Organic extract obtained from the T. arjuna bark and leaves may be used to treat the bacterial ear pathogens especially S. aureus, which has shown greater inhibition zones than the herbal drops, however, we still need more detailed studies as in vivo testing and pharmacokinetics properties for their therapeutic utility in treating ear infections.
Literature searches were conducted at 3 points: 2003, 2004, and 2007. Databases searched included PubMed, the National Library of Medicine, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ovid, and EBSCO Information Services, and other search strategies also were used. Each article was assessed for quality by 3 people, and discrepancies were resolved by arbitration using a fourth person, who also read and scored each article. Additional assessments of safety using a scale and determination of reported efficacy/effectiveness of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) were made.
Vyanga is one of the Kshudraroga, characterized by the presence of Niruja (painless) and Shavavarna Mandalas (bluish-black patches) on face. It is one of the most common diseases as regards the face is concerned. On the basis of clinical features, it can be compared with facial melanosis, one of the hyper pigmented disorders. Drugs with Rakta Prasadaka, Twak Prasadaka and Varnyakara properties are helpful in the management of Vyanga, that pacifies aggregated Doshas and help in Raktashodhana (blood purification).
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Retrospective analysis of patients with idiopathic TIACs that were surgically managed at Royal North Shore Hospital and North Shore Private Hospital between November 2000 and November 2015.
Three new species of the ant-eating spider genus Hermippus Simon, 1893, H. globosus sp. nov., H. inflexus sp. nov. and H. gavi sp. nov. are described and illustrated from the Western Ghats in the Kerala region of southern India. The genus is redefined and two species groups are recognized: the cruciatus-group with all the five described Oriental species including H. cruciatus Simon, 1905, H. arjuna Gravely, 1921, H. inflexus sp. nov., H. globosus sp. nov. and H. gavi sp. nov. and the loricatus-group representing all the seven described Afrotropical species including H. loricatus Simon, 1893, H. affinis Strand, 1906, H. schoutedeni Lessert, 1938, H. septemguttatus Lawrence, 1942, H. minutus Jocqué, 1986, H. tenebrosus Jocqué, 1986 and H. arcus Jocqué, 1989. The biogeographic distribution and possible migratory route of Hermippus spp. from Africa to the Oriental region are given.
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A new ursane triterpene, torment (2 alpha,3 beta,19 alpha-trihydroxyurs-12-en) (1), was isolated from the fruits of Terminalia arjuna along with four known ursane and oleane triterpenes. The structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR (1D & 2D) and MS (EI & ESI) studies. Tormentic acid (2), 19 alpha-hydroxy asiatic acid (3) and olean-12-en-2 alpha,3 beta-diol (4) were isolated for the first time from this species. Compounds 1 and 2 lacked significant enzyme inhibition, cytotoxicity, immunomodulatory and antiglycation activities.
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The data show that activated BV-2 microglia cells (+ LPS 1μg/ml) release >10-fold greater IL-6, MIP1/2, RANTES and nitric oxide (NO2-), where RAW 264.7 macrophages (+ LPS 1μg/ml) produced > 10-fold rise in sTNFR2, MCP-1, IL-6, GCSF, RANTES and NO2-. Data validation studies establish hydrocortisone and dexamethasone as suppressing multiple pro-inflammatory processes, where L-NIL suppressed NO2-, but had no effect on iNOS expression or IL-6. The screening results demonstrate relative few valid hits with anti-inflammatory effects at < 250μg/ml for the following: Bay Leaf (Laurus nobilis), Elecampagne Root (Inula helenium), Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare),Yerba (Eriodictyon californicum) and Centipeda (Centipeda minima), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Turmeric Root (Curcuma Longa), Osha Root (Ligusticum porteri), Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) and constituents: cardamonin, apigenin, quercetin, biochanin A, eupatorin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and butein. Natural products lethal against [E. coli 0157:H7] where the LC50 < 100 μg/ml included bioactive silver hydrosol-Argentyn 23, green tea (its constituents EGCG > Polyphenon 60 > (-)-Gallocatechin > Epicatechin > (+)-Catechin), Grapeseed Extract (Vitis vinifera), Chinese Gallnut (its constituents gallic acid > caffeic acid) and gallic acid containing plants such as Babul Chall Bark (Acacia Arabica), Arjun (Terminalia Arjuna) and Bayberry Root Bark (Morella Cerifera).
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TA (E-OJ-01) significantly increased cardiovascular efficiency and improved the cardiac conditioning in young healthy adults.
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Pre-treatment with AA effectively prevented the cerebral I/R induced oxidative damage by virtue of its antioxidant potential. These results indicate that supplementation of AA may be beneficial in stroke prone population.
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Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) has been in use as an ethnomedicine for cardiovascular ailments in the Indian subcontinent for centuries. Studies using hemodynamic, ROS scavenging and anti-inflammatory parameters in animal models have shown its anti-atherogenic, hypotensive, inotropic, anti-inflammatory effects. However, details analysis on its effects on established molecular and cell biological markers are a prerequisite for its wider acceptance to the medical community.
Reconstituted human epidermis, cultivated keratinocytes and fibroblasts were incubated with Terminalia arjuna triterpenes (T. arjuna bark extract), and mRNA and protein expression of various genes was determined using microarray analysis, qRT-PCR and ELISA techniques. Clinical efficacy of T. arjuna bark extract versus vehicle control cream was elucidated in 30 patients and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and elasticity were measured. Another 30 female patients in their postmenopausal phase were treated with a similar regime, and skin sebum content, cutaneous blood microcirculation and skin density/echogenicity were assessed.
