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Male Wistar rats (150-200 g; six rats per group) were treated with saline, IFS (400 mg/kg, i.p.) and analyzed by changes in bladder wet weight, macroscopic and microscopic parameters, and COX-2 expression. In other groups etoricoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor), indomethacin (non-selective COX inhibitor), thalidomide (selective TNF-alpha inhibitor), pentoxifyllin (non-selective TNF-alpha inhibitor) were added 1 h before IFS administration. The classical protocol using three doses of Mesna was also evaluated and compared with two extra doses of etoricoxib or indomethacin.
Etoricoxib provided greater clinical benefit than the placebo in terms of mean morphine in milligram at 24 hour consumption (stardard deviation): a) 26.4 mg (SD of 11.2) for etoricoxib 120 mg; b) 27.2 mg (SD of 9.9) for etoricoxib 180 mg; and, c) 36.6 mg (SD of 8.9) for the placebo group. At 8 h post surgery, pain both at rest and on coughing in the active drug groups was significantly less than in the placebo, while pain on coughing was significantly less at 24 h. Patients reported better global satisfaction and less somnolence in the etoricoxib groups.
Etoricoxib is a suitable premedication to use before therapeutic arthroscopic knee surgery, as it reduced patients' morphine requirements.
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The single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib, a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, were examined in two clinical studies. Single-dose pharmacokinetics--including dose proportionality, absolute bioavailability of the highest dose-strength (120-mg) tablet, and the effect of a high-fat meal on the bioavailability of that tablet--were investigated in a two-part, open, balanced crossover study in two panels of healthy subjects (12 per panel). Steady-state pharmacokinetics were investigated in an open-label study in which 24 healthy subjects were administered 120-mg single and multiple (once daily for 10 days) oral doses of etoricoxib tablets. The pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib were found to be consistent with linearity through doses at least twofold greater than the highest anticipated clinical dose of 120 mg. Etoricoxib administered as a tablet was rapidly and completely absorbed and available; the absolute bioavailability was estimated to be 100%. A high-fat meal decreased the rate of absorption without affecting the extent of absorption of etoricoxib; therefore, etoricoxib can be dosed irrespective of food. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib, achieved following 7 days of once-daily dosing, were found to be reasonably predicted from single doses. The accumulation ratio averaged 2.1, and the corresponding accumulation t1/2 averaged 22 hours, supporting once-daily dosing. Etoricoxib was generally well tolerated.
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Seven electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of treatments for gout from their inception to the end of 2004. No language restrictions were applied. All randomized controlled trials of treatments routinely available for the treatment of gout were included. Trials of the prevention of recurrence were included only if patients who had had gout and had at least 6 months of follow-up were studied.
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The local infiltration analgesia (LIA) technique has been widely used to reduce opioid requirements and to improve postoperative mobilization following total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, the evidence for the efficacy of LIA in THA is not yet clear. We determined whether single-shot LIA in addition to a multimodal analgesic regimen would reduce acute postoperative pain and opioid requirements after THA.
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Etoricoxib 90mg taken prior to a 15-hour ritual fast decreases incidence of and attenuates headache during the first 5 days of the month of Ramadan.
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Etoricoxib is a selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, approved in Europe for the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and acute gouty arthritis. Etoricoxib provided similar symptomatic relief to nonselective NSAIDs in patients with these conditions, and to celecoxib in patients with osteoarthritis. The drug was associated with fewer uncomplicated upper gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events than nonselective NSAIDs, and was noninferior to diclofenac in terms of the rate of thrombotic cardiovascular (CV) events. Etoricoxib may be considered as a treatment option for patients requiring NSAID therapy, particularly those at risk of upper GI events, after careful consideration of significant risk factors for CV events (including uncontrolled hypertension). As with all NSAIDs, the potential GI and CV risks of treatment with etoricoxib should be weighed against the potential benefits in individual patients, and it should be administered at the lowest effective dose for as short a duration as possible.
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Our study confirmed the good long-term tolerability of etoricoxib in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to other NSAIDs without differences between single and multiple reactors. Nonetheless, in NSAID-intolerant subjects this drug should be first challenged in specialised centres due to the risk ofsevere reactions.
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The efficacy of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy to pharmacological treatment of chronic pain due to knee osteoarthritis was studied with a 3-armed, single-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial; it compared acupuncture combined with pharmacological treatment, sham acupuncture including pharmacological treatment, and pharmacological treatment alone. A total of 120 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to 3 groups: group I was treated with acupuncture and etoricoxib, group II with sham acupuncture and etoricoxib, and group III with etoricoxib. The primary efficacy variable was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) index and its subscales at the end of treatment at week 8. Secondary efficacy variables included the WOMAC index at the end of weeks 4 and 12, a visual analogue scale (VAS) at the end of weeks 4, 8, and 12, and the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2) health survey at the end of week 8. An algometer was used to determine changes in a predetermined unique fixed trigger point for every patient at the end of weeks 4, 8, and 12. Group I exhibited statistically significant improvements in primary and secondary outcome measures, except for Short Form mental component, compared with the other treatment groups. We conclude that acupuncture with etoricoxib is more effective than sham acupuncture with etoricoxib, or etoricoxib alone for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.
