M2 receptor subtype rather than the muscarine M1, M3 or M4 receptor subtypes.
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Using a complex of physiological methods developed by the author the initial state of bilateral permeability of the capillaries, the supply of tissues with blood through the capillaries, and the character of changes of those parameters in the conditions of the adaptational activity of microcirculation in schizophrenic patients were studied. It has been found that three types of microcirculation disturbances leading to tissue hypoxia can be distinguished in schizophrenia depending on the process type and stage. The types of the capillary permeability disturbances in various forms of the schizophrenic process are described.
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Following single or repeated treatment with the irreversible anticholinesterase, DFP or, during infusion of the muscarinic receptor agonist, oxotremorine, and the reversible anticholinesterase physostigmine, effects of challenges with muscarinic antagonists were studied in rats. The antagonists, atropine, scopolamine, benztropine, orphenadrine and trihexyphenidyl induced, to a low degree, limb-shakes (myoclonus) and stereotyped behaviors in normal rats. However, within 24-72 hr after the above pretreatments, this myoclonus was significantly enhanced. The anticholinergic-stereotypies were also increased but only by severe cholinergic pretreatment and at a time later than that for the myoclonus. Myoclonus and stereotypies are known to be produced by treatments which directly enhance serotonergic and dopaminergic activities, respectively. It is suggested that during prolonged cholinergic stimulation, the cholinergic-monoaminergic balance in the brain can be altered depending upon the degree of stimulation. This could be responsible for the observed differential onset of changes in the anticholinergic-behavioral responses, which could, in turn, be mediated by different monoaminergic (serotonin and dopamine) systems.
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Our findings demonstrated that the anti-cholinergic agent trihexyphenidyl shows positive effect for a patient population developing deterioration of axial symptoms after STN-DBS. The results in the present study may provide insights into the mechanism of emergence or progression of axial symptoms in patients with PD after STN-DBS.
An 18-year-old woman with paranoid schizophrenia experienced cortical blindness immediately after her first bifrontotemporal ECT treatment. There was complete, spontaneous recovery of vision after 6 hours. Neurological examination, computed tomography of the brain, and electroencephalographic study revealed no abnormality. A combination of circumstances suggested that continuation of ECT was desirable. After clearances from neurological and ophthalmological teams, she received 6 more ECT treatments, starting 9 days after the first.
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KW-5338 (domperidone), a new dopamine antagonist, is considered to be an agent to cross the blood-brain barrier with difficulty. The antagonistic activities of KW-5338 against L-DOPA were investigated, KW-5338 showed a strong anti-emetic action against L-DOPA induced emesis in beagle dogs (ED50=0.056 mg/kg (p.o.)) and restored the L-DOPA induced depression of intestinal motility to some extent, while it did not antagonize anti-tremorine activities of L-DOPA and trihexyphenidyl in mice. These results suggest that KW-5338 prevents side effects of L-DOPA such as nausea, vomiting and constipation, without reduction in therapeutic effects of L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease.
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The participants were divided into two groups according to their age (0-3 years; 4-18 years) and were evaluated using MD-CRS 0-3 or MD-CRS 4-18 at baseline, i.e., before starting pharmacological treatment (T0), after 6 (T1) and 12 months (T2) of treatment. Univariate repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction was performed to analyse the scale responsiveness for the three indexes (e.g., Index I, Index II and Global Index) in each group with time (T0, T1 and T2). In addition, Bonferroni test was performed to identify the source of significant differences among means.
A 55-year-old woman with known retinitis pigmentosa for 25 years was progressively clumsy in gait and activities of daily living over the past 30 years. She was able to manage house work and social activities, but she developed swallowing disturbance associated with involuntary neck muscle spasm for 2 weeks, which brought her to our clinic on September 7, 1990. General physical examination was normal except for dry skin. Neurological examination was compatible with sensory-dominant polyneuropathy, showing distal dominant sensory impairment together with absent vibration sense and areflexia in lower limbs, but no gross muscular weakness. There were neck dystonia and bilateral poor visual acuity due to secondary optic atrophy of retinitis pigmentosa. The former responded to the combination of tiapride and trihexyphenidyl. She was admitted twice for further evaluation. Complete blood count and blood chemistry tests including lipids were all within normal limits, and so was cerebrospinal fluid. Pyruvate and lactate before and after exercise loading were also normal. Malignancy workup was negative. To our surprise, serum vitamin E level turned out very low (1.89 micrograms/ml), normal range being 4.7-20.3 micrograms/ml. Oral vitamin E administration test by 2g of alpha-tocopherol showed abnormal absorption curve followed fast clearance in serum. Stool was occasionally positive for fat corpuscles by Sudan III staining, but 99Tc-HSA leakage into the intestines was not detected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
artane pediatric dose
Trihexyphenidyl (THP) and other antiparkinsonian drugs are known to be substances of abuse. This is true both in abusers of other substances and in chronic schizophrenics, the latter being infrequent abusers of other drugs. Most reports on the abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs among schizophrenic patients warn against the possible harm of this self-medication. The present article describes the different effects of THP on both schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic abusers. The subjective experience in most chronic schizophrenic patients who abuse THP is positive: they claim that THP makes them feel and function better. In the light of these findings, the author suggests that research on the possible benefits of THP in contrast to the potential harm in chronic, residual schizophrenic patients is warranted.