Because Ayurvedic herbal preparations contain a myriad of compounds in complex matrixes, it is difficult to establish quality control standards for raw materials and to standardize finished Ayurvedic drugs. A novel, accurate, and valid fingerprint method was developed using HPLC for quality control of a traditional Ayurvedic Arjuna churna formulation, which is used as a cardiotonic drug. Comprehensive comparison of chromatograms of standardized formulation of Arjuna churna and marketed formulations revealed eight characteristic peaks in chromatograms, which unambiguously confirmed the presence of authentic raw material used in the formulation on the basis of their retention time values and UV data. An HPLC fingerprint was also developed for total sapogenins present in Terminalia arjuna. The six common peaks observed in chromatograms of isolated sapogenins, standardized formulations, and marketed formulations can serve as a quality control tool for qualitative estimation of total saponin glycosides present in an Arjuna churna formulation.
A high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 commonly sold natural products (bulk herbs, cooking spices, teas, leaves, supplement components, nutraceutical food components, fruit and vegetables, rinds, seeds, polyphenolics etc.) was conducted to elucidate anti-inflammatory substances in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. coli serotype O111:B4) monocytes: RAW 264.7 macrophages [peripheral], BV-2 microglia [brain]) relative to hydrocortisone, dexamethasone and L-N6-(1Iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL). HTP evaluation was also carried out for lethal kill curves against E.coli 0157:H7 1x10(6) CFU/mL relative to penicillin. Validation studies were performed to assess cytokine profiling using antibody arrays. Findings were corroborated by independent ELISAs and NO2-/iNOS expression quantified using the Griess Reagent and immunocytochemistry, respectively. For robust screening, we developed an in-vitro efficacy paradigm to ensure anti-inflammatory parameters were observed independent of cytotoxicity. This caution was taken given that many plants exert tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory effects at close range through similar signaling pathways, which could lead to false positives.
TA extract reversed the induction of fetal genes like β-myosin heavy chain, skeletal α-actin and brain natriuretic peptide in hypertrophic rat hearts. While ISO slightly increased the level of phospho-ERK, TA repressed it to about one third of the base line level. Survival kinase Akt, ER stress marker Grp78 and epigenetic regulator HDAC5 were augmented by ISO and TA restored them by various extents. ISO administration moderately increased the transcription factor NFκB binding activity, while coadministration of TA further increased it. AP-1 binding activity was largely unchanged by ISO treatment but it was upregulated when administered along with TA. MEF2D binding activity was increased by ISO and TA restored it to the baseline level. Global proteomic analysis revealed that TA treatment restored a subset of proteins up- and down-regulated in the hypertrophied hearts. Amongst those restored by TA were purinergic receptor X, myosin light chain 3, tropomyosin, and kininogen; suggesting a nodal role of TA in modulating cardiac function.
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Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a well-known hepatotoxin and exposure to this chemical is known to induce oxidative stress and causes liver injury by the formation of free radicals. Acute and chronic renal damage are also very common pathophysiologic disturbances caused by CCl4. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the protective role of the aqueous extract of the bark of Termnalia arjuna (TA), an important Indian medicinal plant widely used in the preparation of ayurvedic formulations, on CCl4 induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction in the livers and kidneys of mice.
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The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities.
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The higher antioxidant and inhibitory effect of Terminalia chebula black in this study could be attributed to its significantly higher phenolic content, Fe(II) chelating ability, reducing ability and free radical scavenging activity. Therefore oxidative stress in brain could be potentially prevented by the intake of these plants.
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Terminalia arjuna bark extract is believed to exhibit cardio-protective effects. In the present study we investigated the possible involvement of thyroid hormones in the amelioration of cardiac and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) by a bark extract of the plant in albino rats. While L-thyroxine (L-T4) treatment increased the level of thyroid hormones, heart/body weight ratio as well as cardiac and hepatic lipid peroxidation, simultaneous administration of 21.42 and 42.84 mg/kg of the plant extract decreased the level of thyroid hormones and also the cardiac LPO, suggesting the possible mediation of the drug action through an inhibition in thyroid function. These effects were comparable to a standard antithyroid drug, propyl thiouracil (PTU). When the drug was administered to euthyroid animals, serum concentrations of thyroid hormones were decreased, whereas the hepatic LPO increased indicating a drug induced toxicity in euthyroid subjects. Although a suboptimal dose of the drug was found to be non-toxic to the liver, it appeared to be of no use, as it could neither affect the thyroid functions nor the cardiac lipid peroxidation. Since in euthyroid animals, thyroid hormones were decreased and hepatic LPO was increased, it is suggested that high amounts of this plant extract should not be consumed, as hepatotoxicity as well as hypothyroidism may be caused.
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The incidence of chronic illnesses has increased worldwide. Diabetes is one such illness and 80% of the diabetic population lives in the developing world. There is a rapidly growing trend towards the use of Complementary and Alternative Medical practices in Diabetes. Sri Lanka is a developing Asian nation with a rich culture of Ayurvedic and native medical culture. The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of use of CAMs in a diabetic population attending a large multiethnic diabetes facility in a University unit and to assess whether there is an increase in the incidence of hypoglycaemic episodes among users of CAMs.
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Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum, Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and Butea monosperma.