The animals were divided into Control, DMBA, DMBA+ indomethacin and DMBA+ etoricoxib groups. They received a single intratracheal instillation of DMBA while NSAIDs were given orally daily for 32 weeks. Besides morphology and histology of lungs, RT-PCR, western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed for the expression of apoptotic proteins and COX enzymes. Apoptosis was studied by DNA fragmentation and fluorescent staining.
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We evaluated pooled data from two identical 26-week, double-blind, randomized trials comparing once-daily etoricoxib 30 mg (n = 475), celecoxib 200 mg (n = 488) and placebo (n = 244) in patients with knee or hip OA. The present analysis was limited to the 12-week placebo-controlled period. Patient-level OMERACT-OARSI response was determined at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The proportion of patients who maintained response status between these times was determined from binomial distribution using the exact method.
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The low rate of adverse reactions to etoricoxib, tested by oral challenge, suggests that patients with previous cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs (primarily urticaria and angioedema) may tolerate this drug.
Forty patients with high axSpA activity (Bath Ankylosing Disease Activity Index (BASDAI 4) were examined and randomized to 2 groups: 1) 30 patients who received ET 90 mg continuously every day; 2) 10 patients who took the drug in the same dose intermittently 1-3 times weekly. The activity of axSpA (BASDAI, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)) was evaluated at baseline, 2 and 12 weeks; adverse events were recorded at baseline, 2, 6, and 12 weeks. The number of patients who had achieved an ASAS40 response at 2 and 12 weeks were taken into consideration. RESULTS At 12 weeks, the continuous administration group displayed decreases in BASDAI from 8 to 4, in ASDAS from 3.8 to 2.6, and in hs-CRP levels from 9.5 to 3.9 mg/l; the intermittent administration group exhibited decreases in BASDAI from 7.6 to 6.0, in ASDAS from 3.5 to 3.1, and hs-CRP from 8.8 to 4.5 mg/l (p<0.05). At this time, an AS40 response was achieved by 22 (73.3%) and 2 (20%) patients in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.05 for all). No serious adverse events were recorded.
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The model suggests, with its underlying assumptions and data, that etoricoxib is a cost-effective alternative to therapeutic regimens involving non-selective NSAIDs for OA or RA, from the UK NHS perspective. Etoricoxib may be cost saving and dominant over non-selective NSAIDs used together with a PPI or misoprostol. When compared with non-selective NSAIDs alone or non-selective NSAIDs co-prescribed with H2 antagonists, the incremental cost per QALY gained with use of etoricoxib was within the generally accepted threshold for cost effectiveness (less than pound 30,000 per QALY gained).
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) remain the mainstay of treatment for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) though one recent trial suggests that continuous as opposed to on-demand use may be superior in preventing progression of structural damage. One particular NSAID, which is a highly selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitor, etoricoxib, may be superior to standard NSAIDs for AS. Second-line agents typically used for rheumatoid arthritis appear to lack efficacy. Salazopyrin is only moderately effective in the subgroup of AS patients with concomitant peripheral arthritis and not in those with purely axial disease. A recent trial showed that there is no greater efficacy in patients presenting early in their disease course. Three anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents, infliximab, etanercept, and adalimumab, are now available for the treatment of AS, the latest being adalimumab. All possess similar clinical efficacy in phase III trials with response rates of about 60%. Imaging studies using magnetic resonance show substantial amelioration of inflammatory lesions in the spine and sacroiliac joints. There is as yet no evidence that any of these agents prevent progression of structural damage. One study that evaluated etanercept demonstrated no impact on damage progression. Increasing evidence points to the superiority of the two monoclonal antibodies, infliximab and adalimumab, over etanercept for the treatment of extra-articular manifestations typically seen in AS such as acute anterior uveitis and inflammatory bowel disease. All three agents can be used as monotherapy and concomitant methotrexate appears to offer no advantages although insufficient doses have been used to date. Future studies should target patients earlier in their disease course as well as those with adverse prognostic factors such as elevated serum metalloproteinase 3 levels and radiographic evidence of spinal ankylosis.
Responder analysis seemed to be more sensitive than examination of average changes in VAS pain scores. Validation would require calculations to be performed on a set of trials using individual patient data not available in publications.
The combined efficacy of selective and non-selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on the axial manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the presence or absence of chronic peripheral arthritis was evaluated.
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These data indicate that both etoricoxib and meloxicam are good alternatives for treatment in older children with hypersensitivity to NSAIDs.
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There was no discernible difference in the incidence of thrombotic events in patients treated with etoricoxib versus non-naproxen traditional NSAIDs in this limited dataset. A trend toward more events with etoricoxib versus naproxen was observed. Despite the limited dataset available for this pooled analysis, these results are consistent with findings for other coxibs.
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To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of single dose etoricoxib for acute postoperative pain using methods that permit accurate comparison with other analgesics evaluated in the same way, using criteria of efficacy recommended by in-depth studies at the individual patient level.