artane medication trihexyphenidyl
Tiapride is a central dopamine receptor specific antagonist, and it has a benzamide chemical structure. This drug is very useful for the treatment of dyskinesia and such abnormal behaviors as delirium and psychomotor excitation in patients with arteriosclerosis. Most of these patients are elderly and generally suffer from other diseases. Since they are apt to be treated with several drugs for such diseases, the effect of tiapride in combination with various kinds of drugs was examined in rats and mice. Tiapride significantly potentiated the catalepsy-inducing effect of haloperidol and chlorpromazine in rats and tended to potentiate the muscle relaxing effect of diazepam at the highest dose in mice. Conversely, tiapride did not enhance or diminish the hypnotic effect of bromvalerylurea, the anticholinergic activity of trihexyphenidyl, the diuretic effect of bromvalerylurea, the anti-cholinergic activity of trihexyphenidyl, the diuretic effect of trichloromethiazide, or the anti-diabetic effect of glibenclamide. Our findings suggest that tiapride should be used with care in patients taking neuroleptics, but can be used freely in patients on other kinds of drugs.
A reproducible and selective method was developed for the analysis of three anti-pschycotics, i.e. haloperidol, trifluoperazine and trihexyphenidyl in bulk and dosage forms using packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The analytes were resolved by elution with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide doped with 16.67% (v/v) methanol containing 0.8% isopropylamine. Parallel studies were performed by HPLC using ion pairing reagent and a comparison is discussed. The method was successfully used for the assay of three formulations containing a combination of: (1) haloperidol-trihexyphenidyl; (2) haloperidol-trifluoperazine; (3) trifluoperazine-trihexyphenidyl.
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We identified two phenotypes, generalised dystonia and dystonia-parkinsonism non-responsive to levo-dopa, with three patients belonging to each of the groups. There was inter-individual and intra-family phenotypic heterogeneity.
Drooling is the inability to retain saliva in the mouth and its progression to the digestive tract, being a common problem in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. Three different treatment options are available.
artane 5 mg
Rats with the Parkinsonian syndrome induced by administration of acetyl choline and proserine into the rostral part of both caudate nuclei manifest an increased electrical activity (EA) in this part. Tremor, oligokinesia and rigidity are characterized by the appearance of paroxysmal EA with high amplitude of slow and rapid waves. The data obtained allow to conclude that neuropathophysiological basis of the Parkinsonian syndrome is the formation of the generator of pathologically enhanced excitation (GPEE) in the caudate nuclei. Some peculiarities of the GPEE activity in tremor and akinetic rigidity syndromes were observed. Intrarostral administration of dopamine or intraperitoneal administration of cyclodol resulted in the inhibition of GPEE and disappearance of clinical manifestations of Parkinsonian syndrome.
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Plasma levels of chlorpromazine (CPZ), 3 of its metabolites and prolactin were measured repeatedly in 18 chronic schizophrenic patients. The patients were studied while on chronic phenothiazine medication (chlorpromazine in 8, other phenothiazines in 10), during 4-6 weeks on placebo and during 6-12 weeks of CPZ treatment. The findings were compared with those obtained during acute CPZ treatment in patients who had received similar CPZ doses but no previous long-term phenothiazine medication. Plasma CPZ levels were similar in the chronic and the acute groups and so was their relation to dose. In neither group was therapeutic effect related to plasma CPZ level. In these chronic patients, in contrast to findings during acute CPZ treatment, neither prolactin level nor the appearance of parkinsonian symptoms was related to plasma drug level. In the chronic group both these effects were less pronounced during the period on CPZ which followed the placebo than were the corresponding effects during CPZ treatment in the acute group. Since plasma CPZ levels of the two groups were similar, these differences may be due to an acquired tolerance of the nervous system to some of the antidopaminergic effects of the drug.
artane medication classification
Two cases of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome occurring in Sri Lanka are reported. Both patients had the characteristics of the syndrome as described by Fernando (1967): (1) Childhood onset (below 16 years of age); (2) Multiple motor tics; (3) Unprovoked vocal utterances which may progress to coprolalia. Both responded to haloperidol, withdrawal of medication being followed by relapse, and reintroduction by remission. The literature on the aetiology of the condition has been reviewed. The weight of evidence favours an organic cause, although psychological precipitation cannot be ruled out.
In order to reveal possible differences between pre- and postsynaptic muscarine receptors, seven antagonists were tested for their affinities on these receptor sites in the rabbit isolated perfused heart. Methacholine was used as an agonist to inhibit the noradrenaline overflow evoked by electrical stimulation (3 Hz, 3 min) of the sympathetic nerves (presynaptic parameter) and to decrease the systolic tension development of the right atrium (postsynaptic parameter). The affinity of an antagonist was expressed as pA2. A decreasing order of potency was obtained with ipratropium, scopolamine, atropine, trihexyphenidyl, amitriptyline, and gallamine, both for pre- and postsynaptic responses. The antagonists acted competitively and their effects were reversible. Furthermore, for none of the drugs did the pA2 (pre) differ from the pA2 (post). With QNB (3-quinuclidinyl benzilate) a pA2 (post) of 11.65 was obtained. However, the affinity to presynaptic receptors could not be determined as a pA2 value due to the very prolonged exposure time required for the equilibrium with QNB and for that with methacholine in the presence of QNB. It is concluded that the antagonists employed do not reveal differences between pre- and postsynaptic muscarine receptors of the rabbit heart, in spite of their greatly varying chemical structure and their individual affinities ranging over 5 orders of magnitude. The findings confirm the view of a homogeneous muscarine receptor population characterized by functional parameters.
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