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The regional difference in the expression of c-fos mRNA induced by typical and atypical antipsychotics was determined in prefrontal cortex, striatum, N. accumbens and lateral septum in rats by in situ hybridization. Two typical antipsychotics, haloperidol (2 mg/kg) and fluphenazine (2 mg/kg), and three atypical antipsychotics, (-)sulpiride (100 mg/kg), clozapine (20 mg/kg) and OPC-14597 (40 mg/kg), were used. Brains were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde 45 min after drug administration (i.p.). Brain sections of 30 microns-thickness were made in a cryostat and hybridized with 35S-labelled for c-fos oligonucleotide probe. These sections were apposed to X-ray films and the autoradiograms were semi-quantitatively analysed by computer-assisted densitometry. All antipsychotics used increased c-fos mRNA expression in N. accumbens shell, a region of the forebrain associated with limbic systems. On the other hand, two typical antipsychotics (haloperidol and fluphenazine) that cause a high incidence of acute motor side effects increased the expression of c-fos mRNA in the dorsolateral striatum, an extrapyramidal region primarily involved in motor control. Only clozapine induced c-fos mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex and lateral septum. These results strongly suggest that the shell region of N. accumbens may be a common site of therapeutic action of antipsychotics.
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A case analysis based on all 8 olanzapine LAI clinical trials conducted between August 2000 and October 2008 showed an occurrence of PDSS in approximately 0.07% of injections or 1.4% of patients (30 cases in 29 patients). A second case analysis reviewing the clinical trial databases for 15 completed studies and the postmarketing safety database for risperidone LAI versus 10 completed clinical trials of paliperidone palmitate failed to demonstrate an occurrence of PDSS events in patients receiving either LAI treatment. However, one case of PDSS was identified in a placebo group. In 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, treatment-emergent adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation were similar for paliperidone palmitate and placebo; however, among the most frequently occurring treatment-emergent adverse events was somnolence/sedation (5%-7% paliperidone palmitate group vs 3% placebo).
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While aripiprazole 5 mg/day warrants further study, the 10 mg/day dose provides effective and well-tolerated therapy for management of acute psychosis in patients with schizophrenia.
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We surveyed via Internet the national membership of the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology (ASCP) to study preferred pharmacotherapy strategies and factors that influence medication choices for patients with mood disorders.
The efficacy of a partial agonist for the dopamine D2 receptor, aripiprazole, for catatonia in schizophrenia has been reported.
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Patients allocated to aripiprazole had significantly more amphetamine-positive urine samples than patients in the placebo group (odds ratio=3.77, 95% CI=1.55-9.18), whereas patients who received methylphenidate had significantly fewer amphetamine-positive urine samples than patients who had received placebo (odds ratio=0.46, 95% CI=0.26-0.81).
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The lack of growth in antipsychotic prescribing after the spring of 2004 represents a significant departure from historical trends. Although some in-state policies may have affected these trends, it appears that the timing and extent of the changes occurred shortly after the Food and Drug Administration required warnings on second-generation antipsychotic medications related to weight gain, glucose levels, and diabetes. They appeared immediately after the black box warning for pediatric antidepressant medications, and they appeared shortly after the Joint American Diabetes and American Psychiatric Association Consensus Statement. These factors suggest the existence of a prescribing community that is responsive to evidence and to professional and regulatory actions based on it.
Use of atypical antipsychotic medications (AAMs) in the treatment of disruptive behavior (DB) in children and adolescents has increased dramatically worldwide. However, with exception of using risperidone (i.e., for the management of irritability associated with autism, manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, and schizophrenia) and aripiprazole (i.e., for manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder and schizophrenia), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved the use of AAMs in children and adolescents. Although research on use of these medications in children and adolescents has increased, mechanisms of action and long-term outcomes remain poorly understood or unknown. Particularly concerning is that use of these medications in children and adolescents may impact cognitive, social, and physical development, as side effects may interfere with activities in their educational setting, peer networks, and recreational settings. Overall, AAMs frequently are prescribed off label, control DB through sedation rather than targeting actual causes of DB, and lead to many negative side effects with unknown long-term effects. Reconsidering the use of AAMs in managing DB is encouraged strongly.
Aripiprazole (OPC 14597) is an antipsychotic drug that has high affinity for dopamine D2 and D3 receptors and the dopamine autoreceptor. It is being developed for treatment of patients with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a dose response following graduated doses of aripiprazole could be quantified and correlated with its occupancy of the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors in the brain of living humans. Dopamine D2 and D3 receptor occupancy in fifteen normal male human brains was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride. PET studies were performed before and after two weeks of administration of aripiprazole. The dopamine D2 receptor occupancy was quantified with two kinetic modeling methods without using a blood input function. Administration of aripiprazole for 14 days resulted in a dose-dependent receptor occupancy between 40 - 95% after the administration of 0.5mg, 1 mg, 2 mg, 10 mg, and 30 mg per day. These results suggest that an adequate occupancy can be obtained, and this may be useful to predict an appropriate therapeutic dose for an individual patient. Interestingly, even at striatal D2 receptor occupancy values above 90%, which occurred with the higher doses, extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) were not observed. This underlines aripiprazole's unique mechanism of action as a partial dopamine receptor agonist, which might become a novel principle in the treatment of schizophrenia.
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To develop a decision-analytic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of initiating maintenance treatment with aripiprazole once-monthly (AOM) vs paliperidone long-acting injectable (PLAI) once-monthly among patients with schizophrenia in the US.
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Dopamine D2-like partial agonists such as aripiprazole have received some attention as potential pharmacotherapies for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the preclinical evaluations so far have focused on acute effects of aripiprazole.
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Cognitive impairment is a key feature of schizophrenia and may be the most important determinant of outcome in schizophrenia. This impairment is diffuse and may reflect abnormalities in frontal cortex, hippocampus and other brain regions. While deficits in glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic and cholinergic impairment have received the most attention as the basis of this impairment, there are many reasons for considering the role of serotonin (5-HT) in contributing to these deficits. This may be via its influence on dopaminergic, cholinergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic function, as well as various growth factors that have been implicated in schizophrenia. Of the 14 known serotonin receptors, the 5-HT(1A) receptor is a key candidate for mediating at least some of the influence 5-HT has on cognition. 5-HT(1A) receptors are upregulated in postmortem specimens from patients with schizophrenia, suggesting a deficit in 5-HT(1A) function in this disorder. Atypical but not typical antipsychotic drugs stimulate the efflux of dopamine from cortex by a 5-HT(1A)-dependent mechanism. A series of studies from this laboratory involving the 5-HT(1A) partial agonists tandospirone and buspirone have reported a modest ability of these agents to improve some domains of cognition in patients receiving typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs. Preclinical studies have been mixed in regard to the ability of 5-HT(1A) partial agonists to improve cognition in various paradigms; some studies report that 5-HT(1A) antagonists are effective to improve cognition. Aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, perospirone, quetiapine risperidone, and ziprasidone are examples of atypical antipsychotic drugs which are either direct or indirect 5-HT(1A) agonists which have been shown to improve cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Further study is needed to determine the role of the 5-HT(1A) receptor to improve cognitive function in schizophrenia.
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Prospective analysis of spontaneously reported ADRs concerning 184 paediatric outpatients between 2012 and 2014.; clinical outcomes of drug switch were evaluated.
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We included all randomised trials comparing aripiprazole with typical antipsychotics in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis.
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Patients with schizophrenia have an approximately 10-fold higher risk for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) than the general population. A large subgroup seems to experience OCS as a consequence of second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGA), such as clozapine. So far little is known about underlying neural mechanisms.
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Our study suggested that the Gunn rat may be useful as a preclinical model of schizophrenia with which to evaluate the pharmacological properties of antipsychotics. The results obtained to date have been encouraging and warrant further research.
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Predictors of poor functional outcome in patients with bipolar disorder include psychiatric and medical comorbidity, interepisode subsyndromal symptoms, psychosis during manic or mixed episode, and low premorbid functioning. Cognitive dysfunction may also contribute to functional impairment. Psychosocial intervention has shown success in improving syndromal outcomes for people with bipolar disorder. Lithium, lamotrigine, olanzapine, and aripiprazole have all shown substantial improvements in relapse rates compared with placebo. Combination therapy with antipsychotics and antidepressants has also been shown to produce improvement in symptoms in people with bipolar disorder. However, limited evidence is available for the effects of these treatments on cognitive outcomes. This review discusses treatment strategies for the long-term management of bipolar disorder and functional outcome measures associated with these treatments.
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This report describes a patient who developed agitation, disorientation, visual hallucinations, inappropriate verbal outbursts, and impaired memory following resection of a choroid plexus papilloma. No medical, neurologic, or metabolic disorders unrelated to the surgery were identified. Five weeks following surgery, treatment with aripiprazole, a partial dopamine agonist, was started to address the delirious state. Improvements in agitation, orientation, memory, and executive functions, as well as a decrease in emotional lability, began within twenty-four hours and continued over the remainder of the inpatient hospitalization. Five months after initial resection, aripiprazole was discontinued without worsening of cognitive or emotional functions. Persistent difficulties with working memory, planning, judgment, and visuospatial skills were noted on neuropsychological examination six months following tumor removal. This case illustrated the therapeutic benefit of aripiprazole for treatment of mental status changes associated with resection of a posterior fossa tumor.
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Six second-generation antipsychotics are marketed in the US. Is aripiprazole as effective as the others and better tolerated?
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Study 1 (hepatic impairment study): apparent oral clearance of unbound drug (CL/Fu) and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of aripiprazole; Study 2 (renal impairment study): CL/Fu, Cmax and renal clearance (CL(R)). Safety assessments included 12-lead ECGs, vital sign monitoring, clinical laboratory measurements and assessment of adverse events.f